Title

土肉桂葉子精油之安定性及其改善方法

Translated Titles

Stability of Leaf Essential Oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum and Its Improvement Methods

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.01523

Authors

葉信甫

Key Words

生物活性 ; 反式肉桂醛 ; 土肉桂 ; 丁香酚 ; 葉精油 ; 安定性 ; Bioactivity ; trans-Cinnamaldehyde ; Cinnamomum osmophloeum ; Eugenol ; Leaf essential oil ; Stability

PublicationName

臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

張上鎮

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

土肉桂(Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.)葉精油具有許多良好的生物活性,但其安定性不佳,影響土肉桂相關產品的品質,因此,本研究探討土肉桂葉粉、葉精油及其主成分反式肉桂醛(trans-Cinnamaldehyde)的貯存性,尋求適當的保存條件及改善其安定性之方法,並探討精油於不同條件貯存1年後其反式肉桂醛含量及生物活性之變化。本試驗共採集14個地區品系的土肉桂葉子,並挑選其中1種品系的葉子打成葉粉後進行貯存試驗,另外,將13種品系的葉子萃取精油後進行長期貯存試驗,並由13種品系中選5種品系精油進行熱安定性試驗。 葉粉之貯存溫度越高會使反式肉桂醛含量減少越快,空氣流通也會促使反式肉桂醛含量下降,然而,光線對葉粉的影響較不顯著。含有丁香酚(Eugenol)之土肉桂葉精油的熱安定性佳,但不含丁香酚之精油以100℃加熱4 h後反式肉桂醛留存率為25.1%。為改善精油及其成分之熱安定性,評估7種抗氧化劑對反式肉桂醛熱安定性之影響,試驗結果證實丁香酚的效果最佳,當丁香酚與反式肉桂醛及精油的混合比例分別為2.6%及0.6%(v/v)時,即可獲得良好之熱安定性。 13種土肉桂品系的葉精油於25℃避光環境貯存12個月後,反式肉桂醛留存率可維持約70%以上;另外,不含丁香酚的土肉桂葉精油以不同條件貯存,於25及40℃避光環境貯存12個月後的反式肉桂醛留存率分別為90.8%及36.7%;若將精油置於照光環境(25℃)貯存,12個月後反式肉桂醛留存率下降為62.3%,而空氣對反式肉桂醛含量無顯著影響,此外,於精油添加抗氧化劑丁香酚和沒食子酸丙酯(Propyl gallate),仍無法改善光安定性。 反式肉桂醛具有良好的抗病媒蚊幼蟲、抗腐朽菌及抗黴菌活性,但熱氧化後其生物活性皆顯著下降,添加4.76%的丁香酚可改善其熱安定性及維持良好生物活性;而精油於不同貯存條件下的活性有所差異,反式肉桂醛留存率與生物活性呈高度正相關,因此,精油於25℃且避光環境下貯存之活性最佳。適當保存或處理土肉桂葉精油及葉粉,可使相關產品的加工製造或利用更穩定,以提高土肉桂的經濟價值。

