Title

番茄中酚類化合物對抗氧化、調降血脂及癌症化學預防之貢獻

Translated Titles

Contribution of tomato phenolics to antioxidation, down-regulation of blood lipids, and cancer chemoprevention

DOI

10.6834/CSMU.2009.00085

Authors

沈祐成

Key Words

番茄 ; 酚類化合物 ; 茄紅素 ; 抗氧化 ; 第二型環氧合酶血脂 ; Tomato ; Phenolics ; Lycopene ; Antioxidation ; Cyclooxygenase-2 ; Blood lipids

PublicationName

中山醫學大學營養學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2009年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

王進崑;陳肅霖

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

番茄是遍及全球的天然蔬果。許多研究結果顯示,攝食多量番茄及番茄相關的食物能有效地降低許多疾病(如癌症、心血管疾病) 的罹患率,這些功效主要是番茄中之天然物質(如ascorbic acid、tocopherols、carotenoids 及phytochemicals)所貢獻。近年來,番茄中的主要紅色素也是具有抗氧化性之茄紅素 (lycopene) 被認為是番茄促進健康的最主要因子,有關茄紅素之代謝以及加工處理所引起之異構化與氧化反應對人體健康之促進被報導極多,但茄紅素是否是番茄功能特性之主要貢獻成份,是否有其他成分可與茄紅素呈現相加甚至是相乘之作用,則至今仍不清楚。聖女番茄 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Santa) 與大番茄(L. esculentum Mill cv. Farmers301) 為我國常作為生吃或烹調用之品種,但對於如何食用才可獲得最佳之保健功效,以及這兩種番茄經烹調後酚類化合物之變化的相關研究卻付之蹶如。本研究之目的在於瞭解番茄中酚類化合物的生物活性與特性,並觀察番茄對於血脂調控的影響。實驗使用聖女番茄和大番茄以及兩者分別經過殺菁、殺菁後置於100℃水浴中分別加熱10分鐘與30分鐘等處理樣品,比較加工前後酚類化合物之組成特性變化。並針對這兩種番茄在不同加工處理後酚類化合物粗萃物與類胡蘿蔔素粗萃物在番茄功能特性中所扮演之角色,以及兩種番茄經人體消化吸收後之情形進行探討,在人體臨床試驗上給予24位受試者等量茄紅素(40mg/day)之新鮮番茄、番茄汁、或茄紅素汁後,觀察其血漿抗氧化力、血脂、以及酚類化合物之變化。另外,也探討新鮮和加熱番茄之酚類化合物在口腔癌細胞(KB cell)化學預防特性上所扮演之角色。 結果發現,番茄中酚類化合物含量會隨加熱條件的嚴苛而增加,其中以殺菁並加熱100°C/30分鐘處理有極顯著的增加,大、小番茄中的酚類化合物分別增加了23%,34%。番茄中酚類化合物具有良好的抗氧化活性(57~71%),並與番茄中類胡蘿蔔素的抗氧化作用具有相乘效果 (81~100%)。人體臨床試驗則發現,攝取新鮮番茄和番茄汁後,受試者血漿的總抗氧化能力與酚類化合物含量都有上升,但單獨攝取茄紅素汁組則無顯著的變化。另外,在攝取新鮮番茄和番茄汁後,血漿中三酸甘油酯和低密度脂蛋白之膽固醇含量皆有顯著下降,而高密度脂蛋白之膽固醇則有顯著的上升。在細胞試驗中則可知,番茄中的酚類化合物經加熱處理後,較新鮮番茄中之酚類化合物更能抑制TPA所誘發之第二型環氧合酶的表現,新鮮番茄酚類化合物之效果主要來自不含縮合單寧之區分物,而加熱處理過的番茄,縮合單寧區分物和不含縮合單寧區分物均具有效果。本研究顯示,番茄中酚類化合物在促進人體健康與癌症化學預防上的確扮演著重要角色,而加熱處理是較有利健康之番茄食用方式。

