Title

跨界投資與在地再投資區位選擇研究

Translated Titles

A study on location selection of trans-border investment and reinvestment in home country

Authors

王冠斐

Key Words

製造業 ; 企業集團 ; 總部 ; 再投資 ; 區位選擇 ; 二元羅吉特 ; 多項羅吉特 ; Manufacturing Firms ; Enterprise Group ; Enterprise Headquarter ; Re-investment ; Location Selection ; Binary Logit ; Multinomial Logit Model

PublicationName

政治大學地政研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

邊泰明

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究著眼於台灣經濟轉型、中國經濟的崛起與台灣企業組織的變化,從台灣企業集團的總部設立、跨界投資的區位選擇及在地再投資三個面向進行討論,期望在既有的研究基礎上,就台灣廠商在兩岸投資區位佈點的考量提出完整性的觀察,並強化既有的研究。 首先,以台灣1000大製造業為研究樣本,選擇包括純辦公室使用、研發設計、台商一千大、跨國生產網絡、外資企業、員工人數、資本總額、知識密集型、傳統型製造業等變項分別代表總部功能、跨界治理能力及企業屬性三大類變數,透過二元羅吉特模型以及集群分析方法,探討台灣企業在首都、都會區以及生產性服務業及創新氛圍同質性地區的總部設立區位選擇行為。實證的結果發現,代表企業屬性變數的資產總額、員工人數和產業別明顯影響台灣製造業廠商在首都設立總部的區位選擇,而總部功能為純辦公室使用或設有研發機構者更傾向將總部設立於首都或都會區,跨界治理能力的影響則未能獲得證實。另外,過去國內在研究企業總部地點選擇研究上較少從創新氛圍角度出發,而本研究實證的結果發現,台灣製造業廠商企業總部的區位選擇不僅受到地區生產性服務業的影響,也受到地區創新氛圍的影響。 在跨界投資區位選擇部分,本研究以台灣250大企業集團中的知識密集型製造業集團為研究對象,以台灣、環渤海地區、長江三角洲地區、珠江三角洲地區為研究場域,選擇企業特性與投資區位條件變數,並以多項羅吉特模型進行實證分析。其中,企業特性變數為產業類別、投資經驗、投資時間等三項因子,而投資區位條件則有勞工薪資、市場規模、區域創新強度及外資投資強度等因子。實證結果發現,代表經濟發展階段的投資時間變項確實會影響企業集團的區位選擇行為,產業的類別不同其區位選擇也會不同,先前的投資經驗雖然影響區位選擇。但是與過去研究不同的是,本次實證發現對台灣企業來說面對相似而且鄰近的市場,進入新市場的動機可能比過去的投資經驗來得重要的多,同時投資區位條件亦會影響區位選擇行為。另外,過去較少直接連結廠商生產面的區域創新能力亦明顯影響企業集團的區位選擇,因此本研究認為區域創新活動對於跨國企業在地化取得知識及技術亦具有相當重要的意義。 在地再投資部分以台灣製造業1000大廠商中知識密集型製造業為研究對象,並以工業地域觀點所劃分的台灣地區北、中、南三大區域為研究場域,選擇包括在台投資經驗、總部區位、第一次投資決策、路徑依循等企業廠商組織決策之屬性變數,以及包含區域中科學園區的設立、產業專業化係數、雜異化指標等區域環境變數,透過多項羅吉特模型進行實證分析。實證的結果發現,總部區位確實影響後續再投資的工廠區位選擇,第一次的投資決策經驗對於第二次投資的區位選擇行為影響比總部區位的影響明顯,代表時間演進而產生路徑相依的地區經濟型態差異變項也確實會影響區位選擇行為。而當區域內科學園區的發展相較未臻成熟時,其區域的賦能仍不足以吸引企業廠商進駐,至於台灣企業的再投資區位選擇基於對區域特性的了解較偏好區域內工業地域的地方化經濟,而不偏好區域內工業地域的都市化經濟。

English Abstract

Stressed on the Taiwanese economical transition, the up-rising of Chinese economy and the change of Taiwanese enterprise organization as well as based on the past research, this study explores the factors affecting location selection behavior of Taiwanese firms across Taiwan Strait from three aspects including the establishment of enterprise headquarter, cross-border investment and local re-investment. On the establishment of enterprise headquarter, the top 1000 manufacturing firms in Taiwan were sampled and some factors were analyzed including office type, R&D, multinational production network, foreign enterprise, number of employee, total asset, knowledge-intensive business, and traditional manufacturing firms. However, these factors could be classed into three fields: headquarter function, cross-border management ability and firm characteristics. Then, the location selection behavior of Taiwanese enterprise headquarter was examined by the techniques of binary logit model and cluster analysis technique among capital area, urban area and homogenous area with productive service industry and innovation-based cluster. The results of empirical analysis show that the factors represented firm characteristics including total asset, number of employee and enterprise type significantly affected the location selection of Taiwanese enterprise headquarter. Furthermore, it is also verified that the enterprise headquarter had been established in capital or urban area if the headquarter was provided with R&D or simply used as office, but the effect of cross-border management upon headquarter establishment is insignificant. The effect of innovation-based cluster upon location selection of enterprise headquarter is seldom studied in the past. However, according to empirical results in this study, they show that location selection of Taiwanese enterprise headquarter is affected not only by local Productive Service industry but also by regional innovation-based cluster. On the location selection of cross-border investment, this study focused on the area of Taiwan, Bohai Economic Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. The top 250 Taiwanese enterprise groups were taken into consideration, and the multinomial Logit model was adopted for empirical analysis in which firm characteristics and location conditions were chosen as research variables. Where, firm characteristics contained industrial type, investing experience and investment time, and location conditions included labor cost, market scale, regional innovation intensity and foreign investment intensity. The empirical results indicate that industrial type and investment time significantly affect the selection of investment locations. In contrast, investment experience only slightly influences the selection of investment locations. In addition, we find that entrepreneurial motivation to enter new markets may be much more influential than prior location investment experiences for Taiwanese enterprises functioning within similar markets. Regional differences shaping investment conditions in Taiwan and mainland China also affect the selection of investment locations. Our analysis shows a particularly strong linkage between regional innovation capacity and the selection of investment locations. This implies that regional innovation capacity plays a very important role in the selection of investment locations for multinational enterprises On local re-investment, the top 1000 knowledge-intensive manufacturers in Taiwan were the samples divided by region into the northern, central and southern Taiwan groups by administrative region. The factors affecting organizational decisions were the attribute variables, including Taiwan investment experience, headquarters location, first investment experience and path dependence; and the factors affecting location selection were the regional environment variables, including regional science park status, industry specialization coefficient and Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). The multinomial Logit model was used for empirical analysis, and the results show that the headquarters location affects plant location selection in re-investment, and the first investment experience has a more significant effect on the plant location selection in the second investment than the headquarters location, suggesting that the path-dependent heterogeneity in regional economic style developed over time affects location selection. Also, the immaturity of regional science parks affects plant location selection when regional empowerment cannot attract enterprises. Lastly, Taiwanese enterprises prefer regions with localized economies to regions with urbanized economies for plant location selection.

Topic Category 人文學 > 地理及區域研究
社會科學學院 > 地政研究所
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