The Determinants of Poverty Changes for Low Income Households
新貧戶 ； 貧窮程度 ； 貧窮變動 ； 二項式羅吉斯模型 ； 多項式羅吉斯模型 ； new poor ； degree of poverty ； poverty changes ； Binary Logit Model ； Multinomial Logit Model
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辦理社會救助消極的目的是安貧，積極的目的是脫貧，最終協助低收入戶自立。我國低收入依深淺分為第一款、第二款、第三款，政府對於深度貧窮者所花費脫貧成本勢必比淺度貧窮者還要高，因此本文欲探究在政府給予的社會救助之下，低收入戶貧窮狀況會走向惡化、改善、不變三種結果，其背後的影響因素及效果有那些，因此運用內政部2001、2004、2008年低收入戶生活狀況調查資料找出決定的因素。 本研究的目的分為三個方面，首先依Binary Logit Model研究方法探究新貧者是否有異於以往的低收入戶。接著再依Multinomial Logit Model方法，依低收入戶貧窮程度找出影響第一款、第二款、第三款特徵屬性，並從低收入戶家戶近三年款別變動中瞭解貧窮惡化、貧窮不變及貧窮改善的特徵屬性。 從實證結果獲得：新貧戶平均年齡較輕，離婚或分居、居住在東部地區影響最大。在貧窮程度：男性影響貧窮程度最嚴重的第一款或最不嚴重的第三款，年齡愈大、未婚者、屬單人家庭貧窮程度愈深，中等教育程度的高中職開始於2008年進入低收入戶。在貧窮變動：男性、離婚、戶內有依賴人口、居住地點在東部者貧窮較易惡化，此外由於政府對老人有多項照顧措施以及我國健保制度完善及對低收入戶醫療費用補助，年齡愈大及有傷病者貧窮愈穩定甚至有改善空間。
The passive purpose of the social assistance programs is for the relieving of the poor, and actively the social assistance programs work to get the poor out of poverty, but ultimately they are to help the low-income families becoming self-supporting. Our country’s low-income families, depending on their degree of poverty, can be divided into three categories: Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3. Relatively speaking, in getting the poor out of poverty, the government would have to spend more on the extreme poor than on the mild poor. In this study, therefore, the influential factors and their effects on the financial states of low-income families under governmental social assistance, i.e. deterioration, improvement or status quo, were investigated. The data collected from the 2001, 2004 and 2008 low-income family living surveys by the Ministry of Interior were used to find the deciding factors. The purpose of this investigation can be divided into three aspects. First, the Binary Logit Model was used to look for any difference from before low-income family among the “new poor”. Secondly, the Multinomial Logit Model was used to identify the characteristic attributes of the Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 low-income families, according to their degree of poverty. Finally, the characteristic attributes of the deteriorating, unchanging and improving low-income families were understood from the poverty changes of the low-income families in the past three years. The empirical results showed that the new poor were younger on average age-wise, were divorced or estranged, and those living in eastern Taiwan were the most severely influenced. In terms of the degree of poverty, males were affected most severely in the Class 1 category and the least in the Class 3 category. The degree of poverty was significantly higher for the aged, single or single-person families. Starting 2008, the persons with educational background of senior high and vocational schools began to become involved in the low-income families. With respect to the poverty shift, males, divorcees, those with dependent family members and those living in eastern Taiwan were more likely to suffer increasing poverty. Furthermore, because of the multiple elderly care measures provided by the government, the coverage of the country’s national health insurance (NHI) program and the medical expenses subsidies for low-income families, the financial situations of the poor stabilized or even improved with increasing age and illness.
社會科學 > 經濟學