Title

中國農村鋼琴製造群聚的生產網絡與商品鏈: 以浙江省洛舍鎮為例

Translated Titles

Production Network and Commodity Chain of Piano Manufacturing Cluster in Rural China-- Case Study of Luoshe, Zhejiang Province

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2011.02819

Authors

何榆

Key Words

洛舍鎮 ; 鋼琴製造業 ; 農村工業化 ; 產業網絡 ; 商品鏈 ; Luoshe Township ; piano manufacturing industry ; rural industrialization ; industrial cluster ; commodity chain

PublicationName

臺灣大學地理環境資源學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2011年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

簡旭伸

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

中文摘要 有樂器之王稱謂的鋼琴,起源於歐洲三百年來,發展出鋼琴製造與音樂文化、音樂家間緊密相連的關係,並由製琴廠掌握核心技術及整體製程的生產者驅動商品鏈形式。但隨著產業全球化的轉移中國成為鋼琴生產最大國,演變出與過去不同的生產模式,其中位於浙江省的洛舍鎮,在中國鼓勵農村工業化政策與創辦者自我意志的敦促下,開辦全國第一家非國營鋼琴廠,藉由政商共治的鄉鎮企業面對市場不確定性之優勢,如今已為全國30%的琴廠與20%產量的鋼琴生產基地。該現象(農民造鋼琴)促使引發本研究欲探討在缺乏鋼琴生產經驗與相關音樂發展背景的農村地區,何以在當今的鋼琴製造業佔有一席之地? 為理解農村鋼琴產業的發跡與運作,本文試透過製琴生產網絡與商品鏈作為切入點,比對歐美、日韓的生產形式,結合實地訪談資料進行論述。研究發現主要有二,其一,鋼琴製造流程從歐美的純手工打造階段,經過日韓機械化大量生產的洗禮逐漸去文藝化,並在鋼琴結構趨向定型,以及穩定核心部件供應源的出現下,縮短了製琴生產鏈、降低入行的門檻,加上洛舍鎮琴業聚源起於鄉鎮企業的背景,致使不同背景、規模與製造形式的琴廠在地建構出特殊的生產模式與社會網絡。其二,在商品鏈的銷售端部分,中國的琴行一改過去附屬於琴廠的形式,轉為扮演通路的事業單位,與琴廠各自負責產、銷的業務,一方面琴廠透過對國外廠商OEM的策略,一方面則為滿足國內龐大的鋼琴市場需求,因而出現買方(國外廠商、小琴行)驅動的商品鏈型態,實為洛舍鎮鋼琴產業獨有的產業特徵。

English Abstract

ABSTRACT Under the context of globalization of piano production, China is now the world’s biggest piano producer in the 21st century, producing 340,000 pianos in the world (70 % of the world share) in 2009. Luoshe, a rural township under the Huzhou city of Zhejiang Province with no any piano industry background before the 1980s, has produced its first piano in 1985 and nowadays has 46 piano manufacturers (30 % China in total) together making makes 65,000 pianos in 2009. The case of Luoshe is quite different from the typical western model of piano production which has existed since the 18th century. In the west, pianos are mainly manufactured by musical craftsmen or related family business, who also generally control the piano consumption market. However, Luoshe becomes the piano cluster without any craftsmen tradition nor power of controlling the market, making the rise of Luoshe deserves our scholarly attention than it has received. This thesis pays attention to the gap and asks why and how and under what circumstance the cluster has been formatted and transformed over the past decades. The case of Luoshe is empirically examined by two dimensions. On the one hand, from the production side, there is a very complex production network that is consisted of three kinds of piano factories in terms production size- the mega one (producing 30,000 pianos a year), the larger one (3,000-5,000 production a year) and the medium and small one (300-500 output a year). The only mega one, which produces nearly half of piano output in Luoshe, was jointly established by a local woodcutting company and a state-owned piano company in Guangdong. The production network of the mega one is relatively independent by itself without interacting with local suppliers. On the contrary, the larger ones and the medium and small ones have closer connections with other local production networks as there are certain traded/ untraded dependence relationships between different piano producers and component suppliers. On the other hand, in terms of consumption side, more than 90% pianos produced in Luoshe are sold domestically to the increasing demands of so-called Chinese middle-class families. Increasing numbers of various types of newly established piano shops play a role between those buyers who like to buy pianos at homes and piano producers in Luoshe. These piano shops (especially small piano ones) become very crucial in the piano marketing channel as they predominantly manage the information and process of introducing what brands of pianos to consumers. Therefore, the piano market in Luoshe is instead dominated by piano shops rather than producers, which is very different from the west.

