Title

基於語料庫的譯者風格研究:以《老人與海》及其三種中譯本為例

Translated Titles

A Corpus-Based Study of Translators’ Styles: A Case Study on Three Chinese Translations of The Old Man and the Sea

DOI

10.6342/NTU201800215

Authors

施柔安

Key Words

平行語料庫 ; 語料庫分析工具 ; 老人與海 ; 譯者風格 ; 語料庫翻譯研究 ; parallel corpora ; corpus analysis tools ; The Old Man and the Sea ; translators’ styles ; corpus-based translation studies

PublicationName

臺灣大學翻譯碩士學位學程 學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2017年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

高照明

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

譯者風格的研究是一項重要的研究議題,許多學者也對此有所探討。然而,目前對於中文翻譯風格的研究卻不多,因此本研究欲朝此方面研究,探究厄尼斯特·海明威所著小說──《老人與海》的三種中文譯本,分別由張愛玲、趙少偉及余光中所譯。本研究將以實證研究方式分析三譯本,著墨於譯者的單字、句長及用語特徵。本研究將採用多種語料庫分析工具,包含 LF Aligner、CUC_Paraconc、ICTCLAS 2016、CKIP中文斷詞系統、Anymalign、Antconc、Stanford Log-linear Part-Of-Speech Tagger、AntWordProfiler、中文文件分析系統及 Microsoft Excel 2016。透過這些工具的分析,能看出譯者風格差異,如:平均句長、詞性比例、原文譯文關聯係數、用字選擇等資訊。研究結果看出,三譯者用字選擇有所差異,最值得一提的結果是,趙少偉的譯文較為口語和方言,使用如多使用「老漢」、「咱們」及許多感嘆詞和兒化韻詞語。以字元數分析中看出,張愛玲較為貼近原文,因張愛玲與原文的關聯係數最高。而余光中常使用短句,由字數分析可以看出余用字較精簡,而透過成語使用比例也能看出余多使用書面語翻譯。除研究三譯者的風格外,本研究欲為譯者風格研究提出一個較連貫且客觀分析的研究方法,希冀呈現質量並重的內容與證據。

