Title

窺基《說無垢稱經疏》的解經方法與羅什本詮釋傳統的衝突與融攝

Translated Titles

Conflict and Coherence in the Interpretation of Kuiji's (632-682) Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu

Authors

郭朝順(KUO, Chao-shun)

Key Words

窺基 ; 《說無垢稱經疏》 ; 空理義 ; 應理義 ; 菩薩行 ; Kuiji ; Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu ; kongli doctrine ; yingli doctrine ; bodhisattva practice

PublicationName

佛光學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

新4卷1期(2018 / 01 / 01)

Page #

183 - 235

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

窺基的《說無垢稱經疏》(一名:《說無垢稱經贊述》)放棄許多羅什本的理解傳統中的概念與架構,改以菩薩之境行果為釋經之主軸。這是他引用唯識學派的經論,特別是識轉變說,以闡明《說無垢稱經》〈序品〉中菩薩為了攝持眾生而建立佛土的思想,以及如來身土的隱現與淨穢問題,並以〈序品〉的菩薩行思想為全經之理解與詮釋架構。然而,窺基的《說無垢稱經疏》在歷來《維摩經》的釋經傳統中,並未受到重視及發揚,固然是因為羅什本流傳廣大且依據羅什的譯本所建構的詮釋傳統早已深植人心。但就另一方面來看則是,關於經中的義理,窺基提出應理義與空理義的說法,並結合三教八宗的判教思想,以突顯空理義應朝向應理義發展的觀點,但其詮釋策略並不成功。這也是由於《維摩經》自身經義的性空思想之特色是不可能忽略的,因此窺基便不得不以空理義與應理義並陳的方式來釋經,展現其融攝羅什本詮釋傳統的釋經立場。但空理義與應理義並非對立,廣義的應理義含括如來藏與唯識學,羅什本的詮釋傳統本不限於中觀學空理義(如天台、三論偏向中觀),也有相當程度的如來藏思想的因素於其中(如慧遠即偏向如來藏),致使窺基在《維摩經》的詮釋上,未能突顯狹義之應理義-護法唯識學-為唯一且最高的理解。《說無垢稱經疏》所能達成的,是根據玄奘譯本突顯《說無垢稱經》之菩薩行的次第因果的說法,並補充唯識學的身土變現說法,還有便是肯定語言等世法的價值,指出中觀學過於快速捨棄諸法只以畢竟空境界為究竟的缺點,但這些終究不可能將《說無垢稱經》解釋成一種徹底的唯識學的經典,因此也就無法撼動依羅什本所成立的《維摩經》詮釋傳統。

English Abstract

Kuiji's Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu is a commentary on Xuanzang's translation of the Vimalakirti-nirdesa, and therefore differs from commentaries based on Kumarajiva's translation. Kuiji abandoned the conceptual structure in Kumarajiva's hermeneutic tradition to interpret Xuanzang's translation of the Vimalakirti-nirdesa, instead shifting to bodhisattva practice as its interpretative axis. In addition, Kuiji uses the Yogacara theory of vijnapti to explain the qualities and causation of Buddha lands. He emphasizes the importance of chapter one, the preface, especially focusing on the dialogue of Buddha lands. However, Kuiji's Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu never overtakes Kumarajiva's tradition, not only because Kumarajiva's translation had long been widely accepted by Chinese Buddhists, but also because of Kuiji's interpretative strategy. Kuiji's doctrinal classification, which follows the three sequential teachings in the Sandhinirmocana Sutra, claims kongli 空理 and yingli 應理 doctrines are the two main systems in Mahayana. Kongli doctrine includes the madhyamaka of Bhavyaviveka, and yingli doctrine includes the Yogacara of Dharmapala and Yogacara including tathagatagarbha. People could not deny that the Vimalakirti-nirdesa includes much kongli thought, but Kumarajiva's tradition also uses tathagatagarbha in its explanations. Kuiji emphasized yingli over kongli in his interpretation by including both kongli and yingli in his Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu. Kuiji's original purpose is to emphasize the Yogacara of Dharmapala as a new and better approach for understanding and interpreting the Vimalakirti-nirdesa, but he could not separate the tathagatagarbha from Yogacara or displace Kumarajiva's tradition from the mainstream in Chinese Buddhism. Nevertheless, Kuiji's Shuo Wugoucheng jing shu has its own value which can not be reduced to Kumarajiva's tradition. Its claims about the relative truth of language and the ordinary world, and its emphasis on graduated bodhisattva practice are unique, different from the madhyamaka focus on sunyata. In short, Kuiji tried to save the ordinary world, but he still could not overcome Kumarajiva's exegetical tradition.

Topic Category 人文學 > 宗教學