Title

梅雨季高層冷心低壓形成與潛熱釋放之角色研究

Translated Titles

Study of the role of latent heating in upper-level cold-core low formation during meiyu season

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2010.02159

Authors

王尹懋

Key Words

割離冷心低壓 ; 封流潛熱釋放 ; 臨界層 ; cut-off cold-core low ; convective latent heating ; critical layer

PublicationName

臺灣大學大氣科學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

陳泰然

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本文利用觀測資料與模式模擬,分析1998年 5月 2∼ 7日梅雨季期間發生於華中地區高對流層槽線之東移、加深、扭曲並分裂割離形成冷心低壓之過程。除分析探討割離低壓於氣候上之發生頻率與本個案結構特徵外,並以數值模式之敏感度實驗探討潛熱釋放在本個案冷心低壓之割離過程所扮演之角色。 比較過去氣候統計研究與本文所統計之結果,雖然兩者在資料年代、資料水平解析度及分析方法有所差異,但仍皆呈現春季500 hPa 割離低壓在東亞至台灣附近地區出現頻率極低之氣候分佈特徵。本個案所分析中緯度槽線割離之冷心低壓,其結構特徵包括:最強低壓中心在200 hPa、最強暖心約在100 hPa、最強冷心約在400 hPa、低壓結構在100∼700 hPa 之間,與過去研究所分析之熱帶海洋型冷心低壓平均結構非常類似;但仍有相異處,包括:移動方向、移動速度。這些差異主要乃因不同類型高層冷心低壓的生成方式、所處緯度及綜觀環境不同而來。 本個案探討之槽線演變及高層割離冷心低壓尺度大小,與高層槽線—平均西風之噴流交互作用理論所預期之槽線演變過程較為一致;但與移行噴流條—高層槽線交互作用理論之預期則有顯著差異。此外,在本個案冷心低壓形成之前,槽線東∼東南側出現之對流雖強度有限,但仍在高層出現顯著之輻散風,且中高對流層呈現對流潛熱釋放有效加熱所導致之厚度增加,以及隨後伴隨地轉調整過程之高層脊線形成與增強。 透過中尺度數值模式敏感度實驗,證實對流潛熱釋放非絕熱加熱在本個案高層冷心低壓割離過程中,扮演關鍵角色。當高層槽線東移、南伸且逐漸靠近對流區域時,對流產生之高層非地轉東∼東南風,使槽線進入臨界區而出現扭曲、分裂之現象,導致高層割離冷心低壓於該槽之南側形成。對照不考慮潛熱釋放影響之模擬結果,顯示槽線演變與過去以乾的大氣理論所預期,在背景反氣旋式風場影響下之槽線演變過程類似,包括:槽線主軸呈順鐘向旋轉,以及槽線在緯向的窄化等。由濕大氣對流潛熱釋放非絕熱加熱所影響之割離過程,並未曾出現在過去相關文獻。本文以診斷分析與數值模式敏感度實驗結果,顯示對流潛熱釋放之非絕熱加熱在本個案高層冷心低壓割離過程,扮演關鍵性角色。

Topic Category 基礎與應用科學 > 大氣科學
理學院 > 大氣科學研究所
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