English Abstract

The study of translators’ styles is an important research topic that has attracted increasing attention in translation study (e.g. Baker, 2000; Munday, 2012; Saldanha, 2014, among others). However, there have been very few studies on Chinese translators’ styles so far. To bridge this gap, this study tries to address translators’ styles of the three Chinese translations of The Old Man and the Sea translated by Eileen Chang, Zhao Shao-Wei, and Yu Kwang-Chung, respectively. Drawing on empirical evidence, this paper analyzes the three translations in terms of vocabulary, syntax, and discourse features. Several corpus analysis tools have been employed, including LF Aligner, CUC_Paraconc, ICTCLAS 2016, CKIP Word Segmentation System (中研院中文斷詞系統), Anymalign, Antconc, Stanford Log-linear Part-Of-Speech Tagger, AntWordProfiler, Chinese Text Analysis (中文文件分析系統), and Microsoft Excel 2016. Through these tools, the differences of the three translators’ styles are manifested in terms of features such as average sentence length, part-of-speech ratios, correlation between the original text and target texts, word choices, and many others. Scrutiny of the word alignment based on the original text and the three Chinese translations reveals the differences of word choices by three translators. The most interesting finding is that Zhao Shao-Wei’s translation is more colloquial and vernacular, as evidenced by the abundant use of sentence-final particles and words with regional characteristics such as “老漢,” “咱們” and the suffix “兒.” Eileen Chang’s rendition is considered the most literal one among the three works. This can be seen from the fact that it has the highest correlation coefficient with that of the original text in terms of sentence length. Yu Kwang-Chung tends to use fewer words and more literary words than other two translators, as evidenced by the use of short sentences and Chinese idioms. Aside from analyzing the three translations, this paper also proposes a coherent corpus-based methodology to study translator styles by presenting both quantitative and qualitative evidence.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
文學院 > 翻譯碩士學位學程
Reference
  1. Baker, M. (1995). Corpora in translation studies: An overview and some suggestions for future research. Target. International Journal of Translation Studies, 7(2), 223-243.
    連結:
  2. Baker, M. (1996). Corpus-based translation studies: The challenges that lie ahead. In H. Somers (Ed.), Terminology, LSP and translation (pp. 175-186). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    連結:
  3. Baker, M. (2000). Towards a methodology for investigating the style of a literary translator. Target. International Journal of Translation Studies, 12(2), 241-266.
    連結:
  4. BFSU CRG. Corpus Linguistics at BFSU. Retrieved from http://www.bfsu-corpus.org/channels/research
    連結:
  5. Coxhead, A. (2000). A New Academic Word List. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238.
    連結:
  6. Hemingway, E. (1960) Death in the Afternoon. New York: Scribner.
    連結:
  7. Hemingway, E. (2005). The Old Man and the Sea. Vintage Classics.
    連結:
  8. Hermans, T. (1996). The translator's voice in translated narrative. Target. International Journal of Translation Studies, 8(1), 23-48.
    連結:
  9. Hu, K. (2016). Introducing corpus-based translation studies. Springer.
    連結:
  10. Johansson, V. (2009). Lexical diversity and lexical density in speech and writing: A developmental perspective. Working Papers in Linguistics, 53, 61-79.
    連結:
  11. Kartiganer, M. Donald. “Getting Good at Doing Nothing”: Faulkner, Hemingway, and the Fiction of Gesture.” Faulkner and His Contemporaries. Ed. Ann J. Abadie & Joseph R. Urgo. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2004.
    連結:
  12. Kruger, A. 2002. Corpus-based translation research: Its development and implications for general, literary and bible translation. Acta Theologica Supplementum 2: 70–106.
    連結:
  13. Rayson, P. (2008) From key words to key semantic domains. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 13 (4). pp. 519-549. ISSN 1569-9811
    連結:
  14. Tyler, Lisa. Student Companion to Ernest Hemingway. London: Greenwood Press, 2001.
    連結:
  15. Valenti, P. D. (2002). Understanding The Old Man and the Sea: A student casebook to issues, sources, and historical documents. Greenwood Publishing Group.
    連結:
  16. Zanettin, F. (2014). Translation-driven corpora: Corpus resources for descriptive and applied translation studies. Routledge.
    連結:
  17. Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc (Version 3.4.4) (Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Linux). Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/
  18. Anthony, L. (2014). AntWordProfiler (Version 1.4.0) (Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Linux). Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/
  19. Anthony, L. (2014). AntWordProfiler (Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Linux). Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/software/antwordprofiler/releases/AntWordProfiler141/help.pdf
  20. Anthony, L. (2014). SegmentAnt (Version 1.0.0) (Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Linux). Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/
  21. Anthony, L. (2015). TagAnt (Version 1.2.0) (Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Linux). Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/
  22. corpus. (2017). In Macmillan Dictionary. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/corpus
  23. Hietanen, M. (2009). A STYLISTIC COMPARISON OF TWO SHORT STORIES BY ERNEST HEMINGWAY: “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” and “Hills Like White Elephants”.
  24. Ho, D. (2016). Notepad++(Version 7.4.2). Retrieved from https://notepad-plus-plus.org/zh/
  25. Li, K. L., & Shao, B. (2016). A Corpus-based Study of the Translators’ Strategies in the Two Chinese Versions of Nineteen Eighty-Four. Compilation & Translation Review, 9(1), 101-130.
  26. Lardilleux, A., & Lepage, Y. (2009, September). Retrieved from https://anymalign.limsi.fr/
  27. Lardilleux, A., & Lepage, Y. (2009, September). Sampling-based multilingual alignment. In Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (pp. 214-218).
  28. Somers, H. (1996). Terminology, LSP and Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ntuedu/detail.action?docID=730709
  29. style. (2017). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved April 11, 2017, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/style
  30. The Stanford Natural Language Processing Group. (2004). Stanford Log-linear Part-Of-Speech Tagger. Retrieved from https://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tagger.shtml
  31. West, M. (1953). A general service list of English words. London: Longman, Green.
  32. Chang, H. P. (2012). NLPIR han yu fen ci xi tong [NLPIR Chinese Segment System]. Retrieved from http://ictclas.nlpir.org/
  33. 余光中(譯)(2016)。老人與海[多看閱讀器]。譯林出版社。取自:http://www.duokan.com/book/45199
  34. 余健明。(2008)。海明威風格漢譯研究──以《老人與海》為例 (Doctoral dissertation, 上海外國語大學)。
  35. 張愛玲(無日期)。十八春。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/sbc/index.html
  36. 張愛玲(無日期)。小艾。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/018.htm
  37. 張愛玲(無日期)。不幸的她。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/027.htm
  38. 張愛玲(無日期)。五四遺事。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/012.htm
  39. 張愛玲(無日期)。心經。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/021.htm
  40. 張愛玲(無日期)。年青的時候。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/023.htm
  41. 張愛玲(無日期)。色.戒。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/003.htm
  42. 張愛玲(無日期)。沉香屑第一爐香。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/013.htm
  43. 張愛玲(無日期)。沉香屑第二爐香。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/016.htm
  44. 張愛玲(無日期)。花凋。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/005.htm
  45. 張愛玲(無日期)。金鎖記。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/008.htm
  46. 張愛玲(無日期)。封鎖。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/019.htm
  47. 張愛玲(無日期)。怨女。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/yn/index.html
  48. 張愛玲(無日期)。相見歡。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/015.htm
  49. 張愛玲(無日期)。紅玫瑰與白玫瑰。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/025.htm
  50. 張愛玲(無日期)。茉莉香片。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/020.htm
  51. 張愛玲(無日期)。桂花蒸 阿小悲秋。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/022.htm
  52. 張愛玲(無日期)。殷寶灩送花樓會——列女傳之一。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/024.htm
  53. 張愛玲(無日期)。琉璃瓦。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/017.htm
  54. 張愛玲(無日期)。留情。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/014.htm
  55. 張愛玲(無日期)。連環套。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/011.htm
  56. 張愛玲(無日期)。創世紀。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/004.htm
  57. 張愛玲(無日期)。等。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/010.htm
  58. 張愛玲(無日期)。傾城之戀。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/026.htm
  59. 張愛玲(無日期)。鴻鸞禧。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/002.htm
  60. 張愛玲(無日期)。霸王別姬。取自:http://www.millionbook.net/mj/z/Changailing/000/001.htm
  61. 張愛玲(譯)(2015)。老人與海。北京:北京出版集團公司北京十月文藝出版社。
  62. 趙少偉(譯)(2012)。老人與海。北京:中國致公出版社。