Exploring the experiences of youth volunteers involved in service for elderly
大學生 ； 老人服務 ； 老人態度 ； 人生價值
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近年來，青年加入志願服務已成為一種趨勢，而在這逐漸步入高齡化的社會中，青年的服務提供者扮演重要的人力資本。從研究者在大學期間至浩然敬老院服務的經驗出發，探討大學生何以願意加入服務老人行列及加入服務後對他們的影響為何。據此，研究問題如下：（1）大學生加入老人服務性社團的動機為何？（2）參與老人服務性社團的大學生對老人的態度為何？（3）大學生對老年生活的認知為何？（4）服務老人的經驗對大學生對老人的態度及人生價值有何影響？ 本研究採用質性研究法，並以半結構式訪談蒐集資料。本研究共訪談9名來自淡江大學浩然守護天使社團的大學生，其中5名女性4名男性，他們提供服務的年數介於1年至3年間，而大多數大學生自大學一年級即加入服務，出席率狀況穩定者居多。有6位大學生自小由祖父母照顧或居住；至於未由祖父母照顧的3位學生，他們亦有和祖父母頻密接觸的經驗。研究結果如下： 一、大學生服務老人的動機：大學生參與服務老人的服務性社團的動機可分為兩個層次：大學生參與服務性社團的原因及大學生選擇以老人為服務對象的原因。在大學生參與服務性社團的原因方面，包含：（1）實踐利他的意義；（2）同儕的影響；及（3）機會的可近性。在大學生選擇以老人為服務對象的原因方面則為：（1）對服務對象的認知；及（2）個人的生命經驗。 二、大學生對老人的態度：大學生對老人的生理特徵方面提出了三個面向的觀察：（1）老人在外觀上，包含軀體上及感官系統皆產生變化；（2）老人身體機能退化；（3）老人的移動能力降低。大學生對老人心理狀態的看法分為四個面向：（1）健康老人的圖像：可以好好照顧自己的生活、保有樂觀的態度、願意與別人互動、擁有自我排解負面情緒的能力才是健康的老人；（2）老人學習能力：大學生認為老人有學習的能力，並提出學習的機會、長者本身擁有高度學習意願及指導者的耐心教學是影響老人學習的因素；（3）老人的人格是被動、冷漠、自我、不服老、健談、熱情及堅強的；（4）老人的情緒呈現悲觀消極、憤世嫉俗、需要被別人關懷及看得開的。 三、大學生對老年生活的認知：（1）家庭面向：老人擁有實際層面和精神層面的意義，他們是完整家庭的精神象徵、家庭凝聚力的中心、意見提供者及分擔照顧責任的輔助角色；（2）社會面向：老人在社會中扮演傳承、經驗分享及生命教育的角色，但也有大學生認為老人消耗社會資源造成社會負擔；（3）經濟面向：大學生觀察到居住於敬老院的長者能夠維持基本的生活開銷，但社區長者在經濟上則呈現貧窮與富裕兩極端的現象；（4）居住面向：大學生不僅認為長者的居家環境必須清靜、安全、充滿活力及具備無障礙設計，也對安養機構提出看法，認為安養機構有別於家的感覺、生活制式化、缺乏選擇的自由及生活照顧疏離。 四、大學生加入老人服務後的影響：首先，服務老人影響了大學生對老人的態度，他們變得更願意關懷長者、更尊重長者、對長者更有包容心、發現長者的能力、更了解長者的需求，甚至將服務中的感受回饋給家種的長者。其次，大學生服務老人的經歷也對他們的人生價值產生影響：（1）個人價值：對「幸福」意義的反思、提升自信、學習到人生的智慧；（2）社會價值：重視家庭的安全感、體會真誠的友誼之重要性；（3）能力價值：發現口條能力的重要性；及（4）道德價值：服務的觀念、重視真誠的態度及對長者投入更多愛心。 五、本研究依據結果提出幾個建議：（1）針對學校的建議：鼓勵校方可透過辦理代間服務學習課程及老化體驗，並加強課外活動組的角色，以推動更多大學生加入服務性社團；（2）針對安養機構的建議：促進安養機構長者的活力老化，以及讓安養機構展現家的元素；（3）針對政策的建議：提供長者活到「活到老，學到老」的環境，並完善經濟安全體系。
In recent years, the youth to join the volunteer service has become a trend. With gradually aging society, youth service providers are playing an important role. This is to explore the experience of University students from researchers at the University to nursing home services. At the same time to find out why students are willing to join the ranks of the service for the elderly and what the effects are after joining services. The following are the research questions: (1) What motivates the students to join service club for the elderly? (2) What are the attitudes of the involved University students towards the elderly community? (3) What level of knowledge the University students have about life in old age? (4) What are impacts for the students in terms of the value of life and the attitudes towards the elderly following their experience of the service the elderly? This research used a qualitative research method, and semi-structured interviews to collect data. The research interviews with a total of nine University students from Tamkang University, Hao Ran Guardian Angel Club. Five of them are female and four of them are male. In between them they have the experience of providing the services of one to three years. Most students involved since their first year in University and most of them have stable attendance rate. Six of the students brought up or live with their grandparents. Three out of the six students have not been under the care of their grandparents. However they have the experience of close relationship with their grandparents. The results of the research are as follows: A. The motivation of university students to join in the services for the elderly: The motivation of the students involved in services for the elderly service club can be divided into two levels: The reasons for students to participate in community service and in the services targeting the elderly. The reason for students to participate in the community service include: (1) Involve in activity that contributing to the society, (2) The influence their peers, and (3) The accessibility of opportunity. The reasons for students to chose the elderly as their servicing targets include: (1) Familiar with the servicing