English Abstract

Tomato consumption is worldwide. Many studies showed that increased consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based foods could effectively reduce the risk of some diseases (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular disease). These beneficial effects were generally contributed from natural substances (e.g., ascorbic acid, tocopherols and carotenoids and phytochemicals). Recently, lycopene is considered the main contributor of tomato to health promotion in human. All metabolism, isomerization, and oxidation of lycopene are well obtained. However, it is worthy investigating whether lycopene is the main contributory substance of tomato for health promotion, or any other substances show additive or synergistic effect with lycopene. Small tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Santa) and big tomatoes (L. esculentum Mill cv. Farmers301) are often used as fresh or cooked in Taiwan. However, the best eating way to achieve the health benefits is still unknown. Furthermore, the associated study about the characteristics and the role of phenolics in tomatoes are still deficient. The objective of this study is to understand the profile and characteristics of phenolics of fresh and cooked tomatoes. In addition, the biological activities of the tomato phenolic extracts (vs. tomato carotenoid extracts) and its role in health, down-regulation of blood lipid, and cancer chemoprevention are also determined. Moreover, a human clinical trial was conducted to examine antioxidation status of plasma, blood lipid profile, and phenolic responses after ingestion of fresh tomato, tomato juice, and lycopene drink. The contents of tomato phenolics were increased by 34% for small tomato and 23% for big tomato after treatment of blanching and heating at 100°C for 30 min. Tomato phenolics showed fair antioxidant activity (57~71%) and also synergistically promoted the antioxidation (81~100%) of tomato carotenoids. Cell study showed that phenolic extract of heated tomato had better suppression on COX-2 expression than that of fresh tomato. In human clinical study, total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents in plasma were increased after administration of fresh tomato and tomato juice, but no significant difference was found for lycopene drink consumption. TG levels and LDL-C were decreased after administration of fresh tomato and tomato juice, and HDL-C was increased. Cell studies showed that phenolic extracts of heated tomatoes resulted in increased suppression of COX-2 expression than that of fresh tomato. Non-condensed tannin containing fraction of fresh tomato greatly suppressed COX-2 expression (p<0.05), but both non-condensed tannin containing and condensed tannin containing fractions of heated tomatoes showed suppression on COX-2 expression. These results suggest that tomato phenolics greatly played an important role in the health promotion and cancer chemoprevention. Cooked tomato could be helpful to health.

