Title

合歡山臺灣冷杉林枯落物動態

Translated Titles

Litterfall dynamics of Abies kawakamii Stand at Mountain Hehuan, Taiwan

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.02679

Authors

林京翰

Key Words

合歡山 ; 臺灣冷杉 ; 枯落物 ; 物候 ; Mountain Hehuan ; Abies kawakamii ; litterfall ; phenology

PublicationName

臺灣大學森林環境暨資源學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

王立志

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

枯落物為生態系中的重要過程,惟尚未有人進行臺灣冷杉林枯落物研究。本研究於合歡山小風口冷杉林內設置枯落物網,在2011年1月至2011年12月每兩週收集一次枯落物。研究結果顯示,合歡山小風口冷杉林年枯落物量為3129 ±445 kg ha-1yr-1 (平均 ±樣本標準差),其中各組成比例為葉佔69%、枝條占12%、樹皮占11%、繁殖部占1%、其它占7%,顯示臺灣冷杉枯落物以葉部為主要回歸林地形式。研究期間枯落物最大高峰為十一、十二月,枯落物量分別為640 kg ha-1mo-1、507 kg ha-1mo-1,各占全年的 20.4%、16.2%,其中以葉部增加為主,可能為豪雨、冰雹或反應九月乾旱或低溫造成而大量落葉。一、二月枝條量為全年最多,推測可能為降雪加上強風所影響。臺灣冷杉枝芽展葉前後(四月底至六月初)枯落物量有些微增加,以冷杉葉部枯落物增加為主,可能因為降雨量及降雨強度增加造成枯落物提高,也有可能為冷杉抽芽並汰換舊葉所致。本研究期間受颱風影響並不明顯,夏季枯落物量較其他時期少。合歡山臺灣冷杉2011年繁殖部枯落物比例較其他冷杉林研究少。繁殖部物候方面,研究期間只發現一棵臺灣冷杉開雄花序,且未發現臺灣冷杉雌花序,未能觀察到完整之開花結實物候,推測2011年可能為合歡山臺灣冷杉開花結實欠年。

English Abstract

Litterfall is one of the important processes in ecosystem studies, which hasn’t been studied on Abies kawakamii forests. Litterfall traps were set up near the tourist center in Xiao-Feng-Ko, Hehuan mountains. Litterfall was collected once every two weeks in 2011. Results showed that annual litterfall was 3129 ±445 kg ha-1 ( mean ± standard error of the mean ), which was composed of foliage ( 69% of total annual litterfall ), branch ( 12% ), bark ( 11% ), reproductive part ( 1% ), and miscellaneous ( 7% ), respectively, showing that foliage was the major path for litterfall. The peak of the litterfall was in November ( 640 kg ha-1, 20.4% of the whole year ) and December ( 507, 16.2% ) of which was composed of foliage mainly ( 86.4% of total litterfall in November, 83.2% of total litterfall in December ). This situation could have been caused by the heavy rain fall, hail fall, cold temperature, or a response to the previous drought in September. The peak of branch fall was in January and February (131 kg ha-1 two-mouths-1, 33.1% of the annual branch litterfall ), which could have been caused by snow and gusty wind. Litterfall ( mainly foliage ) increased a little bit near the timing of new foliage expansion ( late April to early June ), which could have been caused by the heavy rain fall in May, or the regeneration of the foliage. No significant typhoon occurred during study period, therefore, litterfall did not increase during summer season. As to the reproductive part, only a few microsporangia were found on roadside stand during the study period, yet no macrosporangia were found. Therefore, 2011 could be considered as a poor year of reproduction for Abies kawakamii.

