Title

糙米發酵飲品之製造與抗氧化性質研究

Translated Titles

Study on preparation of a fermented drink made from brown rice and its antioxidative properties

DOI

10.6845/NCHU.2007.00274

Authors

吳國豪

Key Words

糙米 ; 發酵飲品 ; 米麴 ; 酵母 ; 乳酸菌 ; 抗氧化活性 ; Brown rice ; fermented drink ; rice koji ; yeast ; lactic acid bacteria ; antioxidative activity

PublicationName

中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2007年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

陳錦樹

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

糙米雖然保存了最完整的稻米營養,但因不易消化及較難料理,在日常飲食中難加以利用。本研究擬結合營養豐富之糙米與微生物發酵等二種有益人體健康與養生之特質,開發一種機能性糙米發酵飲品。 首先以多株米麴菌(Aspergilius oryzae)製備米麴,結果顯示培養2日米麴已有良好之酵素活性,且A. oryzae BCRC 32279有較佳的澱粉酶與酸性蛋白酶活性;利用米麴之酵素活性進行糙米糖化液之製備,經過分析後,確定糖化液之最佳水解條件為50℃下反應10小時,可溶性固形物約可達20 oBrix,而胺基態氮含量約為0.03 %,破碎過的糙米比未破碎者有較高的可溶性固形物與胺基態氮含量。將糖化液分別接入酵母菌(Saccharomyces cerevisiae K901與C2109)及乳酸菌(Lactobacillus casei BCRC 14080與Lactobacillus plantarum BCRC 10069)進行發酵。酵母菌部分,發酵溫度分別為10℃、15℃與20℃,發酵至酒精度達1%停止,結果顯示發酵所需的時間依溫度由低到高分別約為40小時、25小時與10小時,各項分析值隨著發酵時間增加而下降,發酵溫度愈高則各分析值降的愈快;乳酸菌部分,結果顯示生菌數、可滴定酸與乳酸大致隨著發酵時間愈長而增加,但可溶性固形物、pH值與醣類利用則反之,而乳酸菌在37℃下發酵48小時為最佳條件。 抗氧化活性部份,酵母菌發酵液之各抗氧化力及總多酚量,皆為20℃下發酵時較低,顯示10℃及15℃下發酵有較佳的抗氧化能力,而S. cerevisiae K901略優於C2109;乳酸菌發酵液方面,各抗氧化力及總多酚量大致隨著發酵時間增加而增加,而L. plantarum略優於L. casei。測定GABA時,酵母菌之發酵液幾乎沒有GABA的生成,含量約在0.282-0.377 mg/mL之間;而乳酸菌發酵液其GABA含量則大致隨發酵時間顯著增加,含量約在0.561-1.45 mg/mL間。 本實驗之消費者感官品評以發酵液為試驗樣品,結果顯示C2109+Lc組有最高之分數,即混合發酵液之消費者喜好性比單獨酵母菌或乳酸菌發酵液好。

English Abstract

Although brown rice contains almost the complete nutrition of rice, it is hard to be utilized in the daily diet due to difficulty in cooking and digestibility. A new fermented beverage combining two functional food elements, nutritious brown rice and fermentation, was developed in this study. Several strains of Aspergilius oryzae were inoculated to steamed rice to produce rice-koji. High enzymatic activities were obtained when rice-koji was incubated for 2 days. Finally, A. oryzae BCRC 32279 was chosen for subsequent experiment due to its balanced activities of both amylase and acidic protease at same time. The optimal saccharifying conditions for rice-koji to hydrolyze brown rice were performed at 50℃ for 10 h. The soluble solid and amino nitrogen content of the hydrolysates were about 20 oBrix and 0.04%, respectively. Moreover, higher soluble solid and amino nitrogen content were obtained if brown rice was pulverized. Saccharified mash of brown rice were thereafter fermented with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K901 and C2109) or lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei BCRC 14080 and Lactobacillus plantarum BCRC 10069). For yeasts, the results showed, greater amount of metabolites were produced as fermentation temperature increased from 10℃ to 20℃. The alcohol fermentation was stopped once ethanol concentration reached 1% (w/w), then it took fermented at about 10 h, 25 h and 40 h for temperatures at 20℃, 15 ℃ and 10℃, respectively. As for lactic acid fermentation, the results showed soluble solids content, pH value and concentration of sugars were decreased while titratable acid, viable count and concentration of lactic acid were increased with fermentation time. The optimal fermentation time was 48 h. Finally, the antioxidative activites of fermentation broth by yeast fermentation either at 10℃ or 15℃ was better than that at 20℃; and S. cerevisiae K901 was better than C2109. As for fermentation broth obtained with lactic acid bacteria for 48 h had the highest antioxidative activity, and L. plantarum was better than L. casei. Analyses of GABA content for fermentation broth obtained from alcohol fermentation by yeasts were from 0.282 to 0.377 mg/mL, while those from lactic acid bacteria ranged from 0.561 to 1.45 mg/mL. The results revealed that lactic acid bacteria, as compared to yeasts, were useful for the production of GABA. Finally, results of the consumer preference test showed that the score of C2109+Lc was the highest. Briefly, the fermented drink made by mixed fermentation broth from yeast with lactic acid bacterium (1:1, v/v) was more popular than the fermented drink only by yeast or lactic acid bacterium alone.