targets, and (2) Personal life experience. B. University student’s attitudes toward the elderly: Students have raised three observation points with regarding to the elderly physiological characteristics: (1) Elderly change of physical appearance and sensory system, (2) Degradation of the physical function of the elderly, and (3) Elderly reduced ability to move. Students have raised four observation points with regarding to the elderly psychological characteristics: (1) Images of healthy elderly: Able take good care of their own lives, to maintain an optimistic attitude, willingness to interact with others and has the ability to self troubleshooting negative emotions, (2) Elderly learning ability: Students believe that the elderly have the ability to learn, and if presented an opportunity to learn, the elders themselves have a high degree of willingness to learn. Patience and guidance during teaching process have a direct impact to elderly learning ability, (3) The elderly personalities are passive, indifference, self-centred, talkative, enthusiastic and strong, (4) The elderly are pessimistic and cynical, need others caring. C. University student’s awareness of life in old age: (1) Family perspective: The elderly are significance in both the actual and spiritual life. They are a symbol of the complete family, the centre of family cohesion, the supporting role of advice and sharing the responsibility in parenting, (2) Social perspective: The elderly are the symbol of heritage, experience sharing and the role model. But some students believe that the elderly consume social resources became the social burden, (3) Economic perspective: Students observed that the elderly living in nursing home has the ability to maintain basic living expenses, but the financial situation of the elderly living in the community are divided by two extremes of poverty and wealth, and (4) Living perspective: Students not only believe that the living environment for the elderly must be quiet, safe, vibrant and with easy access design, they also put forward their views that nursing homes have a different feeling of home, life regularization, the lack of freedom of choice and family members caring became a rarity. D. Effect of University students involve in services for the elderly: First, services for the elderly affecting college students' attitudes toward the elderly, they become more willing to care for the elderly, and more respect for the elderly, treating the elderly with more generosity, recognise the ability of the elderly, better understanding of the needs of the elderly, and even express their feeling to the elderly after providing the service. Secondly, the experience of the university student services for the elderly also have an impact to their view on the value of life: (1) Personal values: A reflection on the meaning of happiness, to enhance self-confidence and acquired the wisdom of life, (2) Social values: Emphasis on the family's sense of security and appreciate the importance of friendship, (3) Competence values: Discover the importance of persuasive eloquence, and (4) Moral values: The concept of service, appreciate the sincere attitude and treating the elderly more care and love. E. With the data and information collected above, this research proposed a few suggestions: (1) Suggestion for the school: To encourage the school upon intergenerational service-learning courses and the elderly service experience. Strengthen the role of the curricular activities and to push for more students to join a service clubs, (2) Recommendations for nursing homes: Promote vitality of the elderly activities and to inject the elements of home in nursing homes, and (3) Recommendations for policy: To provide the elderly the adequate learning environment, and to improve the economic security system for the elderly.
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