Translated Titles

"Partnership Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between the European Union (EU) and the Republic of Indonesia: An EU Instrument to Intensify its Bilateral Engagement with Indonesia"





Key Words

合作夥伴協定( PCA ) ; 歐盟-東協關係 ; 反恐議題 ; 印尼毀林 ; 自願夥伴協議( VPA ) ; Partnership Cooperation Agreement (PCA) ; EU – ASEAN relations ; Counter-terrorism issue ; Indonesia’s deforestation issue ; Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA)



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication


Academic Degree Category




Content Language


Chinese Abstract

歐盟和印尼在2009年11月簽署「夥伴合作協定」( PCA )。該一協議強化歐盟和印尼自1980年「歐盟- 東協夥伴關係協定」( EAPA )以來,超過三十年的雙邊關係。此外,歐盟-印尼PCA的目標是成為雙方擴大合作的法律框架和指導方針。經濟利益則為歐盟-東協建立區域間合作關係的主要力量。然而,歐盟的外交政策和其在亞洲的區域內發展趨勢,也成為歐盟與東南亞積極發展合作關係的另一主要原因。1980年歐盟與東協正式簽署的合作協議,涵蓋貿易、經濟和發展等政策。然而,有鑒於歐盟和東協之間不同的發展層次和政治原則,維持區域間的關係有一定困難。歐盟還認為強化與東協的個別國家,包括印尼,特別是雙邊合作夥伴關係,以保持歐盟的經濟和政治利益,以及處理全球和區域性問題。 在東南亞國家中,印尼是第一個與歐盟簽署PCA的國家。儘管印尼在20世紀90年代末,從威權政體過渡到民主國家,印尼仍面臨著一些內部的挑戰。同時,印尼的穩定是確保歐盟在印尼以及東南亞區域的經濟和政治利益的必要條件。 總結來說,PCA使歐盟與印尼雙方更容易建立彼此關係。歐盟需要PCA展現促進印尼發展的能力,也可以協助歐盟在印尼推展公眾外交。對印尼而言,透過PCA與歐盟的直接互動,能夠獲得歐盟的更多支持,以鞏固其目前的國內成就,及提高國際地位的努力。 其次,PCA使歐盟能尋求戰略合作夥伴,以支持區域間的關係。歐盟透過PCA的機會,強化與印尼在非經濟議題上的合作關係。此外,此一合作關係將協助歐盟介入東南亞事務,以及強化區域間的關係 第三,PCA能提高印尼作為區域和全球行動者的內部能力。因此,對印尼而言,國家和非國家行為者之間的良好協調、承諾和能力,得以確保順利推動PCA的各個項目。 第四,PCA下的合作夥伴關係強化印尼在東南亞的角色,印尼並且成為歐盟在東南亞的重要夥伴。這種夥伴關係意味,印尼在此一區域的成就,已經受到歐盟的肯定。印尼與歐盟的雙邊關係將促進印尼在東南亞地區的領導地位。

English Abstract

In November 2009, the European Union (EU) and Indonesia signed a Partnership Cooperation Agreement (PCA). This agreement strengthened the bilateral relations between the EU and Indonesia that has been existed for more than thirty years, under the 1980 EC – ASEAN Partnership Agreement (EAPA). In addition to that, the PCA aims to be a legal framework and guideline for expanding cooperation between the two parties. Economic interests were the primary force behind the establishment of EC- ASEAN interregional relations. However, the development of the EC’s foreign policy profile and its intraregional tendencies in Asia became the other main reason for the EC’s engagement with Southeast Asia. This aspiration is formalised by the signature of the 1980 EC - ASEAN Cooperation Agreement, which encompasses aspects of trade, economic and development policy. However, the different level of development and political principles between the EU and ASEAN made this interregional relation have some difficulties. The EU further considers to strengthening bilateral partnership with the individual ASEAN countries, including Indonesia, which is significant particularly, in order to maintain EU economic and political interests, and to manage global and regional issues. Among Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia is the first country to sign a PCA with the EU. In spite of its remarkable transition from an authoritarian to a democratic country at the end of the 1990s, Indonesia is still facing substantial internal challenges. Meanwhile, the stability of Indonesia is a necessary condition to secure EU economic and political interests in this country and in the region. In conclusion, the PCA allows both sides to build connections easily. The EU needs the PCA in order to show its capacity in the development of Indonesia. It can facilitate the public diplomacy of EU in Indonesia. For Indonesia, the direct interaction through PCA provides an opportunity to gain a bigger support from the EU, which is significant to back up the current achievement of Indonesia and the effort to raise its international posture. Secondly, the PCA enables the EU to look for its strategic partner to support interregional relations. The PCA gives an opportunity for the EU to strengthen its partnership with Indonesia on non-economic issues. Additionally, the partnership will support EU involvement in Southeast Asia and will back up its interregional relations. Thirdly, the PCA can contribute to the improvement of Indonesia’s internal capacity as a regional and global actor. Therefore, the commitment, capabilities and good coordination between state and non-state actors from Indonesian side, are significant in ensuring all programmes under PCA work well. Fourthly, the partnership under PCA gives an opportunity to strengthen Indonesia’s position to be considered as one of the EU’s significant partners in Southeast Asia. This partnership means that Indonesia is significantly recognised in the region for its dynamic achievements. Bilateral relations with the EU will boost the position of Indonesia as a leader in Southeast Asia.

