Title

文化創意園區的商業價值與體驗經濟: 愛爾蘭Temple Bar與北京798藝術區的個案研究

Translated Titles

Commercial Value and Experience Economy of Cultural Creative Quarters: Case Studies of Temple Bar in Dublin, Ireland and 798 Art Zone in Beijing, China

Authors

李靜玟

Key Words

文化創意園區 ; 商業價值 ; 體驗經濟 ; Temple Bar ; 798藝術區 ; Cultural Creative Quarters ; Commercial Value ; Experience Economy ; Temple Bar ; 798Art Zone

PublicationName

中興大學科技管理研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

陳明惠

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

體驗經濟,其核心概念為人們在使用一項產品或接受一項服務之後,情緒感受上所產生的感動,將會提升顧客的忠誠度。也因為文化加值與創意加值的重要性漸增,文化創意產業與體驗經濟之間的關係逐漸受到討論,顯示消費者在一個文化創意園區內獲得的感受會影響其再次前往的意願。文化本身的價值是根據每一個國家所擁有獨具的特色而隨之而生,在配合當地優勢所生產出的商品與服務之下,進而產生實體產值與無形的附加價值。這些價值便是影響文化創意園區得以經營下去的原因,一個文化創意園區想永續經營便需要擁有穩定的產出利潤,為了吸引絡繹不絕的人潮前來就需要創造令觀光客印象深刻的獨特體驗。 因此本論文的首要研究動機希望探究文化創意園區所產生的商業價值與深度體驗,將會對一個文化創意園區的永續經營造成什麼樣的影響。次要研究動機來自於觀察文化產業與商業化之間的平衡關係,文化產業在過去可保持純藝術的定位,然而在國際化開放競爭之下,不免會逐漸走向商業化,本研究目的也希望了解文化領域、商業領域這兩個在過去截然不同的區塊,在現今逐漸融合的過程中,有什麼樣的矛盾衝突之處。 本論文的研究方法採用個案研究法、田野調查、深入訪談和次級資料的方式來蒐集與分析資料。個案方面選擇北京798藝術區和愛爾蘭Temple Bar做為個案研究,其原因分別有三點。之所以選擇中國北京798藝術區原因:首先,UNCTAD聯合國貿易暨發展會議 (2010)出版的Creative Economy Report創意經濟報告書數據顯示,中國在近十年來已成為全世界創意出口成長率第一的國家。其次,中國創意產業研究中心發布的創意產業城市層級分類,北京領先其他城市屬於第一層級,其創意產值是中國位居最高的城市。第三,798藝術區身為中國現代藝術中心,已成為北京內繼長城和故宮之後第三大最受歡迎觀光去處 ,因此選定中國北京798藝術區成為第一項研究個案。而選擇愛爾蘭Temple Bar作為第二項個案的原因:首先,從地理位置或歷史發展來看,台灣和愛爾蘭有許多類似之處,皆為海島型國家,且高科技產業相當發達。其次,值得研究的是,除了高科技產業之外,愛爾蘭的文化創意產值極高,這個國家以文化創意為本、且以打造人民高品質美感生活為目標。第三,Temple Bar區是整個愛爾蘭都柏林最重要的商業藝術發展重鎮。希望能藉由此兩個案之研究結果,提供文化創意園區未來發展的參考。 在個案研究架構方面,本研究運用陳明惠等(2012)提出的文化創意園區的5P理論架構(5P Model),分別為創意產業政策(Policy)、創意人(Person)、文化與創意歷程(Process)、創意氛圍(Place)以及創意產出(Product)五個面向作為研究架構。並以文化創意與商業結合作為研究架構的核心,用以探討與分析北京798藝術區與愛爾蘭Temple Bar 文化創意園區這兩個東西方文化創意園區之所以蓬勃發展的成功因素。本研究結果發現文化創意園區在發展的時候,除了有形的商業產出價值之外,最重要的是擁有良好的創意氛圍,從日常生活根本建立人們對於歷史環境美感的認同,以提升一個文創園區所能產生無形的體驗價值。而文化與商業化考量的過程中,除了文化歷史保存的重要,政府也不宜過度干預,應是扮演扶持的角色。針對未來後續研究的建議,可運用不同個案的背景作調查、分析以深入了解當地擁有的文化資源是什麼、以及消費者前來又是因為何種文化創意環境所吸引。

