Title

西北太平洋地區多重尺度環流對熱帶氣旋的影響 ─ 莫拉克(2009)颱風個案研究

Translated Titles

Influence of Multiscale Circulation on Tropical Cyclone in the Western North Pacific Ocean: Typhoon Morakot (2009) as an Example

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2010.00996

Authors

郭芮伶

Key Words

莫拉克颱風 ; 多重尺度 ; 季內震盪 ; 月內擾動 ; 熱帶氣旋 ; Typhoon Morakot ; multiscale ; intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) ; submonthly wave ; tropical cyclone

PublicationName

臺灣大學大氣科學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

許晃雄

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

氣候為一多重尺度系統。過去許多學者研究大尺度環流對熱帶氣旋的影響,發現季風槽提供有助於熱帶氣旋生成與發展的環境,而季內震盪存在與否也會影響熱帶氣旋的生成情形。因此西北太平洋地區天氣與氣候特徵常受到多重尺度交互作用的影響。本研究則在探討多重尺度的環流系統如何影響熱帶氣旋。 2009年夏天莫拉克颱風侵襲台灣地區,在南台灣地區造成破紀錄的劇烈降水事件。莫拉克颱風生命期間大尺度背景環流場存在明顯的多重尺度環流特徵,分別是週期為40-50天季內尺度的大尺度背景環流、10-30天波狀結構的月內擾動以及熱帶氣旋。本研究透過小波分析方法分析此事件中的多重尺度特徵,並探討三種擾動對莫拉克颱風的劇烈降水事件的貢獻。 研究結果顯示莫拉克颱風在台灣西南沿岸造成的水氣輻合帶是由莫拉克颱風渦旋的西北風以及大尺度季風環流的西南氣流夾帶豐富的水氣所建立而成的。2-8天的擾動提供了在較小空間尺度屬於地域性的水氣貢獻,而10-30天的擾動提供了較大空間尺度的水氣補給,綜合來說,破紀錄的降雨產生自颱風跟月內擾動的結合,建立一個提供充足水氣的水氣傳送帶,再加上地形的舉升效應影響,使中央山脈西側產生水氣輻合帶以及劇烈的降水。 在莫拉克個案當中,月內及40-50天的季內尺度擾動在建立適合且有利於極端降雨事件發生的環境上扮演重要的角色。當大尺度季風環流的西南氣流傳送充沛水氣到台灣西南部地區時,陡峭的地形產生的抬升作用對超大豪雨事件有顯著的貢獻。另外由過去60年西北太平洋季風指數的波譜分析,和對台灣有顯著影響的颱風的多重尺度特徵分析顯示,在其他的個案中亦有同時存在不同尺度的環流系統,但都不如莫拉克颱風有如此鮮明的多重尺度特徵,顯示莫拉克颱風的特殊罕見性。