Topic Category 生物資源暨農學院 > 森林環境暨資源學研究所
生物農學 > 森林
生物農學 > 生物環境與多樣性
Reference
  1. 朱珮綺 ( 2005 ) 台大實驗林神木溪保護林兩相鄰林分枯落物動態及其養分之研究。國立台灣大學碩士論文。92頁。
    連結:
  2. 林國銓 ( 1997 ) 福山闊葉林枯落物及枝葉層之動態變化。臺灣林業科學12(2):135-144。
    連結:
  3. 林國銓、陳永修、杜清澤、黃菊美 ( 2008 ) 六龜台灣杉人工林枯落物之動態變化。中華林學季刊41(3):351-363。
    連結:
  4. 金恆鑣、唐凱軍、康敏捷、黃正良、李聖餘 ( 1991 ) 合歡山冷杉土壤之發育與分類。太魯閣國家公園管理處。59頁
    連結:
  5. 金絜之 ( 2008 ) 南仁山低地雨林凋落物之時空變化研究。國立屏東科技大學碩士論文。80頁。
    連結:
  6. 高文靜 ( 2010 ) 合歡山區亞高山針葉樹台灣冷杉林的族群結構與空間分佈之研究。靜宜大學碩士論文。63頁。
    連結:
  7. 楊淑瀚 ( 2007 ) 溪頭天然闊葉林枯落物及其落葉氮、磷濃度之動態變化。國立台灣大學碩士論文。83頁。
    連結:
  8. 蕭怡茹、王立志 ( 2005 ) 烏來地區次生闊葉林、桂竹人工林、柳杉人工林之枯落物動態。台大實驗林研究報告19 (3):217-230。
    連結:
  9. Adhikari, B.S., Y.S. Rawat, Singh, S.P., 1995. Structure and function of high-altitude forests of central Himalaya .1. Dry-matter dynamics. Ann Bot-London 75, 237-248.
    連結:
  10. Arthur, M.A., Fahey, T.J., 1991. Biomass and nutrients in an Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir forest in north central Colorado: pools, annual production and internal cycling. Can J Forest Res 22, 315-325.
    連結:
  11. Bray, J.R., Gorham, E., 1964. Litter Production in Forests of the World. Advances in Ecological Research 2, 101-157.
    連結:
  12. Facelli, J.M., Pickett, S.T.A., 1991. Plant litter - Its dynamics and effects on plant community structure. Bot Rev 57, 1-32.
    連結:
  13. Finotti, R., Freitas, S.R., Cerqueira, R., Vieira, M.V., 2003. A method to determine the minimum number of litter traps in litterfall studies. Biotropica 35, 419-421.
    連結:
  14. Foster, J.R., 1988. The Potential Role of Rime Ice Defoliation in Tree Mortality of Wave-Regenerated Balsam Fir Forests. J Ecol 76, 172-180.
    連結:
  15. Gairola, S., Rawal, R.S., Dhar, U., 2009. Patterns of litterfall and return of nutrients across anthropogenic disturbance gradients in three subalpine forests of west Himalaya, India. J Forest Res-Jpn 14, 73-80.
    連結:
  16. Lin, K.C., Hamburg, S.P., Tang, S., Hsia, Y.J., Lin, T.C., 2003. Typhoon effects on litterfall in a subtropical forest. Can J Forest Res 33, 2184-2192.
    連結:
  17. Linares, J.C., Covelo, F., Carreira, J.A., Merino, J.A., 2012. Phenological and water-use patterns underlying maximum growing season length at the highest elevations: implications under climate change. Tree Physiol 32, 161-170.
    連結:
  18. Liu, C., Westman, C.J., Berg, B., Kutsch, W., Wang, G.Z., Man, R., Ilversniemi, H., 2004. Variation in litterfall-climate relationships between coniferous and boardleaf forests in Eurasia. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 13, 105-114.
    連結:
  19. Lonsdale, W.M., 1988. Predicting the amount of litterfall in forests of the world. Ann Bot-London 61, 319-324.
    連結:
  20. Meentemeyer, V., Box, E.O., Thompson, R., 1982. World patterns and amounts of terrestrial plant litter production. Bioscience 32, 125-128.
