A Study of Guaranty Payment System Concerning Non-life Insurance Bankruptcy Among the Major Countries
財產保險業 ； 失卻清償能力 ； 破產 ； 保證支付制度 ； 安定基金 ； 保險監理 ； Property insurance business ； Insolvency ； Bankruptcy ； Guarantee payment system ； Guaranty Fund ； Regulation
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保險業屬國家重要金融行業，其經營成效之良窳除關係公共之利益，更具有明顯之外部效應。若經營不善致失卻清償能力，將造成巨大外部成本之發生，並將破壞社會大眾對金融系統之信心。因此施行市場經濟體制之各國監理機關，為建構適於競爭且具效率之市場環境，並為求金融體系之安全與穩定，除對於保險業進退場機制、清償能力嚴加監理外，並鼓勵良性競爭以及對消費者提供保證支付之保障，以減輕因保險業退場所導致整體社會之負面影響。 破產保證支付制度即是政府監理機關為達成保護保險契約者、維持充分競爭、保證金融體系穩定之金融監理目標，從而維持整體經濟之穩定，所建構之保險市場安定機制之一。完備之保險制度，對於經濟發展與公共政策之推動有極大助益。台灣加入WTO 後，大幅鬆綁保險業經營之各項法令限制，無形中擴大保險業經營之潛在風險。而保險市場因逐步開放及自由化所引發激烈競爭，勢必讓保險經營環境更加險峻。 由於自由的市場所產生變異較大，而保險市場自由化總會伴隨著更多效率不佳保險公司破產的機會。因此，本文將以保險監理理論、英美日等國保險監理制度、各國對財產保險業破產及保證支付之監理制度、我國現行財團法人安定基金等主題分別進行論述，並以產險公司破產時如何保障保險契約者相關權益之作法，進行各國制度面之檢視及實務面之檢討，以期能為我國今後保險監理機關於規劃產險公司因破產退出市場時，如何保障保險契約者相關權益之作法提供建議。
The insurance industry is one of the important financial segments for every country. Apart from the impact on the public benefits, its operational results have also a obviously external effects. The insolvency resulting from the poor operations will not only cause a huge amount of the external cost, but also shake the confidence of the public. Consequently, the superintendent organization in charge of implementing the economical system of the market will strictly monitor the entrance/exit mechanism and solvent capability of the insurers, encourage the fair competition and provide the consumers with a best protection by way of the payment guarantee, in order to set up a moderately competitive and efficient market environment as well as a safe and stable financial system. The payment guarantee against bankruptcy is one of the measures taken by the superintendent organization for the purpose of protecting the policyholders, maintaining the fair competition, stabilizing the financial system and overall economic environment. In other words, a good insurance system is of great benefit to the economic development and the promotion of public strategy. After Taiwan joined WTO, the insurers will intangibly face a great potential of business operation in view of an intense deregulation of some insurance laws. Moreover, following the gradual liberalization in the insurance market, the insurers inevitably encounter a more difficult and fierce market competition. On the other hand, as the change in the free market is relatively severe, the liberalization of the insurance markets will also enhance the bankrupt opportunity for some insurers with poor performance. Therefore, the paper discusses various topics in terms of the theoretical study of insurance regulation, the insurance regulations of U.S.A., U.K. and Japan, the bankruptcy and the Payment Guarantee System applicable of non-insurers in other countries as well as the Non-Life Insurance Stabilization Fund in our country. The paper also further studies and reviews the current systems of various countries by means of the actions to be taken to protect the policyholders’ rights and interests while non-life insurers suffer the bankruptcy. Finally, the paper proposes some considerable suggestions to the insurance superintendent organization how to cope with this problem.
社會科學 > 管理學