Title

環境議題跨國倡議網絡之研究—以中國熊膽之爭議為例

Translated Titles

The Transnational Advocacy Network of Environmental Issues: A Case Study of the Bear Bile Campaign in China

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2009.01841

Authors

余國媛

Key Words

中國 ; 非政府組織 ; 跨國倡議網絡 ; 《華盛頓公約》 ; 環境政治 ; China ; NGO ; Transnational Advocacy Network ; CITES ; Environmental Politics

PublicationName

臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2009年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

林子倫

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

為解決環境問題,近年來全球多採取跨國合作之方式,本論文便是藉由分析中國熊膽議題,試圖探索跨國倡議的過程。熊膽作為中藥材在中國已有上千年的歷史,為了提高生產效能,中國自80年代以來開始採取圈養黑熊以取其膽汁的作法,卻在90年代時因為西方組織的調查而引起全球關注,自此形成以拯救黑熊、關閉熊場的「跨國倡議網絡」(Transnational Advocacy Network)。本篇論文墊基於學界所提出的觀點和研究,從「迴飛鏢模式」(boomerang pattern)的角度觀察網絡行為者之互動,藉以釐清網絡運作方式與策略,並分析影響因素。 研究發現倡議組織從「訊息政治」、「槓桿政治」、「象徵政治」以及「責任政治」等面向,利用中國在申奧期間對國際形象的重視、動物福利所引發的國內外關注、國際公約CITES的拘束以及對中國經濟利益的損害等角度,分別從消費者、中醫團體以及中央和地方政府等行為者著手,希望能全面停止養熊業。但由於中國官方在本議題中仍較佔優勢,因此目前觀察到在中國進行倡議的組織皆傾向與官方合作,使得中國熊膽議題雖然在揭露訊息、跨國串連上發揮功效,但是到目前為止還是無法成功達到停止養熊業的預期目標。 回歸到跨國倡議網絡本身,研究也發現議題與目標對象之特性、非政府組織間之連結、以及倡議施壓之時間點與方式都會影響網絡成效,特別是在像中國這樣非民主體制的國家進行倡議,更挑戰了環境議題跨國倡議網絡的調適能力。

English Abstract

The global society has tried to solve environmental problems with transnational cooperation for the past decades. This thesis attempts to analyze China’s bear bile issue to understand the process of transnational advocacy. Bear bile, as Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used in China for thousands of years. China has started ‘farming bears’ for producing bile more efficiently since 1980’s, a criticized industry which has been exposed by INGOs in 1990’s. The Transnational Advocacy Network (TAN) formed since then with the goal to save bears and close bear farms in China. Enlightened by the hypothesis of Boomerang Pattern, this thesis has explored the interactions and strategies of network actors, as well as factors that determine the fulfillment of the Bear Bile TAN. From ‘information politics,’ ‘leverage politics,’ ‘symbol politics’ and ‘accountability politics,’ the advocacy organizations has manipulated the factors such as international prestige, animal welfare, international convention, economic interests, and so on to persuade consumers, TCM groups, and to lobby Chinese officials to stop farming bears. Due to the fact that Chinese government still has the upper hand, these organizations currently incline to cooperate with the government. This strategical shift results in the failure to fulfill TAN’s goal, despite the fact that TAN did succeed in exposing information and forming alliance. In terms of TANs, the traits of issues and target countries, the connection among NGOs, as well as the timing and approaches of advocacy all contribute to the outcome of networks. To advocate in a non-democratic regime like China challenges the ability to adopt for environmental TANs.

Topic Category 社會科學院 > 政治學研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
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Times Cited
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  2. 林祐立(2013)。農場動物福利之實然與應然-以我國法制之檢討分析為中心。臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2013。1-340。