Title

發展中國家於聯合國氣候談判之參與—以七七集團為例

Translated Titles

The Participation of Developing Countries in the United Nations Climate Negotiation: the case of G77

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.01920

Authors

張瀚文

Key Words

氣候變遷談判 ; 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約 ; 發展中國家 ; 七七集團 ; 氣候論述 ; climate negotiation ; the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) ; developing countries ; Group of 77(G77) ; climate discourse

PublicationName

臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

林子倫

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

自1980年代以來,氣候變遷問題作為政治問題已逐漸受到國際之承認,又由於氣候變遷問題所帶來之影響將擴及全球,故更需要相關之國際談判以因應其衝擊,而在1992年的地球高峰會後,聯合國氣候變化綱要公約也成為了各國處理國際氣候議題的主要平台。在這其中,發展中國家占了談判者之多數席次,且又是主要受到氣候變遷衝擊的談判方,故其於國際氣候談判之參與也更加重要。在參與談判之過程中,七七集團為代表發展中國家之最主要談判集團,其代表性也受到了聯合國的承認,故本研究將以七七集團作為研究對象,以1995年至2009年之聯合國氣候會議為研究範圍,探討發展中國家為何願意以七七集團作為參與談判之平台,其結合之性質為何,再進一步探討七七集團如何參與聯合國氣候談判,希望藉此了解發展中國家關注之議題、其參與策略之內涵,以及影響其參與行動之可能因素。 以上述目的為基礎,本研究先是於第二章回顧了與國際多邊氣候談判相關之文獻,並綜合了結構分析途徑與過程分析途徑中影響談判者行動之因素,其中包含七七集團內部之差異、七七集團對於氣候議題之論述、與國際社會之因素,皆影響了七七集團參與策略的形成。首先在七七集團內部的差異方面,雖然次級集團之間有相當之異質性,且其結合也較為破碎,但他們仍有共同支持之原則,即永續發展原則與衡平原則。這兩個原則是七七集團論述之基礎,也是影響七七集團參與談判之最主要因素,而本研究也整理了七七集團於COP1至COP15之提交文件,並歸納出發展中國家共同關注的主要議題,即減量、調適、資金、技術轉移、能力建構與遵約機制等議題,七七集團在這些議題的立場也大多是以上述兩項原則作為出發點。除此之外,國際社會因素如物質權力之改變、談判國國家目標與政策的轉變、新資訊的出現、和國際經濟事件的發生,也或多或少地影響了七七集團之參與。最後,本研究歸納出七七集團參與談判之三項主要策略,包含維護公約與議定書之正當性與存續、鞏固七七集團論述之正當性、與尋求論述於公約制度之體現。

English Abstract

Since 1980s, the problem of climate change has been recognized as a politic issue. Because the adverse effect is worldwide, the world needs international multilateral negotiation to deal with the impact of climate change. Since the Earth Summit in 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) has become the main arena for coping with climate issues. Among the negotiators, developing countries are the majority of negotiators. They’re also most vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Therefore, it is important for them to participate in the climate negotiation. Furthermore, the Group of 77(G77) is the main negotiating group of developing countries. It’s also recognized by the United Nations as one of the main negotiating group. In conclusion, this project is aimed to find out how G77 had participated in the UN climate negotiation from 1995 to 2009, hoping to analysis why developing countries want to cooperate through G77, what their negotiation strategies are, and what the factors influencing strategies are. Through the Literature Review, the project finds out three main factors to influence the participation of G77, including the different positions between the subgroups of G77, the climate discourse of G77, and the international social factors. First, G77 is characterized by heterogeneity. There are different positions between the members of G77. However, the developing countries still support common principles which are “the principle of sustainable development” and “the principle of equity.” These are also the foundation of G77’s climate discourse. After reading the submissions of G77 from 1995 to 2009, the project finds out the issues that G77 pay most attention to, such as mitigation, adaptation, fund, technology transfer, capacity building and the compliance mechanism…etc.. When analyzing the common position of G77, the project finds out the principles mentioned above are also tightly related to their position. Furthermore, the international social factors may also influence the negotiation strategies of G77, including the material factors, the changing policy of the other countries, the appearance of new information, and the occurrence of economic events. Finally, there are three main negotiation strategies for G77 to participate in the UN climate negotiation: the maintenance of the Convention and Kyoto Protocol, the consolidation of the legitimacy of their discourse, and the fulfillment of their discourse.

Topic Category 社會科學院 > 政治學研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
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