English Abstract

Leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. has many excellent bioactivities, but essential oil of C. osmophloeum leaf has poor stability, which influences the quality of related products. Therefore, the appropriate storage conditions for C. osmophloeum leaf powder, essential oil, and its main constituent trans-cinnamaldehyde (Cin) were investigated. The methods to improve the stabilities of essential oils and Cin were also established. In addition, essential oils were stored at various conditions for one year and its Cin content and bioactivities were researched. In this study, 14 geographical provenances of C. osmophloeum were selected. Leaves from one provenance were ground into powder for storage experiment, and leaves from the other provenances were extracted by hydrodistillation to obtain the essential oil for storage experiment. Futhermore, 5 provenances of C. osmophloeum were selected from them for processing the thermal stability test. Content of Cin in leaf powder decreased significantly when it was stored with high temperature and in ventilated conditions, whereas the influence of light was slight. In addition, essential oils containing eugenol exhibited excellent thermal stability, but the retention of Cin decreased to 25.1% when essential oil without eugenol was heated at 100℃ for 4 h. Seven antioxidants were selected for improving the thermal stability of essential oil and Cin. Among them, eugenol provided the best thermal stability to Cin, and essential oil and Cin had excellent thermal stabilities when 0.62% (v/v) and 2.60% eugenol were added, respectively. 13 geographical provenances of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were preserved in dark condition at 25℃ for 12 months, and the retention of Cin was more than 70%. In addition, the essential oil of C. osmophloeum leaf without eugenol was preserved in various storage conditions. When it was stored at 25 and 40℃ for 12 months, the retention of Cin was 90.8% and 36.7%. Besides, the retention of Cin decreased to 62.3% when it was stored at 25℃ in lighted condition. However, the content of Cin in essential oil was not affected by air. Althought antioxidants including eugenol and propyl gallate were added into the essential oil, its stability could not be improved. Cin has excellent larvicidal, antifungal and antimildew activities, but these bioactivities all decreased after thermal oxidation. The thermal stability and bioactivities could be improved by the addition of 4.76% eugenol. Bioactivities varied when the essential oil was stored at various conditions and high correlations between retention of Cin and bioactivities were observed. Therefore, the essential oil showed the best bioactivities when it was stored at 25℃ in dark condition. The stability of C. osmophloeum related products could be improved when they were stored or treated properly, and consequently the economic value of C. osmophloeum might be increased.