Topic Category 基礎與應用科學 > 大氣科學
理學院 > 大氣科學研究所
Reference
  1. 羅安凱,2005:西北太平洋夏季季內振盪之多重尺度特性。國立臺灣大學大氣科學研究所碩士論文。
    連結:
  2. 洪靜慧,2007:西北太平洋地區熱帶氣旋活動對氣候變異度的影響。國立臺灣大學大氣科學研究所碩士論文。
    連結:
  3. 王嬿蘭,2009:熱帶氣旋對大尺度環流的影響。國立台灣大學大氣科學研究所碩士論文。
    連結:
  4. Chan, J. C. L., 2000: Tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific associated with El Nino and La Nina events. J. Climate, 13, 2960-2972.
    連結:
  5. Chang, C-P., J. M. Chen, P. A. Harr, L. E. Carr, 1996: Northwestward-propagating wave patterns over the tropical western North Pacific during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2245-2266.
    連結:
  6. Chen, C.-S., and Y.- L. Chen, 2003: The rainfall characteristics of Taiwan. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1323-1341.
    連結:
  7. Camargo, S. J., A. W. Robertson, S. J. Gaffney, P. Smyth, and M. Ghil, 2007a: Cluster analysis of typhoon tracks. Part I: General properties. J. Climate, 20, 3635–3653.
    連結:
  8. Camargo, S. J., A. W. Robertson, S. J. Gaffney, P. Smyth, and M. Ghil, 2007b: Cluster analysis of typhoon tracks. Part II: Large-scale circulation and ENSO. J. Climate, 20, 3654–3676.
    連結:
  9. Torrence, C., and G. P. Compo, 1998: A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 61-78.
    連結:
  10. Harr, P. A., and R. L. Elsberry, 1995: Large-scale circulation variability over the tropical western North Pacific. Part I: Spatial patterns and tropical cyclone characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1225–1246.
    連結:
  11. Holland, G. J., 1995: Scale interaction in the Western North Pacific monsoon. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 56, 57-79.
    連結:
  12. Hong, C.-C., M.-Y. Lee, H.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Kuo, 2010: Role of submonthly disturbance and 40–50 day ISO on the extreme rainfall event associated with Typhoon Morakot (2009) in Southern Taiwan. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L08805, doi:10.1029/2010GL042761.
    連結:
  13. Hsu, H.-H., 2005: East Asian Monsoon. A chapter in Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere-Ocean Climate System, edited by W. K. M. Lau and D. E. Waliser, Praxis, Springer Berlin, 63-94.
    連結:
  14. Hsu, H.-H., and C.-H. Weng, 2001: Northwestward propagation of the intraseasonal oscillation in the western North Pacific during the boreal summer: Structure and mechanism. J. Climate, 14, 3834–3850.
    連結:
  15. Hsu, H.-H., C.-H. Hung, A.-K. Lo, C.-C. Wu, and C.-W. Hung, 2008a: Influence of tropical cyclone on the estimation of climate variability in the tropical western North Pacific. J. Climate, 21, 2960-2975.
    連結:
  16. Hsu, H.-H., Y.-L. Chen, A.-K. Lo, C.-H. Hung, W.-S. Kau, and C.-C. Wu, 2008b: Intraseasonal oscillation-tropical cyclone coupling in the western North Pacific during the 2004 typhoon season. In “Recent Progress in Atmospheric Sciences: Applications to the Asia-Pacific Region”, Ed. K. N. Liou and M. D. Chou, World Scientific, Singapore, 49-65.
    連結:
  17. Kurihara, Y., M. A. Bender, and R. J. Ross, 1993: An initialization scheme of hurricane models by vortex specification. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 2030-2045.
    連結:
  18. Kurihara, Y., M. A. Bender, R. E. Tuleya, and R. J. Ross, 1995: Improvements in the GFDL Hurricane Prediction System. Mon. Wea. Rev., 9, 2791-2801.
    連結:
  19. Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471.
    連結:
  20. Ko, K.-C., and H.-H. Hsu, 2006: Submonthly circulation features associated with tropical cyclone tracks over the East Asian monsoon area during July–August season. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84, 871–889.
    連結:
  21. Ko, K.-C., and H.-H. Hsu, 2009: ISO Modulation on the submonthly wave pattern and recurving tropical cyclones in the tropical western North Pacific. J. Climate, 22, 582-599.
    連結:
  22. Lau, K.-H., and N.-C. Lau, 1990: Observed structure and propagation characteristics of tropical summertime synoptic scale disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1888-1913.
    連結:
  23. Liebmann, B., H. H. Hendon, and J. D. Glick, 1994: The relationship between tropical cyclones of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 72, 401–411.
    連結:
  24. Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, 1971: Detection of a 40-50 day oscillation in the tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 702-708.
    連結:
  25. Madden, R. A., and P. R. Julian, 1972: Detection of global circulation cells in the tropical with a 40-50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1109-1123.
    連結:
  26. Maloney, E. D., and M. J. Dickinson, 2003: The intraseasonal oscillation and the energetics of summertime tropical Western North Pacific synoptic-scale disturbances. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2153-2168.
    連結:
  27. Nakazawa, T., 1986: Intraseasonal variations of OLR in the tropics during the FGGE year. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 64, 17-34.
    連結:
  28. Wang, B. and Z. Fan, 1999: Choice of South Asian summer monsoon indices. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 629-638.
    連結:
  29. Wu, C.-C., T.-H. Yen, Y.-H. Kuo, and W. Wang, 2002: Rainfall simulation associated with Typhoon Herb (1996) near Taiwan. Part I: The topographic effect. Wea. and Forecasting, 17, 1001-1015.
    連結:
  30. 周仲島、陳永明,2010:臺灣地區劇烈降雨與侵臺颱風變異趨勢與辨識研究III。國家科學委員會研究成果報告。
  31. Chen, T.-C., S.-Y. Wang, M.-C. Yen, and A. J. Clark, 2007: Effect of monsoon gyre on the typhoon activity in the western North Pacific Genesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 46, 1324-1340, 2007.
  32. Elsberry, R. L., 2004: Monsoon-related tropical cyclones in East Asia. In East Asian Monsoon, World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 2, edited by C.-P. Chang, pp. 463-498, World Sci., Singapore.
  33. Gray, W. M., 1978: Hurricanes: Their formation, structure and likely role in the tropical circulation. In Meteorology over the Tropical Oceans, edited by D. B. Shaw, pp. 155-218, Roy. Meteor. Soc., London.
  34. Hsu, H.-H., 2005: Intraseasonal variability in the East Asian and WNP North Pacific summer monsoon region. Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere-Ocean Climate System, K.-M. Lau and D. Waliser, Eds., Springer-Praxis, 65–98.
  35. Morlet, 1983 J. Morlet, Sampling theory and wave propogation. In: C.H. Chen, editor, Issues in Acoustic Signal/Image Processing and Recongnition, NATO ASI Series vol. I, Springer-Verlag (1983), pp. 233-261.
Times Cited
  1. 吳悅瑄(2018)。侵台熱帶氣旋之長期特徵。臺灣大學大氣科學研究所學位論文。2018。1-65。