Topic Category 醫藥衛生 > 預防保健與衛生學
健康管理學院 > 營養學研究所
Reference
  1. Abushita AA, Daood HG & Biacs PA. 2000. Change in carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins in tomato as a function of varietal and technological factors. J Agric Food Chem 48(6):2075-2081.
    連結:
  2. Abushita AA, Hebshi EA, Daood HG & Biacs PA. 1997. Determination of antioxidant vitamins in tomatoes. Food Chem 60(2):207-212.
    連結:
  3. Agarwal S & Rao AV. 1998. Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. Lipids 33(10):981-984.
    連結:
  4. Ahuja KD, Pittaway JK & Ball MJ. 2006. Effects of olive oil and tomato lycopene combination on serum lycopene, lipid profile, and lipid oxidation. Nutrition 22(3):259-265.
    連結:
  5. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK & Hagen TM. 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90(17):7915-7922.
    連結:
  6. Amin A & Buratovich M. 2007. The Anti-cancer charm of flavonoids: A cup-of-tea will do! Recent Patents Anticancer Drug Discov 2(2):109-117.
    連結:
  7. Austin MA, Hokanson JE & Edwards KL. 1998. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol 81(4A):7B-12B.
    連結:
  8. Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK & Prakash D. 2005. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci Nutr 56(4):287-291.
    連結:
  9. Blum A, Monir M, Wirsansky I & Ben-Arzi S. 2005. The beneficial effects of tomatoes. Eur J Intern Med 16(6):402-404.
    連結:
  10. Brasseur T. 1989. Anti-inflammatory properties of flavonoids. J Pharm Belg 44(3):235-241.
    連結:
  11. Bravo L. 1998. Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56(11):317-333.
    連結:
  12. Buskens CJ, Van Rees BP, Sivula A, Reitsma JB, Haglund C, Bosma PJ, Offerhaus GJ, Van Lanschot JJ & Ristimaki A. 2002. Prognostic significance of elevated cyclooxygenase 2 expression in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Gastroenterology 122(7):1800-1807.
    連結:
  13. Castelli WP, Anderson K, Wilson PW & Levy D. 1992. Lipids and risk of coronary heart disease. The Framingham Study. Ann Epidemiol 2(1-2):23-28.
    連結:
  14. Chavez JH, Leal PC, Yunes RA, Nunes RJ, Barardi CR, Pinto AR, Simoes CM & Zanetti CR. 2006. Evaluation of antiviral activity of phenolic compounds and derivatives against rabies virus. Vet Microbiol 116(1-3):53-59.
    連結:
  15. Cho H, Yun CW, Park WK, Kong JY, Kim KS, Park Y, Lee S & Kim BK. 2004. Modulation of the activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes, COX-2 and iNOS, by chrysin derivatives. Pharmacol Res 49(1):37-43.
    連結:
  16. Cianchi F, Cortesini C, Bechi P, Fantappie O, Messerini L, Vannacci A, Sardi I, Baroni G, Boddi V, Mazzanti R & Masini E. 2001. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 gene expression correlates with tumor angiogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 121(6):1339-1347.
    連結:
  17. Crozier A, Lean MEJ, McDonald MS & Black C. 1997. Quantitative Analysis of the Flavonoid Content of Commercial Tomatoes, Onions, Lettuce, and Celery. J Agric Food Chem 45(3):590-595.
    連結:
  18. Das S, Otani H, Maulik N & Das DK. 2005. Lycopene, tomatoes, and coronary heart disease. Free Radic Res 39(4):449-455.
    連結:
  19. Davignon J & Cohn JS. 1996. Triglycerides: a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis 124 Suppl:S57-64.
    連結:
  20. Denizot F & Lang R. 1986. Rapid colorimetric assay for cell growth and survival. Modifications to the tetrazolium dye procedure giving improved sensitivity and reliability. J Immunol Methods 89(2):271-277.
    連結:
  21. Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK & Liu RH. 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 50(10):3010-3014.
    連結:
  22. Di Mascio P, Kaiser S & Sies H. 1989. Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 274(2):532-538.
    連結:
  23. Dinis TC, Maderia VM & Almeida LM. 1994. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch Biochem Biophys 315(1):161-169.
    連結:
  24. Doll R & Peto R. 1981. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J Natl Cancer Inst 66(6):1191-1308.
