Title

社會中心途徑之跨部門治理研究:以「洛杉磯河整治計畫」為例

Translated Titles

Society-Centered Approach for the Research of Cross-Sectoral Governance: A Case Study of “Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan(LARRMP)”

Authors

陳秋政

Key Words

跨部門治理 ; 社會中心途徑 ; 合作性公共管理 ; 洛杉磯河 ; cross-sectoral governance ; society-centered approach ; collaborative public management ; Los Angeles River

PublicationName

政治大學公共行政研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2007年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

江明修

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

面對所謂棘手議題(wicked issues),本文有別於傳統府際管理及其他解析理論的分析觀點,改以跨部門治理概念探討行政轄區界線模糊,多部門、多組織同時參與標的個案之狀況。同時為處理治理概念定義模糊的問題,爰採文獻分析法將治理概念內涵區分為政府中心、市場中心及社會中心三類,並發現多數跨部門治理議題的研究,偏重應用政府與市場觀點,爰本文主張以社會中心治理途徑針對「洛杉磯河整治計畫」進行分析。簡言之,本文的研究問題包括: 一、過往國、內外跨部門治理議題,採取哪些治理途徑?何謂社會中心治理途徑?以跨部門治理議題之規劃過程為例,其治理原則、治理結構與治理結果應有何具體主張? 二、「洛杉磯河整治計畫」的草案規劃過程,應用哪些制度性安排,藉以產生該計畫之集體規劃成果? 三、在前述參與機制的安排之下,研究個案的集體規劃過程是否在治理實務與理論主張之間出現落差?各部門參與狀況為何?存在哪些爭議問題? 四、「跨部門治理」個案,在集體規劃過程應採用何種治理架構,有助於落實跨部門治理原則,以及提高各部門利害關係人對治理結果的滿意程度。 透過上述研究問題與個案,本研究探討三個部門(sectors)間如何(How)「合作」(collaboration)或如何促進合作,以達成共識的問題;又或者從反面來說,是探討哪些因素影響了跨部門合作,三個部門之間存在哪些衝突。從個案研究出發,則關心個案為何(Why)合作成效不佳或無法合作的問題,同時以提出促進合作、參與的制度性安排(What)為目標。 文獻歸納指出,為促進跨部門治理的成效,應堅持公共性、課責與公共參與作為治理原則。就治理結構而言,必須觀察各部門利害關係人於個案參與機制中落實治理原則的程度,並指出應以合作性公共管理作為促進部門間合作的工具。就治理結果而言,則建議對政策利害關係人進行態度調查,詢問對政策結果的滿意與支持程度,亦即以正當性與承諾作為治理結果的指標。 本研究內文在介紹洛杉磯河整治計畫的推動過程、內容與規劃草案結果後,指出其乃是洛杉磯市府會高度共識下的政策產物,並由議會發動的跨部門治理個案。在個案之規劃過程,執行重心乃是由市政府團隊所主導,安排「社區座談會、諮詢委員會、同儕評論委員會、利害關係人委員會、任務小組會議」等五類官方主辦的參與機制,以期落實公眾參與該政策規劃過程的目的;草案規劃期間,洛杉磯河特別委員會則擔任監督的角色。 研究發現各部門參與者多數認同也支持整治計畫的願景與草案規劃內容。但整體而言,仍發現部分有待改善的重要問題,分別為受訪者對治理原則的落實存在權變的觀念,政府部門以外的參與者代表性仍嫌不足,對於社會弱勢議題缺乏討論與回應,缺乏明確的責任歸屬與課責結構安排,未臻透明的決策議價過程。再者,從治理結果的角度來分析,對草案規劃結果抱持不滿態度者多數來自整治區,對規劃結果未表支持者多為男性、30歲以上、政府部門以外之受訪者、來自整治區、參與時間點較早;特別是針對整治的經濟利益與所需經費來源的估算,表示了高度的質疑。 儘管個案規劃過程仍有前述疑義,但在參與觀察的過程,研究者發現個案所處系絡具有較為成熟的社會條件,對於治理原則的認同程度彰顯了公民社會的成熟,也奠定尋求部門間合作的可能性。就跨部門治理之規劃個案而言,本文建議以樹立治理原則為先,進而逐步將其落實於參與過程及相關機制設計之內,最後則可透過正當性與承諾對集體參與之規劃成效加以評估。在研究調查資料與參與觀察的基礎之上,本文運用John Clayton Thomas所提出之「公共涉入形式矩陣」,將洛杉磯河整治計畫草案之規劃過程定位為「修正的獨立自主管理決策」,意指徒具參與形式的決策類型。依據本研究之個案分析架構,本文為洛杉磯河整治計畫之規劃過程提出十三項建議,於下分述之: 一、就制度性安排而言 (一)規定弱勢團體最低代表制;(二)公布各委員會之委員遴選標準、程序與職權;(三)訂定跨部門治理個案之責任宣言;(四)增辦弱勢團體公共會議;(五)善用既有公、私渠道以彙整利害關係人的建議。 二、就部門參與而言 (一)建立主動的意見回饋系統;(二)提高各類資訊的曝光度;(三)擴大計劃團隊、減小公共會議規模。 三、就提高規劃草案結果的「正當性」而言 (一)進行部門間的規劃溝通會議;(二)進行二度訪視/會談計畫;(三)避免由上而下的事前提議。 四、就提高利害關係人對草案結果的「承諾」而言 (一)進行施政成效行銷;(二)縮小計畫範圍,推動先導型計畫為先。 總結研究「洛杉磯河整治計畫」所獲得之啟示,在研究層面確認政府機關在跨部門治理議題中,其扮演的角色不因營利及非營利部門的涉入而被取代,反倒是承擔關鍵整合者的角色,應以合作促進政策議題得以被妥善解決。對本土的啟示而言,社會條件的成熟程度乃是推動跨部門治理的重要因素,無論是公民資格的養成或公民社會的建立,都將有利政策參與環境的鞏固。對土本同質個案的啟示而言,以台北市政府目前積極推動的「活化淡水河系」政策為例,其政策倡議的源頭與洛杉磯河整治計畫絕然不同,規劃、整合、執行及監督的分工亦尚未明朗,民間力量的參與渠道亦尚未建立。質言之,若以洛杉磯河整治計畫草案的規劃經驗為鑑,要避免陷落於「獨立自主決策」類型,建議除了持續健全社會條件之外,在參與機制的安排上,應妥善顧及公共性、課責及公共參與等治理原則,以社會中心治理途徑平衡過渡傾向政府主導、市場取向的規劃觀點。

Topic Category 社會科學學院 > 公共行政研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
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