Topic Category 人文學 > 人類學及族群研究
國際事務學院 > 歐洲研究所博士班
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  147. EU – Indonesia Development Cooperation 2010: The European Union and Indonesia A Partnership for Change, accessed at http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/indonesia/documents/eu_indonesia/blue_book/bb2010_intro_en.pdf
  148. Meijer, Roel (eds.), Counter-Terrorism Strategies in Indonesia, Algeria, and Saudi Arabia, Netherland Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’, at www.nctv.nl/.../wodc-report-counter-terrorism-strategies-in-indonesia-algeria-and-saudi arabia...
  149. Thomsen, Stephen, “EU-ASEAN: The Beginning of a Beautiful Friendship?” Briefing paper, International Economics Programme, October 2007, accessed at: http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/papers/view/-id/545/,April 2011
  150. Landingin, Rolf, EU-ASEAN trade pact stalls over inclusion of Burma,’ Financial Times, August 7, 2007, accessed at http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/6a463794-415a-11dc-8f37 0000779fd2ac.html#axzz1Mb47QHVg
  151. Wihardja, Maria Monica, “The EU’s conservative and cautious approach, The Jakarta Post, 16 March 2011, accessed at http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/03/16/the-eu%E2%80%99s-conservative-and-cautious-approach.html
  152. Speeches/Interview
  153. Peter Mandelson (2009), “Tilting the global balance: Asia’s new trade growth”, Keynote Address, WEF Asia Forum, Singapore, 29 April,
  154. http://www.europaworld.org/week222/mandelsonspeech6505.htm,
  155. Interview with Mr. Ngurah Swajaya, Ambassador/Permanent Representative of the Republic of Indonesia to ASEAN, Indonesia
  156. Interview with Mr. Charles Whiteley, First Secretary, Head of Political, Press and Information Section, Delegation of the European Union to Indonesia and Brunei Darusalam, Jakarta, Indonesia
  157. Interview with Ms. Julia Nolan, Political Consellor, British Embassy Jakarta, Indonesia, 25 July 2012
  158. Interview with Mr. Onno Koopman, Deputy Head Political Affairs, Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Jakarta, Indonesia, 26 July 2012
  159. Interview with Mr. Thibaut Portevin, Programme Manager (Environment – Natural Resources) Development Cooperation Section, Delegation of the European Union to Indonesia, Brunei Darusalam and ASEAN, Jakarta
  160. Interview with Prof Dr. Djisman S. Simanjuntak, Co-Chairs of the Vision Group, Executive Director of Prasetya Mulya Business School
  161. Interview with Mr. Zul Azmi, Deputy Country Director Deustche Gesselschaft fur Internationale Zussammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Indonesia and Timor Leste
  162. Websites:
  163. http://www.asef.org.
  164. http://www.asienhaus.de/public/archiv/brdasia.htm
  165. http://www.embassyofindonesia.eu/ambassador/?q=content/international-conference-interfaith-dialogues
  166. http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/indonesia/press_corner/all_news/news/2011/20111024_02_en.htm
  167. http://www.eurunion.org/partner/agenda.htm
  168. http://www.mfp.or.id/eng/?page_id=762
  169. http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/