Title

東亞與大洋洲構樹親緣地理學研究

Translated Titles

Phylogeography of East Asian and Oceanian Paper Mulberry

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.00901

Authors

劉筱蕾

Key Words

人為傳播 ; 樹皮布 ; 共生者 ; 南島語族 ; 大洋洲 ; human-mediated dispersal ; tapa ; bark-cloth ; commensal species ; Austronesian ; Oceania

PublicationName

臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

鍾國芳

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

構樹 (Broussonetia papyrifera) 是南島語族重要的物質文化─樹皮布的原料。由於構樹在島嶼東南亞與大洋洲無法結果,許多早期研究顯示構樹可能是自東亞由南島語族人傳播到大洋洲地區。因此,我們希望藉由研究構樹的親緣地理學來檢測其與史前南島語族遷徙的的假說,並探討造成構樹親緣地理結構的可能原因。本研究使用核醣體基因 (rDNA) 的內轉錄區間 (internal transcribe spacer, ITS) 與葉綠體ndhF-rpl32內含子等兩個片段來重建與推論構樹親緣地理及族群遺傳結構,研究材料包括採集自台灣、日本、中國南方各省、越南、印尼、菲律賓、非洲留尼旺島以及大洋洲諸島等共516株樣本。研究結果發現,越南與印尼的族群內缺乏遺傳變異,而台灣與中國則涵蓋大多數的遺傳變異。親緣關係重建的結果兩個片段都呈現星狀結構,顯示東亞以及大洋洲族群大體上呈現族群擴張模式,與Tajima’s D test與 nested clade phylogenetic analyses (NCPA) 的結果一致。此外,而族群親緣網狀圖亦顯示目前分布於夏威夷的構樹族群是經過至少兩次的傳播事件而來,一次來自台灣南部另一次來自中國廣東、廣西;大洋洲其他島嶼的基因單型更顯示一個起源於台灣南部的基因單型的分布涵蓋印尼與整個大洋洲,符合南島語族傳播的途徑。這些結果無法排除構樹是人為自東亞傳播到大洋洲的推論,更進一步指出台灣較可能是大洋洲構樹的起源,部分符合“Express Train Hypothesis”中對南島文化起源地的描述。

English Abstract

Bark cloth (tapa) is one of the most important material cultures of Austronesian peoples. In the Pacific, tapa is made primarily of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera). Because paper mulberry cannot generate seeds in insular Southeast Asia and Oceania, earlier studies suggested that paper mulberries could have been brought to the Oceania from East Asia along with the expansion of the Austronesian peoples to Oceania. Therefore, we aim to test Austronesian colonization hypothesis through phylogeographic study of paper mulberry and to elucidate how human mediated dispersals have shaped population structure of the species. A total of 516 specimens of paper mulberries were collected from Taiwan, southern China, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Reunion and the Oceania. Analyses of DNA sequences of both ITS and cpDNA ndhF-rpL32 indicate that populations in Indonesia, Near Oceania and Remote Oceania are devoid of genetic variation, while Taiwan and China harbor the highest genetic diversity. Haplotype networks reconstructed using both DNA markers all show star-like network structure, suggesting a scenario of population range expansion. This inference is further supported by nested clade phylogenetic analyses (NCPA) that conclude a continuous rang e expansion or long distance colonization for the Oceanian samples. In the networks, all haplotypes carried by Hawaiian samples are identical or linked directly to haplotypes from southern Taiwan and China separately, suggesting the Hawaiian haplotypes are derived from those two regions and at least 2 colonization events had occurred to shape the population structure there. In the ndhF-rpl32 network, about half of the samples from Remote Oceania carry a haplotype found in southern Taiwan and Sulawesi, Indonesia. Because paper mulberries are planted in Sulawesi, suggesting strongly that the southern Taiwan paper mulberries should have been the direct ancestor of the Remote Oceanic populations. These results are consistent with the idea that paper mulberry in Oceania have been transported from East Asia, especially Taiwan, partially supporting the “Express Train Hypothesis” that hypothesized Taiwan as an important stepping stone for the Austronesian peoples expansion.

Topic Category 生物資源暨農學院 > 森林環境暨資源學研究所
生物農學 > 森林
生物農學 > 生物環境與多樣性
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