Topic Category 人文學 > 地理及區域研究
理學院 > 地理環境資源學研究所
Reference
  1. Barron, J. (2006) Piano: The Making of a Steinway Concert Grand, New York: Times Books.
    連結:
  2. Che Jiahua and Yingyi Qian (1998a) Institution environment, community government, and corporate governance: understanding China’s township-village enterprises, Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 14(1): 1-23.
    連結:
  3. Che Jiahua and Yingyi Qian (1998b) Insecure property rights and government ownership of firms, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(2): 467-496.
    連結:
  4. Cooke, P. & Peter W. (1992) Globalization and Its Management in Computing and Communications. In: Philip Cooke et al. (eds.) Towards Global Localization: The Computing and Telecommunications Industries in Britain and France, London: UCL Press, 61-78.
    連結:
  5. Craig H. Roell (1989) The piano in America: 1890-1940, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    連結:
  6. David D. Li (1996) A theory of ambiguous property rights in transition economies: the case of the Chinese non-state sector1, Journal of Comparative Economics, 23(1): 1-19.
    連結:
  7. Gereffi, G. (1995) Global production systems and third world development. In B. Stallings (ed.) Global change, regional response: the new international context of development, New York: Cambridge University Press, 100-142.
    連結:
  8. Gereffi, G. (2000) Global production systems and third world development. In B. Stallings (ed.) New York: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  9. Gough, H. (1951) The classical grand pianoforte: 1770-1830, Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 77: 41-50.
    連結:
  10. Jane A. (1864) The Habits of Good Society: a handbook for ladies and gentlemen, New York: Carleton, 232-233.
    連結:
  11. Lin, Justin Yifu, Cai, Fang, and Li, Zhou (1996) The Lessons of China’s Transition to a Market Economy, Cato Journal, 16(2): 201-31.
    連結:
  12. Martin L. Weitzman and Chenggang Xu (1994) Chinese township village enterprises as vaguely defined cooperatives, Journal of Comparative Economics, 18(2): 121-145.
    連結:
  13. Ohmae, Kenichi (1990) Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy. London: Collins.
    連結:
  14. Oi, Jean C. (1999) Rural China Takes Off, Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press.Robertson, R. (1995) Global Modernities. In: Featherstone, M., Lash, S. and Robertson, R. (eds.) Globalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity- Heterogeneity, London: Sage., 25-44.
    連結:
  15. Storper, M. (1997). The regional world: Territorial development in a global economy, New York: The Guilford Press.