Topic Category 農業暨自然資源學院 > 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
生物農學 > 生物科學
Reference
  1. 汪宛霖。2006。乳酸菌在紫米奶中的生長情形及紫米發酵乳之研製。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技研究所碩士論文。
    連結:
  2. 施益民、呂鋒洲。1989。自由基與各種疾病。當代醫學,16 : 399- 407。
    連結:
  3. 張為憲。1995。食品化學。華香園出版社。台北,台灣。
    連結:
  4. 莊商路、林國清、吳文政。1990。水稻新品種台稉2號之育成。台南區農業改良場研究彙報,25:1-20。
    連結:
  5. 陳惠英、顏國欽。1998。自由基、抗氧化防禦與人體健康。Nutritional Sciences Journal,23 : 105-121。
    連結:
  6. 陳筱慧。2006。利用HPLC方法檢測發芽種子、發芽玄米、加碼茶及市售GABA膠囊中GABA含量。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技研究所碩士論文。
    連結:
  7. 蘇遠志、黃世佑。2002。微生物化學工程學。華香園出版社。台北,台灣。
    連結:
  8. Aguirre, M. and Collin, M. D. 1993. Lactic acid bacteria and human clinical infection. J Appl Bacteriol. 75 : 95-107.
    連結:
  9. Amparo, Q. M., Teresa, F. E., Marcel, O. and Eladio, B. 2003. Review : adaptive evaluation of wine yeast. Int J Food Microbiol. 86 : 3-10.
    連結:
  10. Anson, M. L. 1938. The estimation of pepsin, trypsin, papain and cathespsin with hemoglobin. J Gen Physiol. 22 : 79-89.
    連結:
  11. Arnao, M. B., Cano, A., Hernandez-Ruiz, J., Garcia-Canovas, F. and Acosta, M. 1996. Inhibition by L-ascorbic acid and other antioxidants of the 2.2'-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase : a new approach for determining total antioxidant status of foods. Anal Biochem. 236 : 255-261.
    連結:
  12. Aruoma, O. I. 1994. Nutrition and health aspects of free radicals and antioxidants. Food Chem Toxic. 32 : 671-683.
    連結:
  13. Ashenafi, M. and Busse, M. 1991. Growth potential of Salmonella infantis and Esherichia coli in fermenting tempeh made from horsebean, pea and chickpea and their inhibition by Lactobacillus plantarum. J Sci Food Agric. 55 : 607-615.
    連結:
  14. Aubourg, S. P. 1993. Review : interaction of malondialdehyde with biological molecules-new trends about reactivity and significance. Int J Food Sci Technol. 28 : 323-335.
    連結:
  15. Blois, M. S. 1958. Antioxidant determination by use of a stable free radical. Nature. 181 : 1199-1200.
    連結:
  16. Borras, C., Sastre, J., Garcia-Sala, D., Lloret, A., Pallardo, F. V. and Vina, J. 2003. Mitochondria from females exhibit higher antioxidant gene expression and lower oxidative damage than males. Free Radi. Biol. Med. 34 : 546-552.
    連結:
  17. Caplice, E., and Fitzgerald, G. F. 1999. Food fermentations : role of microorganisms in food production and preservation. Int J Food Microbiol. 50 : 131-149.
    連結:
  18. Castelluccio, C., Paganga, G., Melikian, N., Bolwell, G. P., Pridham, J., Sampson, J. and Rice-Evans, C. 1995. Antioxidant potential of intermediates in phenylpropanoid metabolism in higher plants. FEBS Lett. 368(1) : 188-192.
    連結:
  19. Clancy, R. 2003. Immunobiotics and the probiotic evolution. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 38 : 9-12.
    連結:
  20. Coccetta R. A., Croft K. D., Beilin L. J. and Puddey I. B. 2000. Ingestion of red wine significantly increases plasma phenolic acid concentrations but does not acutely affect ex vivo lipoprotein oxidizability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71 : 67-74.
    連結:
  21. Collar, C., Mascaros, A. F., Prieto, J. A. and Benedito De Barber, C. Changes in free amino acids during fermentation of wheat doughs started with pure culture of lactic acid bacteria, Cereal chem. 68 : 66-72.
    連結:
  22. Daood, H. G., Vinkler, M., Markus, F., Hebshi, E. A. and Biacs, P. A. 1996. Antioxidant vitamin content of spice red pepper (paprika) as affected by technological and varietal factors. Food Chem. 55 : 365-372.
    連結:
  23. Drew, L. M., Kies, C. and Fox, H. M. 1979. Effect of dietary fiber on copper, zinc, and magnesium utilization by adolescent boy. J Amer Clin Nutr. 32 : 1893-1897.
    連結:
  24. Dubey, A. K., Suresh, C., Kavitha, R., Karanth, N. G. and Umesh-Kumar, S. 2000. Evidence that the glucoamylases and α-amylase secreted by Aspergillus niger are proteolytically processed products of a precursor enzyme. FEBS Lett. 471 : 251-255.
