Title

論世界語言中分類詞與複數的共現

Translated Titles

On the Co-occurrence of Numeral Classifier and Plurality Marker in Languages of the World

Authors

陳韻如

Key Words

分類詞 ; 複數 ; 跨語言特徵 ; Numeral Classifiers ; Plurals ; Typological Property

PublicationName

政治大學語言學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

何萬順

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

在過去的研究中,學者們指出分類詞與複數常常呈現互補分佈的關係,當其中一個的出現為必要時,另一個通常為非必要。另外更有學者聲稱分類詞與複數在句法結構上佔據同一個句法位置,因此是同一個句法成分。然而,另也有學者發現兩者其實是可並存的。在Gil (2008) 跟 Hasplemath (2008) 所共同研究到的114個語言中,有22個語言同時具有分類詞與複數。本論文的目的即在於探究這22個語言的分類詞與複數之間的關係,藉此去論斷兩者是否呈現互補,是否為同一句法成分,而兩者之共現情形,則是相當重要的判斷依據。   22個語言的資料顯示出,當語言同時出現分類詞與複數時,其使用範圍大多呈現互補分佈的關係,而分類詞與複數共現於一個名詞詞組的情形,並非少數。由於這22個例外的語言並非完全違反互補分佈之宣稱,因此分類詞與複數應為同一個句法成分,而其共現於同一名詞詞組的情形應為分岔的句法結構,此結構可能由兩種原因所造成,一為語言接觸,一為語言變遷。所以,這22個原為例外的語言,其實大多仍符合語言的普遍現象。