    連結:
  21. Perry, D.A., Oren, R., Hart, S.C., 2008. Forest Ecosystems. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, Baltimore, Maryland.
    連結:
  22. Stohlgren, T.J., 1988. Litter dynamics in 2 Sierran mixed conifer forests .1. Litterfall and decomposition rates. Can J Forest Res 18, 1127-1135.
    連結:
  23. Tateno, R., Hishi, T., Takeda, H., 2004. Above- and belowground biomass and net primary production in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in relation to topographical changes in soil nitrogen. Forest Ecol Manag 193, 297-306.
    連結:
  24. Wang, Q.K., Wang, S.L., Huang, Y., 2008. Comparisons of litterfall, litter decomposition and nutrient return in a monoculture Cunninghamia lanceolata and a mixed stand in southern China. Forest Ecol Manag 255, 1210-1218.
    連結:
  25. Watt, A.S., 1970. Contributions to Ecology of Bracken (Pteridium-Aquilinum) .7. Bracken and Litter .3. Cycle of Change. New Phytol 69, 431-449.
    連結:
  26. 王雪卿 ( 2009 ) 台灣中部低海拔天然林與人工林枯落物、枯落物分解、土壤養分之比較。國立彰化師範大學碩士論文。71頁。
  27. 羊留冬、王根緒、楊燕、曹洋、李偉、郭劍英 ( 2010 ) 。貢嘎山峨眉冷杉成熟林凋落物量動態研究。江西農業大學學報32(6): 1163-1167。
  28. 李佳玲 ( 2006 ) 南橫中之關暖溫帶闊葉林凋落物之研究。國立台南大學碩士論文。100頁。
  29. 吳仲民、李意德、周光益、陳步峰 ( 2008 ) “非正常凋落物”及其生態學意義。林業科學44(11): 28-31。
  30. 林世宗 ( 1998 ) 棲蘭山闊葉林枯落物及其養分之變動。中華林學季刊31(2):115-130。
  31. 周育如 ( 2003 ) 惠蓀林場枯落物養分迴歸量與分解速率之季節變動。國立中興大學碩士論文。64頁。
  32. 春敏莉、謝宗強、趙常明、樊大勇、徐新武、平亮 ( 2009 ) 神農架巴山冷杉天然林凋落量及養分特徵。植物生態學報33(3):492-498。
  33. 張峻德、徐正鐘 ( 1987 ) 柳杉、杉木林脫枝落葉量及養分含量之季節變化。中華林學季刊 20(4):47–64。
  34. 莊貴瑜 ( 1998 ) 合歡山台灣冷杉群落樹齡結構與草原推移之研究。國立東華大學碩士論文。44頁。
  35. 陳玉峰 ( 1993 ) 合歡高地植群的演替。國立東海大學碩士論文。184頁。
  36. 陳正祥 ( 1957 ) 臺灣氣候之分類。氣象學報。3(2):1-9。
  37. 陳榮欽 ( 1996 ) 合歡山區臺灣冷杉林樹齡學之研究。國立中興大學碩士論文。78頁。
  38. 楊清偉 ( 2001 ) 貢嘎山峨眉冷杉原始林及其更新群落凋落物的特徵。植物資源與環境學報10(3):35-38。
  39. 蔣先覺、陳尊賢、林光清、洪富文 ( 1992 ) 臺灣高山森林土壤形態、性質與分類。臺灣省林業試驗所。352頁。
  40. 劉蕾、申國珍、陳芳清、羅璐、謝宗強、喻杰 ( 2012 ) 神農架海拔梯度上 4 種典型森林凋落物現存量及其養分迴圈動態。生態學報32(7):2142-2149。
  41. 賴國祥 ( 1992 ) 臺灣亞高山針葉樹林與草生地間推移帶動態結構之探討。國立中興大學植物學研究所博士論文。188頁。
  42. 羅輯、程根偉、陳斌如、李偉 ( 2003 ) 貢嘎山垂直林帶林分凋落物及其理化特性。山地學報23(3):287-292。
  43. 吉野東洲 ( 1986 ) 和歌山演習林におけるモミ,ツガ林の生産力調査 (8)。京都大学農学部演習林報告58:35-50。
  44. Harmon, M.E., Franklin, J.F., Swanson, F.J., Sollins, P., Gregory, S.V., Lattin, J.D., Anderson, N.H., Cline, S.P., Aumen, N.G., Sedell, J.R., Lienkaemper, G.W., Cromack, K., Cummins, K.W., 1986. Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research 15, 133-302.
  45. Moore, T.C., 1989. Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Hormones. New York : Springer-Verlag. 330p.
  46. Yang, W.Q., Wang, K.Y., Kellomaki, S., Gong, H.D., 2005. Litter dynamics of three subalpine forests in Western Sichuan. Pedosphere 15, 653-659.
Times Cited
  1. 劉崇加(2015)。玉山登山步道高海拔土壤無脊椎動物群落結構之比較。中山大學生物科學系研究所學位論文。2015。1-54。