    連結:
  25. Fuhrman B, Elis A & Aviram M. 1997. Hypocholesterolemic effect of lycopene and beta-carotene is related to suppression of cholesterol synthesis and augmentation of LDL receptor activity in macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 233(3):658-662.
    連結:
  26. Fujita H, Koshida K, Keller ET, Takahashi Y, Yoshimito T, Namiki M & Mizokami A. 2002. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes prostate cancer progression. Prostate 53(3):232-240.
    連結:
  27. Funk CD, Funk LB, Kennedy ME, Pong AS & Fitzgerald GA. 1991. Human platelet/erythroleukemia cell prostaglandin G/H synthase: cDNA cloning, expression, and gene chromosomal assignment. Faseb J 5(9):2304-2312.
    連結:
  28. Gahler S, Otto K & Bohm V. 2003. Alterations of vitamin C, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity as affected by processing tomatoes to different products. J Agric Food Chem 51(27):7962-7968.
    連結:
  29. Gartner C, Stahl W & Sies H. 1997. Lycopene is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes. Am J Clin Nutr 66(1):116-122.
    連結:
  30. George B, Kaur C, Khurdiya DS & Kapoor HC. 2004. Antioxidants in tomato (Lycopersium esculentum) as a function of genotype. Food Chem 84(1):45-51.
    連結:
  31. Gerster H. 1997. The potential role of lycopene for human health. J Am Coll Nutr 16(2):109-126.
    連結:
  32. Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA & Willett WC. 1995. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 87(23):1767-1776.
    連結:
  33. Gordon DJ & Rifkind BM. 1989. High-density lipoprotein--the clinical implications of recent studies. N Engl J Med 321(19):1311-1316.
    連結:
  34. Grimm S & Baeuerle PA. 1993. The inducible transcription factor NF-kappa B: structure-function relationship of its protein subunits. Biochem J 290(2):297-308.
    連結:
  35. Hakimoglu F, Kizil G, Kanay Z, Kizil M & Isi H. 2007. The effect of ethanol extract of Hypericum lysimachioides on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and its in vitro antioxidant activity. Atherosclerosis 192(1):113-122.
    連結:
  36. Harborne JB. 1988. The Flavonoids. In Advances in Research since 1980. Chapman and Hall: New York.
    連結:
  37. Harborne JB. 1989. Plant phenolics. In Method in Plant Biochemistry. London, UK.: Academic press.
    連結:
  38. Hart DJ & Scott K. 1995. Development and evaluation of an HPLC method for the analysis of carotenoids in foods, and the measurement of the carotenoid content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in the UK. Food Chem 54(1):101-111.
    連結:
  39. Haslam E. 1998. Practical polyphenolics - from structure to molecular recognition and physiological action. Cambridge University press. Cambridge, UK.
    連結:
  40. Heber D & Lu QY. 2002. Overview of mechanisms of action of lycopene. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 227(10):920-923.
    連結:
  41. Hertog MGL, Feskens EJM, Hollman PCH, Katan MB & Kromhout D. 1993. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342(8878):1007-1011.
    連結:
  42. Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH & Katan MB. 1992a. Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in the Netherlands. J Agric Food Chem 40(12):2379-2383.
    連結:
  43. Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH & Venema DP. 1992b. Optimization of a quantitative HPLC determination of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in vegetables and fruits. J Agric Food Chem 40(9):1591-1598.
    連結:
  44. Hiermann A, Schramm HW & Laufer S. 1998. Anti-inflammatory activity of myricetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide and related compounds. Inflamm Res 47(11):421-427.
    連結:
  45. Ho CT. 1992. Phenolic compounds in food. In Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health II. Washington, DC.
    連結:
  46. Hollman PC & Katan MB. 1999. Dietary flavonoids: intake, health effects and bioavailability. Food Chem Toxicol 37(9-10):937-942.
    連結:
  47. Hong WK & Sporn MB. 1997. Recent advances in chemoprevention of cancer. Science 278(5340):1073-1077.
    連結:
  48. Huang HY, Chang CK, Tso TK, Huang JJ, Chang WW & Tsai YC. 2004. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan. Int J Food Sci Nutr 55(5):423-429.
    連結:
  49. Jin XH, Ohgami K, Shiratori K, Suzuki Y, Koyama Y, Yoshida K, Ilieva I, Tanaka T, Onoe K & Ohno S. 2006. Effects of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Exp Eye Res 82(5):860-867.
    連結:
  50. Joslyn MA & Goldstein JL. 1964. Astringency of fruits and fruit products in relation to phenolic content. Adv Food Res 13:179-217.
    連結:
  51. Julkunen-Tiitto R. 1985. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J Agric Food Chem 33(2):213-217.
    連結:
  52. Justesen U, Knuthsen P & Leth T. 1998. Quantitative analysis of flavonols, flavones, and flavanones in fruits, vegetables and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array and mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 799(1-2):101-110.
    連結:
  53. Kanno S, Shouji A, Tomizawa A, Hiura T, Osanai Y, Ujibe M, Obara Y, Nakahata N & Ishikawa M. 2006. Inhibitory effect of naringin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock in mice and nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Life Sci 78(7):673-681.
    連結:
  54. Karin M & Ben-Neriah Y. 2000. Phosphorylation meets ubiquitination: the control of NF-[kappa]B activity. Annu Rev Immunol 18:621-663.
    連結:
  55. Kelloff GJ, Sigman CC & Greenwald P. 1999. Cancer chemoprevention: progress and promise. Eur J Cancer 35(14):2031-2038.
    連結:
  56. Khachik F, Beecher GR & Smith JC, Jr. 1995. Lutein, lycopene, and their oxidative metabolites in chemoprevention of cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl 22:236-246.
    連結:
  57. Klopotek Y, Otto K & Bohm V. 2005. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem 53(14):5640-5646.
    連結:
  58. Kuhnau J. 1976. The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Rev Nutr Diet 24:117-191.
    連結:
  59. Kupeli E, Sahin FP, Yesilada E, Calis I & Ezer N. 2007. In vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity evaluation of phenolic compounds from Sideritis stricta. Z Naturforsch [C] 62(7-8):519-525.
    連結:
  60. Lam RY, Woo AY, Leung PS & Cheng CH. 2007. Antioxidant actions of phenolic compounds found in dietary plants on low-density lipoprotein and erythrocytes in vitro. J Am Coll Nutr 26(3):233-242.
    連結:
  61. Lavelli V, Hippeli S, Peri C & Elstner EF. 1999. Evaluation of radical scavenging activity of fresh and air-dried tomatoes by three model reactions. J Agric Food Chem 47(9):3826-3831.
    連結:
  62. Lee DG, Park Y, Kim MR, Jung HJ, Seu YB, Hahm KS & Woo ER. 2004. Anti-fungal effects of phenolic amides isolated from the root bark of Lycium chinense. Biotechnol Lett 26(14):1125-1130.
    連結:
  63. Levy J, Bosin E, Feldman B, Giat Y, Miinster A, Danilenko M & Sharoni Y. 1995. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene. Nutr Cancer 24(3):257-266.
    連結:
  64. Lingnert H, Vallentin K & Eriksson CE. 1979. Measurement of antioxidative effect in model system. J Food Processing Preservation 3(2):87-103.
    連結:
  65. Marnett LJ & DuBois RN. 2002. COX-2: a target for colon cancer prevention. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 42:55-80.
    連結:
  66. Martínez-Valverde I, Periago MJ, Provan G & Chesson A. 2002. Phenolic compounds, lycopene and antioxidant activity in commercial varieties of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). J Sci Food Agric 82(3):323-330.
    連結:
  67. Merati K, said Siadaty M, Andea A, Sarkar F, Ben-Josef E, Mohammad R, Philip P, Shields AF, Vaitkevicius V, Grignon DJ & Adsay NV. 2001. Expression of inflammatory modulator COX-2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and its relationship to pathologic and clinical parameters. Am J Clin Oncol 24(5):447-452.
    連結:
  68. Micozzi MS, Beecher GR, Taylor PR & Khachik F. 1990. Carotenoid analyses of selected raw and cooked foods associated with a lower risk for cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 82(4):282-285.
    連結:
  69. Mifflin RC & Powell DW. 2001. Cyclooxygenases. The Regulatory Peptide Letter 8(4):49-55.
    連結:
  70. Morita I. 2002. Distinct functions of COX-1 and COX-2. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 68-69:165-175.
    連結:
  71. Naczk M, Nichols T, Pink D & Sosulski F. 1994. Condensed tannins in canola hulls. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2196-2200.
    連結:
  72. Naczk M & Shahidi F. 2006. Phenolics in cereals, fruits and vegetables: occurrence, extraction and analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 41(5):1523-1542.
    連結:
  73. Narisawa T, Fukaura Y, Hasebe M, Nomura S, Oshima S, Sakamoto H, Inakuma T, Ishiguro Y, Takayasu J & Nishino H. 1998. Prevention of N-methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats by lycopene and tomato juice rich in lycopene. Jpn J Cancer Res 89(10):1003-1008.
    連結:
  74. Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DE, Boelens PG, van Norren K & van Leeuwen PA. 2001. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 74(4):418-425.
    連結:
  75. Nkondjock A, Ghadirian P, Johnson KC & Krewski D. 2005. Dietary intake of lycopene is associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk. J Nutr 135(3):592-597.
    連結:
  76. Paganga G, Miller N & Rice-Evans CA. 1999. The polyphenolic content of fruit and vegetables and their antioxidant activities. What does a serving constitute? Free Radic Res 30(2):153-162.
    連結:
  77. Palozza P, Serini S, Maggiano N, Tringali G, Navarra P, Ranelletti FO & Calviello G. 2005. Beta-carotene downregulates the steady-state and heregulin-alpha-induced COX-2 pathways in colon cancer cells. J Nutr 135(1):129-136.
    連結:
  78. Pandjaitan N, Howard LR, Morelock T & Gil MI. 2005. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of spinach as affected by genetics and maturation. J Agric Food Chem 53(22):8618-8623.
    連結:
  79. Password F. 2007. Lycopene inhibits LPS-induced proinflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide synthase in mouse macrophage cells. J Food Sci 72(1):S069-S074.
    連結:
  80. Pool-Zobel BL, Bub A, Muller H, Wollowski I & Rechkemmer G. 1997. Consumption of vegetables reduces genetic damage in humans: first results of a human intervention trial with carotenoid-rich foods. Carcinogenesis 18(9):1847-1850.
    連結:
  81. Posadas I, Terencio MC, Guillen I, Ferrandiz ML, Coloma J, Paya M & Alcaraz MJ. 2000. Co-regulation between cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the time-course of murine inflammation. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 361(1):98-106.
    連結:
  82. Ramji N, Iyer R & Chandrasekaran S. 2002. Phenolic antibacterials from Piper betle in the prevention of halitosis. J Ethnopharmacol 83(1-2):149-152.
    連結:
  83. Raso GM, Meli R, Di Carlo G, Pacilio M & Di Carlo R. 2001. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by flavonoids in macrophage J774A.1. Life Sci 68(8):921-931.
    連結:
  84. Rice-Evans C, Miller N & Paganga G. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 2(4):152-159.
    連結:
  85. Rossi A, Ligresti A, Longo R, Russo A, Borrelli F & Sautebin L. 2002. The inhibitory effect of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester on cyclooxygenase activity in J774 macrophages. Phytomedicine 9(6):530-535.
    連結:
  86. Sakanaka S, Aizawa M, Kim M & Yamamoto T. 1996. Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols on growth and cellular adherence of an oral bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60(5):745-749.
    連結:
  87. Schieber A, Keller P & Carle R. 2001. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids of apple and pear by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 910(2):265-273.
    連結:
  88. Serafini M, Maiani G & Ferro-Luzzi A. 1998. Alcohol-free red wine enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in humans. J Nutr 128(6):1003-1007.