English Abstract

The concept of experience economy shows that customer satisfaction can be increased by the value delivered via a product or service leading to customer experience and impression from that product or service. This idea discussed in the cultural creative industry more than before, which mentions that the willingness to visit cultural creative quarters repeatedly will be affected by customer feelings and experience from these quarters. The value of culture and creativity is getting important therefore the relation between cultural creative industry and experience economy is also being noticed. Because of the culture differences among countries, the productions and service given to customers can vary as well; the unique value of culture can become a core competence in order to appeal customers. This concept inspires and motivates me to do research about experience economy and its impact to the current cultural creative industry. There are two purposes of this research. The first purpose is to identify the kinds of culture strength and memorable experience the creative quarter has to create in order to sustain for long period of time, and analyze the visible and invisible value of creative cultural quarters. The second purpose is to discuss the interaction between Cultural Industry and Commercial Industry, and try figure out how to keep the balance when the culture industry becomes commercialized in the current era. This thesis used the creative cultural 5p models as the framework to analyze the key successful factors when developing a creative cultural quarters. We want to figure out what is the most important thing which can increase the unique experience to consumers when they visit the place. In this thesis, the research methods are: Case Study; Field Research; In-depth Interview; and Secondary Data Analysis. There are three reasons for choosing two case studies, “Beijing798 Art Zone” and “Ireland Temple Bar”. The first reason for choosing Beijing 798 Art Zone is that according to the UNCTAD (2010) creative Economy Report, China has the highest creative production revenue in the world in this decade. Second reason is that Beijing has the highest creative GDP, which becomes the most popular places people like to visit in China. Third reason is that 798 Art Zone has the high commercial value compare to other creative parks in Beijing. On the other hand, the reason why I chose Ireland Temple Bar is that Ireland’s history background and geography location are similar to Taiwan. Being small island countries, both of them have quite high revenue from high-technology industry. Second reason is that despite of great development of high-technology industry, Ireland has also invested lot of resources in the cultural creative industry. The purpose why Ireland invested money into developing the creative industry is to keep living quality of people. Third reason is that the Temple Bar is located in the downtown of Dublin, and has the natural developing cultural environment and unique experience value. The creative 5p models used as research framework are: Policy; Person; Process; Place; and Product. 5p will illustrate two case studies chosen with additional focus on the relation of culture and commerce part. Finally, according to the research result, this research found out that in order to manage and keep sustainable increase in the creative revenue of production, a creative cultural park may do something to appeal travelers. The most suitable way to attract people is to create unique experience involving the thinking of experience economy which makes service as production and creates the “unforgettable memories”. The most important factor that can maintain the unlimited experience is the creative environment. With the natural culture development, it will increase more invisible experience than artificial environment.