    連結:
  25. Dziezak, J. D. 1986. Preservatives : antioxidant. Food Technol. 40 : 94-102.
    連結:
  26. Esaki, H., Onozaki, H., Kawakishi, S. and Osawa, T. 1997. Antioxidative activity and isolation from soybeans fermented with Aspergillus spp. J Agric Food Chem. 45 : 2020-2024.
    連結:
  27. Fang, Y. Z., Yang, S. and Wu, G. 2002. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition. 18 : 872-879.
    連結:
  28. Farmer, E. H., Bloomfield, G. F., Sundralingam, A. and Sutton D. A. 1942. The course and mechanism of autoxidation reactions in olefinic and ployolefinic substances, including rubber. Trans Faraday Soc. 38 : 348-356.
    連結:
  29. Flores, C. L., Cristina, R., Thomas, P. and Carlos, G. 2000. Carbohydrate and energy-yielding metabolism in non-conventional yeasts. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 24 : 507-529.
    連結:
  30. Fooks, L. J. and Gibson, G. R. 2002. Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora. Br J Nutr. 88 : 39s-49s.
    連結:
  31. Gomez, R. and Barros, H. M. T. 2000. Ethopharmacology of the antidepressant effect of cionazepam in diabetic rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 66 : 329-335.
    連結:
  32. Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. M. C. 1996. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, eds. by B. Haillwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
    連結:
  33. Halliwell, B., Murcia, H. A., Chirico, S. and Aruoma, O. I. 1995. Free radicals and antioxidants in food and in vivo : what they do and how they work. Crit Rev in food Sci Nutr. 35 : 7-20.
    連結:
  34. Hattori, O. H., Yokota, T., Ohami, H. and Watanabe, K. 1995. Antioxidative effect of crude antioxidant preparation from soybean fermented by Bacillus natto. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaftund- Technologie. 28, 135-139.
    連結:
  35. Hofvendahl, K. and Hahn-Hägerdal, B. 2000. Factors affecting the fermentative lactic acid production from renewable resources. Enzym Microb Tech. 26 : 87-107.
    連結:
  36. Holzapfel, W. H., Haberer, P., Snel, J., Schillinger, U. and Huis in’t Veld, J. H. J. 1998. Overview of gut flora and probiotics. Int J Food Microbiol. 41 : 85-101.
    連結:
  37. Ikeda, R., Ohta, N. and Watanabe, T. 1995. Changes of isoflavones at various stages of fermentation in defatted soybeans. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kaishi. 42(5) : 322-327.
    連結:
  38. Ishikawa, Y. 1992. Development of new types of antioxidants from microbial origin. J Jpn Oil Chem Soc. 41 : 762-767.
    連結:
  39. Ishikawa, Y., Morimoto, K., Sada, T. and Fujiwara, T. 1992. Aurantionone produced by Pinicillium aurantio-virens, and its antioxidant activity. J Jpn Oil Chem Soc. 41 : 7-10.
    連結:
  40. Isolauri, E., Arvola, T., Sutas, Y., Moilanen, E. and Salminer S. 2000. Probiotics in the management of atopic excema. Clin Exp Allergy. 30 : 1604-1610.
    連結:
  41. Jacob, R. A. 1995. The integrated antioxidant system. Nutr Res. 15 : 755-766.
    連結:
  42. Kawasumi, T., Sato, M., Tsuriya, Y. and Ueno, S. 1999. Antioxidant activity of a medicine based on Aspergillus oryzae NK koji measured by a modified t-butyl peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 63 : 581-584.
    連結:
  43. Kirik, D., Rosenblad, C., Bjorklund, A. and Mandel, R. J. 2000. Long-term rAAV-mediated gene transfer of GDNF in the rat Parkinson's model : intrastriatal but not intranigral transduction promotes functional regeneration in the lesioned nigrostriatal system. J Neurosci. 20 : 4686-4700.
    連結:
  44. Kodama, S., Yamamoto, A., Matsunaga, A., Matsui, K., Nakagomi, K. and Hayakawa, K. 2002. Behaviors of D- and L-lactic acids during the brewing process of sake (Japanese rice wine). J Agric Food Chem. 50 : 767-770.
    連結:
  45. Larson, R. A. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochem. 27 : 969-978.