    連結:
  89. Sesso HD, Buring JE, Zhang SM, Norkus EP & Gaziano JM. 2005. Dietary and plasma lycopene and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(5):1074-1081.
    連結:
  90. Shen YC, Chen SL & Wang CK. 2007. Contribution of tomato phenolics to antioxidation and down-regulation of blood lipids. J Agric Food Chem 55(16):6475-6481.
    連結:
  91. Shi J & Le Maguer M. 2000. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 40(1):1-42.
    連結:
  92. Shureiqi I, Reddy P & Brenner DE. 2000. Chemoprevention: general perspective. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 33(3):157-167.
    連結:
  93. Sies H, Stahl W & Sundquist AR. 1992. Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 669:7-20.
    連結:
  94. Simon PW, Peterson CE & Lindsay RC. 1980. Correlations between sensory and objective parameters of carrot flavor. J Agric Food Chem 28(3):559-562.
    連結:
  95. Sogut S, Zoroglu SS, Ozyurt H, Yilmaz HR, Ozugurlu F, Sivasli E, Yetkin O, Yanik M, Tutkun H, Savas HA, Tarakcioglu M & Akyol O. 2003. Changes in nitric oxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities may have a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in autism. Clin Chim Acta 331(1-2):111-117.
    連結:
  96. Sporn MB & Suh N. 2000. Chemoprevention of cancer. Carcinogenesis 21(3):525-530.
    連結:
  97. Sriplang K, Adisakwattana S, Rungsipipat A & Yibchok-Anun S. 2007. Effects of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract on plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 109(3):510-514.
    連結:
  98. Stahl W & Sies H. 1992. Uptake of lycopene and its geometrical isomers is greater from heat-processed than from unprocessed tomato juice in humans. J Nutr 122(11):2161-2166.
    連結:
  99. Stewart AJ, Bozonnet S, Mullen W, Jenkins GI, Lean ME & Crozier A. 2000. Occurrence of flavonols in tomatoes and tomato-based products. J Agric Food Chem 48(7):2663-2669.
    連結:
  100. Strumeyer DH & Malin MJ. 1975. Condensed tannins in grain sorghum. Isolation, fractionation, and characterization. J Agric Food Chem 23(5):909-914.
    連結:
  101. Sugihara N, Arakawa T, Ohnishi M & Furuno K. 1999. Anti- and pro-oxidative effects of flavonoids on metal-induced lipid hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes loaded with alpha-linolenic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 27(11-12):1313-1323.
    連結:
  102. Surh YJ. 2003. Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. Nat Rev Cancer 3(10):768-780.
    連結:
  103. Tetsuka T, Baier LD & Morrison AR. 1996. Antioxidants inhibit interleukin-1-induced cyclooxygenase and nitric-oxide synthase expression in rat mesangial cells. Evidence for post-transcriptional regulation. J Biol Chem 271(20):11689-11693.
    連結:
  104. Torres CA, Davies NM, Yanez JA & Andrews PK. 2005. Disposition of selected flavonoids in fruit tissues of various tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Genotypes. J Agric Food Chem 53(24):9536-9543.
    連結:
  105. Tsujii M, Kawano S, Tsuji S, Sawaoka H, Hori M & DuBois RN. 1998. Cyclooxygenase regulates angiogenesis induced by colon cancer cells. Cell 93(5):705-716.
    連結:
  106. Vane JR, Bakhle YS & Botting RM. 1998. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 38:97-120.
    連結:
  107. Vinson JA, Hao Y, Su X & Zubik L. 1998. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 46(9):3630-3634.
    連結:
  108. Wadleigh DJ, Reddy ST, Kopp E, Ghosh S & Herschman HR. 2000. Transcriptional activation of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene in endotoxin-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Biol Chem 275(9):6259-6266.
    連結:
  109. Wang CK & Lee WH. 1996. Separation, characteristics, and biological activities of phenolics in areca fruit. J Agric Food Chem 44(8):2014-2019.
    連結:
  110. Weisburger JH. 2002. Lycopene and tomato products in health promotion. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 227(10):924-927.
    連結:
  111. Willcox JK, Catignani GL & Lazarus S. 2003. Tomatoes and cardiovascular health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43(1):1-18.
    連結:
  112. Wolk A. 2005. Diet, lifestyle and risk of prostate cancer. Acta Oncol 44(3):277-281.
    連結:
  113. Yen GC & Chen HY. 1995. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J Agric Food Chem 43(1):27-32.
    連結:
  114. Yen GC, Chen HY & Peng HH. 1997. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of various tea extracts. J Agric Food Chem 45(1):30-34.
    連結:
  115. Yu J, Wang L, Walzem RL, Miller EG, Pike LM & Patil BS. 2005. Antioxidant activity of citrus limonoids, flavonoids, and coumarins. J Agric Food Chem 53(6):2009-2014.
    連結:
  116. Zhang S, Tang G, Russell RM, Mayzel KA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC & Hunter DJ. 1997. Measurement of retinoids and carotenoids in breast adipose tissue and a comparison of concentrations in breast cancer cases and control subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 66(3):626-632.
    連結:
  117. Zhou L, Li D, Wang J, Liu Y & Wu J. 2007. Antibacterial phenolic compounds from the spines of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Nat Prod Res 21(4):283-291.
    連結:
  118. Agarwal S & Rao AV. 2000. Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic diseases. CMAJ 163(6):739-744.
  119. Agriculture and Food Agency. 2005. Bitter gourds, eggplants, tomatoes and peppers. Ag. Statistics Yearbook. Executive Yuan, Taiwan. p. 65.
  120. Blum A, Merei M, Karem A, Blum N, Ben-Arzi S, Wirsansky I & Khazim K. 2006. Effects of tomatoes on the lipid profile. Clin Invest Med 29(5):298-300.
  121. Clinton SK, Emenhiser C, Schwartz SJ, Bostwick DG, Williams AW, Moore BJ & Erdman JW, Jr. 1996. Cis-trans lycopene isomers, carotenoids, and retinol in the human prostate. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5(10):823-833.
  122. Department of Health. 1998. Food nutrients database in Taiwan. Executive Yuan, Taiwan. p. 106.
  123. Hussein L & el-Tohamy M. 1990. Vitamin A potency of carrot and spinach carotenes in human metabolic studies. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 60(3):229-235.
  124. Kujubu DA, Fletcher BS, Varnum BC, Lim RW & Herschman HR. 1991. TIS10, a phorbol ester tumor promoter-inducible mRNA from Swiss 3T3 cells, encodes a novel prostaglandin synthase/cyclooxygenase homologue. J Biol Chem 266(20):12866-12872.
  125. Lin CK, Chen SL & Wang CK. 2004. Study on the proliferation and cyclooxygenase II activity of carcinoma cells by tomato residue polyphenols. Nutr Sci J 29(1):31-37.
  126. Macheix JJ, Fleuriet A & Billot J. 1990. The main phenolics of fruit. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
  127. Molina MA, Sitja-Arnau M, Lemoine MG, Frazier ML & Sinicrope FA. 1999. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pancreatic carcinomas and cell lines: growth inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Cancer Res 59(17):4356-4362.
  128. Rao CV, Hirose Y, Indranie C & Reddy BS. 2001. Modulation of experimental colon tumorigenesis by types and amounts of dietary fatty acids. Cancer Res 61(5):1927-1933.
  129. Riso P & Porrini M. 1997. Determination of carotenoids in vegetable foods and plasma. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 67(1):47-54.
  130. Shen YC, Chen SL & Wang CK. 2004. The promotion of tomato phenolics on the stability and biological activities of lycopene. Polyphenols Communi. 4:431-432.
  131. Sun YH & Wang CK. 2001. Characteristics and biological activities of the phenolics obtained from some vegetables and fruits by-products. Master Thesis. Chung Shan Medical University, Tiachung, Taiwan.
  132. Wang CK & Hwang LS. 1993. Analysis of the phenolic compounds in betel quid. J Chin Agric Chem Soc 31:623-632.
  133. Wikipedia. 2008. Tomato. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 24 April 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tomato&oldid=207458202
Times Cited
  1. 羅宇展(2009)。檄樹(諾麗)果實自然發酵過程中果汁與乾燥果肉所含 酚類化合物之變化。臺灣大學園藝學研究所學位論文。2009。1-112。