English Abstract

The relationship between numeral classifiers and number plurals has been examined by several linguists (Greenberg 1972, Sanches& Slobin 1973, Chierchia 1998, and T’suo1976, Borer 2005 and Her 2012a). They found that it is a universal property that classifiers and plurals are in complementary distribution. Borer (2005) and Her (2012a) further proposed that classifiers and plurals are the same category. However, classifiers and plurals can co-occur at least in 22 languages, according to a surveye by Gil (2008) and Haspelmath (2008). The aim of this study is to find out the relationship between classifiers and plurals in these 22 languages. After the analysis of data, the results show that classifiers and plurals are in complementary distribution in their usage, but not in cases of co-occurrence. The possible reasons for the co-occurrence may be language contact or language change. Thus, to account for the co-occurrence in the 22 languages, syntactic structure of classifiers and plurals may be co-head structure. Most languages tend to have either classifier system or plural system because they are the same category. But the co-occurrences are also reasonable since they are co-head.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
外國語文學院 > 語言學研究所
Reference
  1. Aikhenvald, A.Y. (2000). Classifiers: A Typology of Noun Categorization Devices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  2. Alfons, N. A. (2010). Reduplication System of Hatam: Form and Function. Linguistika, 17(1), 1-17.
    連結:
  3. Besnier, N. (2000). Tuvaluan: Polynesian Languages of the Central Pacific. London and New York: Routledge.
    連結:
  4. Bisang, W. (1999). Classifiers in East and Southeast Asian languages. Counting and beyond. In J. Gvozdanović (Ed.), Numeral Types and Changes Worldwide. pp.113-185. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    連結:
  5. Burling, R. (2004). The Language of the Modhupur Mandi (Garo). Volume I: Grammar. New Delhi: Bibliophile South Asia& Morganville, N.J. Promilla.
    連結:
  6. Cheng,L. L.-S. & Sybesma, R. (1999). Bare and not so bare nouns and the structure of NP. Linguistic Inquiry, 30(4), 509-542.
    連結:
  7. Chierchia, G. (1998). Plurality of mass nouns and the notion of “Semantic Parameter” In: S. Rothstein (ed.). Events and Grammar. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 53–103.
    連結:
  8. Dalrymple, M. & Suriel M. (2009). Plural semantics, reduplication, and numeral modification in Indonesian. Journal of Semantics, 29, 229-260.
    連結:
  9. Day, C. (1973). Meaning in Mayan Languages (The Sementics of Social Categories in a Transformational Grammar of Jacaltec*). Munro S. Edmonson (ed.) Mounton and Co.N.V, Publishers, The Hague.
    連結:
  10. Doetjes, J. (2008). Counting and degree modification. Recherches linguistiques de Vincennes, 37, 139-161.
    連結:
  11. Downing, P. (1996). Numeral classifier systems : the case of Japanese. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    連結:
  12. Dryer, M. (1989). Plural words. Linguistics, 27, 865-895.
    連結:
  13. Gil, D. (2008). Numeral classifiers. In: Haspelmath, Martin & Dryer, Matthew S. & Gil, David & Comrie, Bernard (Eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, chapter 55. Available online at http://wals.info/feature/55. Accessed on 2012/5/21.
    連結:
  14. Gilbert, R. K. (2008). Cambodian for Beginners. Paiboon Publishing.
    連結:
  15. Greenberg, J. (1972). Numeral classifiers and substantival number: problems in the genesis of a linguistic type. Working Papers on Language Universals, 9, 1-39. Stanford, CA: Department of Linguistics, Stanford University
    連結:
  16. Greenberg, J. (1990). On language. Selected writings of Joseph H. Greenberg, ed. By Denning, K. and S. Kemmer. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    連結:
  17. Haspelmath, M. (2008). Occurrence of nominal plurality. In Haspelmath, Martin & Dryer, Matthew S. & Gil, David & Comrie, Bernard (Eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, chapter 34. Available online at http://wals.info/feature/34. Accessed on 2012/5/21.
    連結:
  18. Her, O.-S. and Lai, W.-J. (2011). Classifiers: The Many Ways to Profile ‘one’: A Case Study of Taiwan Mandarin. Unpublished manuscript. National Chengchi University.
    連結:
  19. Her, O.-S. (2012a). Distinguishing classifiers and measure words: A mathematical perspective and implications. Lingua, 122(14), 1668-1691.
    連結:
  20. Her, O.-S. (2012b). Deriving Classifiers Word Order Typology, or Greenberg’s Universal 20A*. Unpublished manuscript. National Chengchi University.
    連結:
  21. Iljic, R. (1994). Quantification in Mandarin Chinese: two markers of plurality. Linguistics, 32, 91-116.
    連結:
  22. Ishii, Y. (2000). Plurality and Definiteness in Japanese. Ganda University.
    連結:
  23. Kim, Chonghyuck. (2005). The Korean Plural Marker Tul and its Implication. University of Delaware. Dissertation.
    連結:
  24. van Klinken, C. L., Hajek J., & Nordlinger R. (2002). Tetun Dili: A Grammar of an East Timorese Language. Pacific linguistics.
    連結:
  25. Lewis, G. (2000). Turkish Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  26. Mattissen, J. (2003). Dependent-Head Synthesis in Nivkh: A Contribution to a Typology Polythesis. John Benjamins B.V.
    連結:
  27. Nakanishi, K., & Tomioka, S. (2004). Japanese Plurals are Exceptional. Journal of East Asia Linguistics, 13, 113-140.
    連結:
  28. Patrie, J. (1982). The Genetic Relationship of the Ainu Langauge. The University Press of Hawaii.
    連結:
  29. Reesink, G. P. (1999). A grammar of Hatam: Bird’s Head Peninsula, Irian Jaya. Canberra: Pacific linguistics
    連結:
  30. Sanches, M., & Slobin, L. (1973). Numeral classifiers and plural marking: An implicational universal. Working Papers in Language Universals, 11, 1-22.
    連結:
  31. Shibatani, M. (1990). The languages of Japan. Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  32. Shopen, T. (1979). Languages and Their Speakers. Winthrop Publishers. Inc
    連結:
  33. Watanabe, A. (2006). Functional Projections of Nominals in Japanese: Syntax of Classifiers. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 24, 241-306.
    連結:
  34. Zhang, H. (2007). Numeral classifiers in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 16(1), 43-59.
    連結:
  35. Aarssen, J., & Backus, A. (2001). Colloquial Turkish: the complete course for beginner. London and New York: Routledge.
  36. Bickel, B. (2003). Belhare. In G.Thurgood and R. J. LaPolla (Eds.) The Sino-Tibetan languages. 546-569. London: Routledge
  37. Borer, H. (2005). Structuring Sense, Vol. 1: In Name Only. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  38. Bowden, J. (2001) Taba: Description of a South Halmahera Language. Canberra: Pacific linguistics.
  39. Bugaeva, A. (2012). Southern Hokkaido Ainu. In N. Tranter (Ed.), The Languages of Japan and Korea. Routledge.
  40. Burling, R. (1961). A Garo Grammar. Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute Poona.
  41. Burling, R. (2003). Garo. In G.Thurgood and R. J. LaPolla (Eds.) The Sino-Tibetan languages. 387-400. London: Routledge
  42. Chao, Y.-R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  43. Corbett, G. (2000). Number. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  44. Csirmaz, A., & Dékány, É. (2010). Hungarian Classifiers. Paper presented at Word Classes: Nature, Typology, Computational Representation.
  45. Day, C. (1973). The Jacaltec Langauge. Indiana University.
  46. Dékány, É. K. (2011). A Profile of the Hungarian DP: The Interaction of lexicalization, agreement and linearization with the functional sequence. Dissertation. Univerity of Tromsø.
  47. Doetjes, J. (to appear). Count/mass distinction across languages. In Claudia Maienborn, Klaus von Heusinger and Paul Portner (Eds.) Semantics: an international handbook of natural language meaning, partIII, Berlin: De Gruyter.
  48. Ehrman, M. E., & Sos K. (1972). Contemporary Cambodian: Grammatical Sketch.Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute.
  49. Emrah, G. (2011). Plural marking in Turkish: Additive or associative? Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of Victoria, 21, 70-80.
  50. Fehri, F. (2005). Distribution of Number and Classifier in Arabic and Chinese and parametrization. Linguistic Research, 9, 9-52
  51. Göksel, A., & Kerslake, C. (2005). Turkish: A comprehensive grammar. London, New York : Routledge.
  52. Göksel, A., & Kerslake, C. (2011). Turkish: An Essential Grammar. London, New York : Routledge .
  53. Gorgoniyev, Y. A. (1966). The Khmer Language. Moscow: Nauka Pub.
  54. Greenberg, J. (1963). Universals of language. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  55. Gruzdeva, E. (1998). Nivkh. LINCOM EUROPA.