Topic Category 生物資源暨農學院 > 森林環境暨資源學研究所
生物農學 > 森林
生物農學 > 生物環境與多樣性
Reference
  1. 王振瀾、尹華文(1991)栽培地區及生長季節對土肉桂葉精油含量成分之影響。臺灣林業試驗所試驗報告 6(3):313-328。
    連結:
  2. 王升陽、張上鎮(2008)臺灣本土林木揮發性代謝產物生物活性之探討。林業研究專訊 15(3):6-9。
    連結:
  3. 胡大維、林耀堂、何政坤(1985)臺灣土肉桂葉部精油化學成分之天然變異。臺灣林業試驗所試驗報告 78:296-313。
    連結:
  4. 許雅青、吳季玲、張惠婷、張上鎮(2007)樟屬植物葉精油及其成分應用於防黴紙之硏製。中華林學季刊 40(3):391-404。
    連結:
  5. 廖志中、黃元照(2008)精油與抗氧化作用。林業研究專訊 15(3):19-26。
    連結:
  6. 劉如芸(2006)六種化學品系土肉桂葉子精油抗細菌、腐朽菌、病媒蚊幼蟲及室塵蟎活性。國立臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學系碩士論文。79頁。
    連結:
  7. 劉如芸、鄭森松、蕭英倫、張上鎮(2006)樟屬植物葉子精油對竹林天狗巢病原菌抑制效果之評估。中華林學季刊 39(3):377-388。
    連結:
  8. 劉紹培、洪福良、彭錦樵、李仰修(2008)不同乾燥方式對土肉桂葉乾燥及抗氧化特性之影響。臺灣農會會報 94(4):361-379。
    連結:
  9. Adams, R. P. (2007) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectroscopy. Allured, Illinois. 804pp.
    連結:
  10. Brophy J. J., N. W. Davis, I. A. Southwell, I. A. Stiff and L. R. Williams (1989) Gas chromatographic quality control of oil of Melaleuca altemifolia terpinen-4-ol (Australian tea tree). J. Agric. Food Chem. 37(5): 1330-1334.
    連結:
  11. Chang, S. T., P. F. Chen and S. C. Chang (2001) Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and components from Cinnamomum osmophloeum. J. Ethnopharmacol. 77(1): 123-127.
    連結:
  12. Chang, S. T. and S. S. Cheng (2002) Antitermitic activity of leaf essential oil and components from Cinnamomum osmophloeum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(6): 1389-1392.
    連結:
  13. Chang, C. W., W. L. Chang, S. T. Chang and S. S. Cheng (2008) Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils against Legionella pneumophila. Water Res. 42(1-2): 278-286.
    連結:
  14. Chao, L. K., K. F. Hua, H. Y. Hsu, S. S. Cheng, J. Y. Liu and S. T. Chang (2005) Study on the anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53(18): 7274-7278.
    連結:
  15. Chee, S. Y. K., S. N. A. Malek and N. Ramli (2005) Essential oils in the leaves of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) clone UIT1 and UA33. J. Essent. Oil Res. 17(3): 312-313.
    連結:
  16. Chen, T. H., Y. H. Huang, J. J. Lin, B. C. Liau, S. Y. Wang, Y. C. Wu and T. T. Jong (2010) Cytotoxic lignan esters from Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Planta Med. 76(6): 613-619.
    連結:
  17. Cheng, S. S., J. Y. Liu, K. H. Tsai, W. J. Chen and S. T. Chang (2004) Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52(14): 4395-4400.
    連結:
  18. Cheng, S. S., J. Y. Liu, Y. R. Hsui and S. T. Chang (2006) Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum). Bioresour. Technol. 97(2): 306-312.
    連結:
  19. Cheng, S. S., J. Y. Liu, C. Y. Lin, Y. R. Hsui, M. C. Ju, W. J. Wu and S. T. Chang (2007) Terminating red imported fire ants using Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil. Bioresour. Technol. 99(4): 889-893.
    連結:
  20. Cheng, S. S., J. Y. Liu, E. H., Chang and S. T. Chang (2008) Antifungal activity of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol congeners against wood-rot fungi. Bioresour. Technol. 99(11): 5145-5149.
    連結:
  21. Cheng, S. S., J. Y. Liu, C. G. Huang, Y. R. Hsui, W. J. Chen and S. T. Chang (2009) Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oil from Cinnmomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species. Bioresour. Technol. 100(1): 457-464.
    連結:
  22. Cheng, S. S., M. J. Chung, Y. J. Chen and S. T. Chang (2011) Antipathogenic activities and chemical composition of Cinnamomum osmophloeum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf essential oils. J. Wood Chem. Technol. 31(1): 73-87.
    連結:
  23. Fang, J. M., S. A. Chen and Y. S. Cheng (1989) Quantitative analysis of the essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37(3): 744-746.
    連結:
  24. Friedman M., N. Kozukue and L. A. Harden (2000) Cinnamaldehyde content in foods determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48(11): 5702-5709.
    連結:
  25. Gopolakrishnan, N (1994) Studies on the storage quality of CO2-extracted cardamom and clove bud oils. J. Anal. Chem. 42(3): 796-798.
    連結:
  26. Hausen, B. M., J. Reichling and M. Harkenthal (1999) Degradation products of monoterpenes are the sensitizing agents in tea tree oil. Am. J. Contact Dermat. 10(2): 68-77.
    連結:
  27. Hsu, F. L., W. H. Li, C. W. Yu, Y. C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yang, J. T. Liu, J. Shih, Y. J. Chu, P. L. Yen, S. T. Chang and V. H. C. Liao (2012) In vivo antioxidant activities of essential oils and their constituents from leaves of the Taiwanese Cinnamomum osmophloeum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60(12): 3092-3097.
    連結:
  28. Huang, T. C., H. Y. Fu, C. T. Ho, D. Tan, Y. T. Huang and M. H. Pan (2007) Induction of apoptosis by cinnamaldehyde from indigenous cinnamon Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh through reactive oxygen species production, glutathione depletion, and caspase activation in human leukemia K562 cells. Food Chem. 103(2): 434-443.
    連結:
  29. Lee, H. C., S. S. Cheng and S. T. Chang (2005) Antifungal property of the essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf against tree pathogenic fungi. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85(12): 2047-2053.
    連結:
  30. Lin, T. Y., J. W. Liao, S. T. Chang and S. Y. Wang (2011) Antidyslipidemic activity of hot-water extracts from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. Phytother. Res. 25(9): 1317-1322.
    連結:
  31. Misharina, T. A., A. N. Polshkov, E. L. Ruchkina and I. B. Medvedeva (2003) Changes in the composition of the essential oil of marjoram during storage. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 39(3): 311-316.
    連結:
  32. Nguyen, H., E. M. Campi, W. R. Jackson and A. F. Patti (2009) Effect of oxidative deterioration on flavour and aroma components of lemon oil. Food Chem. 113(2): 388-393.
    連結:
  33. Orav, A., I. Stulova, T. Kailas and M. Muurisepp (2004) Effect of storage on the essential oil composition of Piper nigrum L. fruits of different ripening stages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52(9): 2528-2586.
    連結:
  34. Saw, C. L. L., Y. Huang and A. N. Kong (2010) Synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of low doses of curcumin in combination with polyunsaturated fatty acids: Docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid. Biochem. Pharmacol. 79(3): 421-430.
    連結:
  35. Shan, B., Y. Z. Cai, M. Sun and H. Corke (2005) Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53(20): 7749-7759.
    連結:
  36. Singh, H. P., S. Mittal, S. Kaur, D. R. Batish and A. K. Kohli (2009) Characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils from fresh and decaying leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57(15): 6962-6966.
    連結:
  37. Tiwari, M. and P. Kakkar (2009) Plant derived antioxidants – geraniol and camphene protect rat alveolar macrophages against t-BHP induced oxidative stress. Toxicol. Vitro 23(2): 295-301.
    連結:
  38. Tomaino, A., F. Cimino, V. Zimbalatti, V. Venuti, V. Sulfaro, A. De Pasquale and A. Saija (2009) Influence of heating on antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of some spice essential oils. Food Chem. 89(4): 549-554.
    連結:
  39. Tung, Y. T., C. C. Huang, S. T. Ho, Y. H. Kuo, C. C. Lin, C. T. Lin and J. H. Wu (2011) Bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum prevent lipopolysaccharide/D-Galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(15): 8117-8123.
    連結:
  40. Turgis, M., J. Han, S. Caillet and M. Lacroix (2009) Antimicrobial activity of mustard essential oil against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi. Food Control 20(12): 1073-1079.
    連結:
  41. Wang, S. Y., P. F. Chen and S. T. Chang (2005) Antifungal activities of essential oils and their constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves against wood decay fungi. Bioresour. Technol. 96(7): 813-893.
    連結:
  42. Wang, S. Y., C. W. Yang, J. W. Liao, W. W. Zhen, F. H. Chu and S. T. Chang (2008) Essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and reduces the serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice. Phytomedicine 15(11): 940-945.
    連結:
  43. Yu, T. H., C. M .Wu and Y. C. Liou (1989) Effects of pH adjustment and subsequent heat treatment on the formation of volatile compounds of garlic. J. Food Sci. 54(3): 632-635.
    連結:
  44. 李漢中、鄭森松、劉如芸、張上鎮(2003)不同地理品系土肉桂葉子精油之化學多態性。中華林學季刊 36(4):411-422。
  45. 林讚標(1992)土肉桂專論。臺灣省林業試驗所。86頁。
  46. 陳品方、張上鎮、吳懷慧(2002)土肉桂葉精油及其成分之抗蟎活性。中華林學季刊 35(4):397-403。
  47. 張上鎮、鄭森松、王升陽(2009)土肉桂飄香-葉子的神奇功效及應用。臺灣林業35(1):116-122。
  48. 梁艾琳(1995)芳香療法。大展。167頁。
  49. 楊政川、李世傑、何坤益、林敏宜(2010)臺灣森林特產物-土肉桂。科學發展 446:28-33。
  50. 應紹舜(1999)臺灣高等植物彩色圖誌第一卷(增訂二版)。臺北。660頁。