    連結:
  16. 徐進鈺、鄭陸霖 (2001) 全球在地化的地理學:跨界組織場域的統理,都市與計畫,28(4): 391-411。
    連結:
  17. 楊友仁 (2004) 經濟地理學的制度轉向:一個理論性回顧與研究取向的建議,建築與城鄉研究學報,12: 69-80。
    連結:
  18. 鄭陸霖 (2006) 幻象之後:台灣汽車產業發展經驗與「跨界產業場域」理論,台灣社會學,11: 111-174。
    連結:
  19. 蔡佩穎 (2009) 中國大陸手機市場後進廠商的突圍策略-以聯發科及天宇朗通為例,清華大學科技管理研究所學位論文。
    連結:
  20. 參考文獻
  21. Arthur, L. (1990) Men, Women, and Piano: A Social History, New York: Dover, 65-70.
  22. Berger, P. L. and Huntington, S. P. (2002) Many Globalizations: Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World, New York: Oxford University Press.
  23. Buenstorf, G. and Klepper, S. (2004) The Origin and Location of Entrants in the Evolution of the U.S. Tire Industry, Papers on Economics and Evolution, # 0407.
  24. Conti, S., Malecki, E. J. and Oinas, P. (1995) Introduction: rethink the geography of enterprise. In: The industrial enterprise and its environment: spatial perspectives, Aldershot. S., 1-12.
  25. Cyril E. (1990) The piano : a history, New York : Oxford University Press.
  26. Krugman, P. (2000) Where in the world is the ‘new economic geography’? The oxford handbook of economic geography, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  27. Svejnar, Jan (1990) Productive Efficiency and Employment. In: William Byrd and Qingsong Lin (Eds) China’s Rural Enterprises: Structure, Development, and Reform, UK: Oxford University Press, 243-254.
  28. Steinway T. E. (2005) People and pianos: a pictorial history of Steinway & Sons, 3rd ed., Pompton Plains, N.J.: Amadeus Press.
  29. Berger, P. L. and Huntington S. P. (2002) 杭廷頓&柏格看全球化大趨勢(王柏源譯),台北:時報文化出版公司。
  30. Porter, M. E. (1996) 國家競爭優勢(李明軒,邱如美譯),台北:天下文化。(原著出版於1990年)
  31. Steinway T. E. (2008) 人與琴:圖說史坦威鋼琴百年傳奇(莊靖譯),台北市:原點出版:大雁出版基地發行。
  32. 中國社會科學院經濟硏究所微觀室 (2005) 20世紀90年代中國公有企業的民營化演變,北京市:社會科學文獻。
  33. 王曉魯(1997)對鄉鎮企業增長的重新估計-制度變革對增長的影響,經濟研究,1: 31-39。
  34. 辛丰年 (1999) 鋼琴文化三百年,台北市:揚智文化。
  35. 杜志雄 (2004) 農村企業的信貸需求與供給研究,中國農村經濟,5: 46-55。
  36. 洛秦 (2004) 鋼琴的故事,上海市:上海音樂學院出版社。
  37. 余國耀、溫鐵軍、張曉山、苑鵬(2003)中國農村股份合作制改革試驗報告,收錄於張曉山、苑鵬等(編),中國鄉鎮企業產權改革備忘錄,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
  38. 吳親恩(1997)中國大陸鄉鎮企業產權改革:中央.地方與企業的互動 : 以溫州和蘇南為觀察,國立台灣大學政治學所碩士論文。
  39. 徐偉傑 (2003) 全球在地化:理解全球化的一條路徑,思與言:人文與社會科學雜誌,41(1): 1-18。
  40. 孫潭鎮(1995)現代中國農村財政問題研究,北京:經濟科學出版社。
  41. 張杰 (2000) 民營經濟的金融困境與融資次序,經濟研究,4: 3-10。
  42. 張軍等 (2008) 中國企業的轉型道路,上海:格致:上海人民出版社。
  43. 張曉山、苑鵬等(2003)中國鄉鎮企業產權改革備忘錄,北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
  44. 彭思舟、許揚帆、林琦翔(2009)山寨經濟大革命-模仿為創新之母,台北:秀威資訊科技。
  45. 楊沛仁 (2005) 音樂史與欣賞,台北:美樂出版社
  46. 譚秋成 (1999) 鄉鎮集體企業中經營者持大股:特徵及解釋,經濟研究,4: 45-51。
  47. 蘇淑芬 (1997) 全球化與在地化-臺灣晶圓產業之全球商品鏈研究,國立清華大學社會人類所碩士論文。