  56. Haiman, J. (1984). A Cambodian (Khmer) Grammar. John Benjamins B.V.
  57. Hale, A. & Shrestha, K. P. (2006). Newar(Nepal Bhasa). LINCOM EUROPA
  58. Press.
  59. Hale, A., & Shresthachrya, I.(1973). Is Newari a Classifier Language? Nepalese studies, 1(1), 1-21.
  60. Harrison, S. (1976). Mokilese reference grammar. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
  61. Hargreaves, D. (2003). Kathmandu Newar. In G. Thurgood and R. J. LaPolla (Ed.) The Sino-Tibetan Languages (pp.371). London: Routledge.
  62. Huang, C.-T., Li, Y.-H., & Li, Y.-F. (2009). The Syntax of Chinese. Cambridge University Press.
  63. Kenesei, I., Vago, R. M., & Fenyvesi, A. (1998). Hungarian. New York: Routledge.
  64. Kim, J. (2005). Plurality in Classifier Languages. University of California. Dissertation.
  65. Kindaichi, K. & Chiri, M(1936)。Ainu yu fagai shuoアイヌ語法槪說。東京都:岩波。
  66. van Klinken, C. L. (1999). A grammar of the Feban dialect of Tetun: An Austronesian language of West Timor. Pacific linguistics.
  67. van Klinken, C. L., Hajek J., & Nordlinger R. (2002). A short grammar of Tetun Dili. LINCOM EUROPA Press.
  68. Kornfilt, Jaklin. (1997). Turkish: Descriptive Grammar. London: Routledge.
  69. Li, Y.-H. (1999). Plurality in a classifier language. Journal of East Asian Linguistics. 8(1), 75-99.
  70. Li, C. and Thopmson, S. (1981). Mandarin Chinese (A Functional Reference Grammar). Universality of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London
  71. Lynch, J., Ross, M., & Crowley, T. (2002). The Oceanic Languages. Curzo Press.
  72. Massam, D. (2009). On the Separation and Relatedness of Classifiers, Number, and Individuation in Niuean. University of Toronto Language and linguistics, 10(4), 669-699.
  73. Nguyen, T. H. (2004). The Structure of the Vietnamese Noun Phrase. Boston: Boston University dissertation.
  74. Nomoto, H. (2010). Reference to subkinds, general number and the role of classifiers. Paper presented at the 2010 annual meeting of Linguistic Society of America (LSA).
  75. Norman, J. (1988) Chinese. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  76. Noonan, M. (2003). Chantyal. In G. Thurgood and R. J. LaPolla (Ed.) The Sino-Tibetan Languages (pp.315-335). London: Routledge.
  77. Noonan, M. (2003). Recent Language Contact in the Nepal Himalaya.
  78. Park S.-Y. (2008). Plural marking in classifier languages: a case study of the so-called plural marking –tul in Korean. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics, 28, 281-295.
  79. Quesada, J. D. (2000). A Grammar of Teribe. LINCOM EUROPA Press.
  80. Seifart, F. (2009). Towards a typology of unitization: Miraña noun classes compared to numeral classifiers and singulatives. University of Regensburg.
  81. Sneddon, J. N. (1996). Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar. New York: Routledge.
  82. Sohn, H.-M., & Bender, B.W. (1973). A Ulithian Grammar. Canberra: Austalian National University.
  83. Thang, L. T. (1999). Representation of Space in Vietnamese. Mon-khmer Studies, (29), 71-80.
  84. T’sou, B. K. (1976). The structure of nominal classifier systems. In P. N. Jenner, S. Starosta, and L. C. Thompson. (eds.). Austoasiastic Studies, 2, 1215-1247. Honolulu, Hawaiii: University of Hawaii Press.
  85. Vinet M.-T. and Liu X.-Y. (2008). Plurality in Chinese with a restricted class of noun- classifier words. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics, 28, 357-373.
  86. Wang, L. (王力)(1989). Han yu yu fa shi (漢語語法史)。商務印書館。
  87. Watters, D. E. (2002). A Grammar of Kham. Cambridge University Press
  88. Watters, D. E. (2003). Kham. In G. Thurgood and R. J. LaPolla (Ed.) The Sino-Tibetan Languages (pp. 683- 703). London: Routledge.
  89. Weidert, A. K. (1984). The Classifier Construction of Newari and its Historical Southeast Asian Background. Kailash: A Journal of Himalayan Studies, 11(3-4), 185-210.
  90. Xu, Q.-T. (徐啟庭)(1997)。 Gu jin han yu yu fa yi tong(古今漢語語法異同)。調和文化事業股份有限公司。
  91. Yang, B.- J. & He, L.-S. (扬伯峻、何乐士)(1992)。Gu han yu yu fa ji qi fa zhan. 古(漢語語法及其發展)。YUWEN Chubarohe 語文出版社。
  92. Zhang, L.-H. (張龍虎) (1987)。gu jin cheng wei man hua (古今稱謂漫話)。華夏出版社。
  93. Zhang, X.-F. (2008). Chinese –men and associative plurals. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics, 28, 407-425. University of Toronto.