Topic Category 管理學院 > 科技管理研究所
社會科學 > 管理學
Reference
  1. 9. 王俐容(2005),《文化政策中的經濟論述:從菁英文化到文化經濟?》。文化研究學會創刊號論文。
    連結:
  2. 10. 王瀚陞(2009),《Observing the City: Dorothy Richardson and Her Film Criticism》。台灣大學論文。
    連結:
  3. 17. 陳明惠、潘釔天(2010),《文化創意園區與都市活化:中國上海田子坊與英國雪菲爾文化特區個案研究》。國立中興大學論文。
    連結:
  4. 18. 陳明惠、潘釔天、張佑宇、吳俊德(2012),《文化創意園區與都市活化:中國上海田子坊與英國雪菲爾文化特區個案研究》。科技管理學刊, 17(1), 27-72。
    連結:
  5. 19. 楊燕枝、吳思華(2005),《文化創意產業的價值創造形塑之初探》。國立政治大學科技管理研究所論文。
    連結:
  6. (2) Journal Articles 期刊論文
    連結:
  7. 47. Bailey, G. A., & Peoples, J. G. (1999). Introduction to cultural anthropology: West/Wadsworth.
    連結:
  8. 48. Birukou, A., Blanzieri, E., Giorgini, P., & Giunchiglia, F. (2009). A formal definition of culture.
    連結:
  9. 49. Boslaugh, S. (2007). An introduction to secondary data analysis. Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide, 2-10.
    連結:
  10. 50. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste: Harvard Univ Pr.
    連結:
  11. 51. Caves, R. E. (2000). Creative industries: Contracts between art and commerce: Harvard Univ Pr.
    連結:
  12. 53. Cunningham, S. D. (2002). From cultural to creative industries: Theory, industry, and policy implications. Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy: Quarterly Journal of Media Research and Resources(102), 54-65.
    連結:
  13. 54. Donald, J., Friedberg, A., & Marcus, L. (1998). Close up, 1927-1933: cinema and modernism: Continuum Intl Pub Group.
    連結:
  14. 57. Evans, G., & Foord, J. (2008). Cultural mapping and sustainable communities: planning for the arts revisited. Cultural trends, 17(2), 65-96.
    連結:
  15. 60. Florida, R. (2003). Cities and the creative class. City & Community, 2(1), 3-19.
    連結:
  16. 61. Force, C. I. T. (2000). The Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001.
    連結:
  17. 62. Hall, S. (1990). The emergence of cultural studies and the crisis of the humanities. October, 53, 11-23.
    連結:
  18. 63. Harris, M. (1971). Culture, man, and nature: an introduction to general anthropology: Crowell.
    連結:
  19. 64. Hesmondhalgh, D. (2005). Media and cultural policy as public policy. International journal of cultural policy, 11(1), 95-109.
    連結:
  20. 65. Hofstede, G. H. (1984). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values (Vol. 5): Sage Publications, Inc.
    連結:
  21. 66. Howard, S. E. (1965). Garden cities of to-morrow (Vol. 23): The MIT Press.
    連結:
  22. 67. Johnson, J. M. (2002). In-depth interviewing. Handbook of interview research: Context and method, 103-119.
    連結:
  23. 69. Keesing, R. M., & Strathern, A. (1998). Cultural anthropology: A contemporary perspective.
    連結:
  24. 72. Li, J., Lam, K., & Fu, P. P. (2000). Family-oriented collectivism and its effect on firm performance: A comparison between overseas Chinese and foreign firms in China. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8(4), 364-379.
    連結:
  25. 73. Linton, R. (1936). The study of man: an introduction.
    連結:
  26. 74. Lizardo, O., & Skiles, S. (2008). Cultural consumption in the fine and popular arts realms. Sociology Compass, 2(2), 485-502.
    連結:
  27. 76. Markusen, A. (2006). Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists. Environment and Planning A, 38(10), 1921.
    連結:
  28. 78. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
    連結:
  29. 79. McCarthy, J. (1998). Dublin's temple bar—a case study of culture‐led regeneration. European Planning Studies, 6(3), 271-281.
    連結:
  30. 80. McGuigan, J. (2004). Rethinking cultural policy: Open Univ Pr.
    連結:
  31. 82. Mead, M. (1953). Rhoda Metraux, eds. 1953 The Study of Culture at a Distance. NY: Harper Row.
    連結:
  32. 83. Montgomery, J. (2004). Cultural quarters as mechanisms for urban regeneration. Part 2: A review of four cultural quarters in the UK, Ireland and Australia. Planning, Practice & Research, 19(1), 3-31.
    連結:
  33. 84. Mumford, M. D., & Gustafson, S. B. (1988). Creativity syndrome: Integration, application, and innovation. Psychological bulletin, 103(1), 27.
    連結:
  34. 85. Murphy, E., & Redmond, D. (2009). The role of ‘hard’and ‘soft’factors for accommodating creative knowledge: insights from Dublin's ‘creative class’. Irish Geography, 42(1), 69-84.
    連結:
  35. 88. Pratt, A. C. (2005). Cultural industries and public policy. International journal of cultural policy, 11(1), 31-44.
    連結:
  36. 92. Rothenberg, A., & Sobel, R. S. (1980). Creation of literary metaphors as stimulated by superimposed versus separated visual images. Journal of Mental Imagery.
    連結:
  37. 93. Rothenberg, A., & Sobel, R. S. (1980). Creation of literary metaphors as stimulated by superimposed versus separated visual images. Journal of Mental Imagery.
    連結:
  38. 95. Smyth, G. (2001). Space and the Irish cultural imagination: Palgrave Macmillan.
    連結:
  39. 97. Throsby, D. (2008). The concentric circles model of the cultural industries. Cultural trends, 17(3), 147-164.
    連結:
  40. 98. Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom: John Murray.
    連結:
  41. 101. Tourism Ireland (2012). International Tourism Buyers Explore Crumlin Road Gaol and More
    連結:
  42. 105. The Irish Times (2009).Temple Bar Traditional Festival
    連結:
  43. 107. UNESCO (2003) Creative Industry
    連結:
  44. 一、中文部分
  45. (1) 圖書
  46. 1. Ebenezer Howard/金經元譯(2000),《明日的田園城市》,中國:商務印書館。
  47. 2. 丹麥文化部、貿易產業部/李璞良、林怡君譯(2003),《丹麥的創意潛力:丹麥的文化與商業政策報告》,台北:典藏藝術家庭。
  48. 3. 中國創意產業研究中心(2011),《中國創意產業發展報告》,中國:中國經濟出版社。
  49. 4. 林炎旦(2008),《文化創意產業國際經典論述》,台北:師大書苑。
  50. 5. 劉子華(2009),《798:亞洲崛起的藝術新聚落》,台北:南方家園。
  51. 6. 楊敏芝(2009),《創意空間:文化創意產業園區的理論與實踐》,台北:五南。
  52. 7. 吳祥輝(2007),《驚歎愛爾蘭》,台北:遠流。
  53. 8. 陸蓉之(2003),《"破" 後現代藝術》,藝術家出版社。
  54. (2) 期刊論文
  55. 11. 何池友(2004),《精英文化對大眾文化的審美范導作用》。安慶師範學院論文。
  56. 12. 李伯溪、錢志深(1990),《產業政策與各國經濟》。上海科學技術文獻出版社。
  57. 13. 林信和 (2008),《文化創意產業的智慧財產權》。國立台北藝術大學。
  58. 14. 范盛保(2008),《愛爾蘭的文化意象與主體意識—兼論愛爾蘭文化•產業》。崑山科大公共關係暨廣告系期刊論文。
  59. 15. 張維華(2010),《創意生活產業的設計觀》。科學發展453月刊
  60. 16. 郭寧(2011),《北京市文化創意產業集聚區介紹》。北京市涉台文獻。
  61. 20. 經濟部工業局知識服務組(2005),《台灣文化創意》。台灣文化創意產業發展年報。
  62. 21. 劉玉清(2002),《精英文化借傳媒走向大眾》。傳媒期刊
  63. 22. 劉慰瑤(2002),《大眾傳媒:精英文化在困境中不可迴避的選擇》。現代傳播:北京廣播學院期刊。
  64. (3) 報告書
  65. 23. 文建會(2002),《文化創意產業概況分析調查》。台北:行政院經濟建設委員會。
  66. 24. 行政院經濟建設委員會(2003),《全球化趨勢下文化產業園區發展策略之研究》。成果報告書。
  67. 25. 經濟部(2004),《2003 年臺灣文化創意產業發展年報》。
  68. 26. 經濟部工業局知識服務組(2005),《創意生活產業發展計畫簡報》。
  69. 27. 周秀玲、楊鳳鮮(2010),《北京文化創意產業發展現狀分析》。研究分析報告書。
  70. 28. 范周(2010),《中國城市文化消費報告》。社會科學文獻出版社。
  71. 29. 張曉明、胡惠林、章建剛(2010),《2010年中國文化產業發展報告》。產業發展報告書。
  72. 30. 香港行政區政府(2003),《大眾文化與身分認同》。香港特別行政區政府教育局。
  73. 31. 盧非易(2007),《歐盟影視政策發展之研究》。國科會計畫成果書。
  74. 32. 中國文化部(2006),《國家"十一五"時期文化發展規劃綱要》。研究分析報告書。
  75. 33. 江藍生(2002),《2001-2002年:中國文化產業發展報告》。北京:社會科學文獻。
  76. 34. 張京城 (2009),《中國創意產業發展報告》。中國經濟出版。
  77. (4) 網路資源
  78. 35. 工研院IEK產業情報網 (2011),2020台灣產業發展願景與策略-以軟性經濟創意開創發展新動能,2011/02/01,取自
  79. http://www.itri.org.tw/chi/iek/p11.asp?RootNodeId=070&NavRootNodeId=0753&NodeId=07534&ArticleNBR=3124
  80. 36. 文化部,文化創意產業,取自http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw/web/content?ID=3971
  81. 37. 南方都市報(2011),文化創意園「蝸居」錢經,2010/01/04,取自
  82. http://udn.com/NEWS/FINANCE/FIN9/7059424.shtml
  83. 38. 兩岸犇報(2011),北京的文創產業發展現況,2011/06/16,取自
  84. http://chaiwanbenpost.blogspot.com/2011/06/hot_16.html
  85. 39. Jiao Shu(2010),798 Art District’s map gets an update,2010/05/05,取自
  86. http://www.beijingtoday.com.cn/maps/798-district
  87. 40. 北京晚報(2008),李宗盛798廠區酒吧開張,2008/06/28,取自
  88. http://beijingww.qianlong.com/3/2008/06/28/206@60324.htm
  89. 41. 北京798藝術區官方網站,取自
  90. http://www.798art.org/
  91. 42. 新京報(2010),黄銳:798就是我最大的作品,2010/04/14,取自 http://big5.china.com.cn/culture/renwu/2010-04/14/content_19811546.htm
  92. 二、西文部分
  93. (1) Books圖書
  94. 43. Howard, E. (1946). Tomorrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898). Garden Cities of Tomorrow. Edited, with a Preface, by FJ Osborn. London.
