Translated Titles

On the Co-occurrence of Numeral Classifier and Plurality Marker in Languages of the World



Key Words

分類詞 ; 複數 ; 跨語言特徵 ; Numeral Classifiers ; Plurals ; Typological Property



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication


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Chinese Abstract

在過去的研究中,學者們指出分類詞與複數常常呈現互補分佈的關係,當其中一個的出現為必要時,另一個通常為非必要。另外更有學者聲稱分類詞與複數在句法結構上佔據同一個句法位置,因此是同一個句法成分。然而,另也有學者發現兩者其實是可並存的。在Gil (2008) 跟 Hasplemath (2008) 所共同研究到的114個語言中,有22個語言同時具有分類詞與複數。本論文的目的即在於探究這22個語言的分類詞與複數之間的關係,藉此去論斷兩者是否呈現互補,是否為同一句法成分,而兩者之共現情形,則是相當重要的判斷依據。   22個語言的資料顯示出,當語言同時出現分類詞與複數時,其使用範圍大多呈現互補分佈的關係,而分類詞與複數共現於一個名詞詞組的情形,並非少數。由於這22個例外的語言並非完全違反互補分佈之宣稱,因此分類詞與複數應為同一個句法成分,而其共現於同一名詞詞組的情形應為分岔的句法結構,此結構可能由兩種原因所造成,一為語言接觸,一為語言變遷。所以,這22個原為例外的語言,其實大多仍符合語言的普遍現象。

English Abstract

The relationship between numeral classifiers and number plurals has been examined by several linguists (Greenberg 1972, Sanches& Slobin 1973, Chierchia 1998, and T’suo1976, Borer 2005 and Her 2012a). They found that it is a universal property that classifiers and plurals are in complementary distribution. Borer (2005) and Her (2012a) further proposed that classifiers and plurals are the same category. However, classifiers and plurals can co-occur at least in 22 languages, according to a surveye by Gil (2008) and Haspelmath (2008). The aim of this study is to find out the relationship between classifiers and plurals in these 22 languages. After the analysis of data, the results show that classifiers and plurals are in complementary distribution in their usage, but not in cases of co-occurrence. The possible reasons for the co-occurrence may be language contact or language change. Thus, to account for the co-occurrence in the 22 languages, syntactic structure of classifiers and plurals may be co-head structure. Most languages tend to have either classifier system or plural system because they are the same category. But the co-occurrences are also reasonable since they are co-head.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
外國語文學院 > 語言學研究所
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