  95. 44. IRELAND, T. (2006). National Development Plan 2007-2013. Submission by Age Action Ireland Limited
  96. 45. Architects, H. H., Sherwood, A., Burger, D., & Properties, T. B. (2004). A Future for Temple Bar: Urban Framework Plan 2004: Temple Bar Properties.
  97. 46. Arts, I. O. o. t. M. o. S. f., & Culture. (1987). Access and opportunity: a white paper on cultural policy: Stationery Office.
  98. 52. Commission, E., & Affairs, K. E. (2006). The economy of culture in Europe.
  99. 55. Du Gay, P. (1997). Production of culture/cultures of production (Vol. 4): Sage Publications Ltd.
  100. 56. Du Gay, P., & Pryke, M. (2002). Cultural economy: cultural analysis and commercial life: Sage Publications Ltd.
  101. 58. Evrard, Y., & Colbert, F. (2000). Arts management: a new discipline entering the millennium? International Journal of Arts Management, 2, 4-13.
  102. 59. Fitzgibbon, M. (2010). Compendium-Cultural Policies and Trends In Europe.
  103. 68. Katz, E. (1959). Mass communications research and the study of popular culture: An editorial note on a possible future for this journal. Departmental Papers (ASC), 165.
  104. 70. Kong, L. (2005). The sociality of cultural industries. International journal of cultural policy, 11(1), 61-76.
  105. 71. Laushway, E. (1996). TEMPLE BAR: DUBLIN'S YOUNG HEART. Europe(358), 25-27.
  106. 75. MaClaren, A. (1993). The Shaping of a Capital. London: Belhaven Press. Magahy, L.(1996) Phase, 2, 106-107.
  107. 77. Markusen, A., King, D., Regional, H. H. H. I. o. P. A. P. o., & Economics, I. (2003). The artistic dividend: The arts' hidden contributions to regional development: Project on Regional and Industrial Economics, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota.
  108. 81. McNicholas, B. (2004). Arts, culture and business: A relationship transformation, a nascent field. International Journal of Arts Management, 7, 57-69.
  109. 86. O'Connor, B., & Cronin, M. (1993). Tourism in Ireland: a critical analysis: Cork University Press.
  110. 87. Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (2002). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76(4).
  111. 89. Presburger, P., & Tyler, M. R. (1989). Television Without Frontiers: Opportunity and Debate Created by the New European Community Directive. Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev., 13, 495.
  112. 90. Quinn, P. (1996). Temple Bar: The Power of an Idea: Temple Bar Properties.
  113. 91. Richardson, D. (1928). The cinema in Arcady. Close Up, 3(1), 52-57.
  114. 94. Shubik, M. (1999). Culture and commerce. Journal of Cultural Economics, 23(1), 13-30.
  115. 96. Stafford, P. (2005). The Politics of Urban Regeneration in Dublin. Urban Development Debates In The New MillenniumStudies In Revisited Theories And Redifined Praxes, Vol# 4, 91.
  116. 99. UNCTAD, & UNDP. (2010). Creative Economy Report 2010. Creative Economy: A Feasible Development Option. Geneve and New York: UNCTAD and UNDP.
  117. (3) Electronic Resources網路資源
  118. 100. Wikipedia. Temple Bar, Dublin
  119. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_Bar,_Dublin
  120. http://www.tourismireland.com/Home!/About-Us/Press-Releases/2012/International-Tourism-Buyers-Explore-Crumlin-Road.aspx
  121. 102. Visit Studios official website (2011)
  122. http://visitstudios.com/
  123. 103. Temple Bar Gallery&Studios.
  124. http://visitstudios.com/temple-bar-gallery-studios/
  125. 104. Temple Bar Gallery+Studios
  126. http://www.templebargallery.com/studios/artists
  127. http://www.templebartrad.com/about_us/
  128. 106. Temple Bar Cultural Trust official Website
  129. http://www.templebar.ie/oldcitydetail-145/chorus_cafe
  130. http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=35024&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
Times Cited
  1. 陳紀安(2014)。文創園區發展的實質環境研究─以台北市與高雄市為例。臺北大學都市計劃研究所學位論文。2014。1-103。