    連結:
  46. Leventhal, A. G., Wang, Y., Pu, M., Zhou, Y. and Ma, Y. 2003. GABA and its agonists improved visual cortical function in senescent monkeys. Science. 300 : 812-815.
    連結:
  47. Lievin, V., Peiffer, I. and Houdijk, A. P. 2000. Bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity. Gut. 47 : 646-652.
    連結:
  48. Lindsay, D. G. and Astley, S. B. 2002. European research on the functional effects of dietary antioxidants-EUROFEDA. Mol Aspect Med. 23 : 1-38.
    連結:
  49. Lotito, S. B. and Fraga, C. G. 1998. (+)-Catechin prevents human plasma oxidation. Free Radic Biol Med. 24 : 435-441.
    連結:
  50. Matsuzaki, T. and Chin, J. 2000. Modulating immune responses with proiotic bacteria. Immunol Cell Biol. 78 : 67-73.
    連結:
  51. McCord, J. M. 2000. The evolution of free radicals and oxidative stress. Am. J. Med. 108 : 652-659.
    連結:
  52. Meng, Q. H., Lewis, P., Wahala, K., Adlercreutz, H. and Tikkanen, M. J. 1999. Incorporation of esterified soybean isoflavones with antioxidant activity into low density lipoprotein. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1438 : 369-376.
    連結:
  53. Miller, G. L. 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugars. Anal Chem. 31 : 326-328.
    連結:
  54. Miller, N. J., Rice-Evans, C., Davies, M. j., Gopinathan, V. and Milner, M. 1993. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin Sci. 84 : 407-412.
    連結:
  55. Minamiyama, Y., Yoshikawa, T.,Tanigawa, T., Takahashi, S., Naito, Y., Ichikawa, H. and Kondo, M. 1994. Antioxidative effect of a processed grain food. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 40 : 467-477.
    連結:
  56. Mishra, V. and Prasad, D. N. 2005. Application of in vitro methods for selection of Lactobacillus casei strains as potential probiotics. Int J Food Microbiol. 103 : 109-115.
    連結:
  57. Mitsuda, H., Yasunodo, K. and Iwami F. 1966. Antioxidative action of indole compounds during the autoxidation of linoleic acid. Eiyo to Shokuryo. 19 : 210-214.
    連結:
  58. Moller, J. K. S., Madsen, H. L., Aaltonen, T. and Skibsted, L. H. 1999. Dittany (Origanum dictamnus) as a source of water-extractable antioxidants. Food Chem. 64 : 215-219.
    連結:
  59. Moret, S., Populin, T., Conte, L. S. and Cosens, G. 2005. HPLC determination of free nitrogenous compounds of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae), the cause of equine nigropallidal enecephalomalacia. Toxicon. 46 : 651-657.
    連結:
  60. Morrissey P. A., Sheehy P. J. A., Galvin K., Kerry J. P. and Buckley D. J. 1998. Lipid stability in meat and meat products. Meat Sci. 49 : S73-S86.
    連結:
  61. Moskovitz, J., Yim, M. B. and Chock, P. B. 2002. Free radicals and disease. Arch Biochem Biophys. 397 : 354-359.
    連結:
  62. Murakami, H., Asakawa, T., Terao., J. and Matsushita, S. 1984. Antioxidative stability of tempeh and liberation of isoflavones by fermentation. Agric Biol Chem. 48 : 2971-2975.
    連結:
  63. Murck, H., Antonijevic, I. A., Schier, T., Frieboes, R. M., Barthelmes, J. and Steiger, A. 1999. Aging dose not affect the sleep endocrine response to total sleep deprivation in humans. Neurobiol Aging. 20 : 665-668.
    連結:
  64. Mwesigye, P. K. and Barford, J. P. 1996. Batch growth and transport kinetics of utilization of mixtures of sucrose and maltose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Ferment Bioeng. 82 : 101-108.
    連結:
  65. Namiki, M. 1990. Antioxidants/antimutagens in foods. Crit Rev food Sci Nutr. 29 : 273-300.
    連結:
  66. Ness, A. R. and Powles, J. W. 1997. Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease. Int J Epidemiol. 26 : 1-13.
    連結:
  67. Nishikimi, M., Rao, N. A. and Yagl, K. 1972. The occurrence of superoxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenazine methosulphate and molecular oxygen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 46 : 844-853.
    連結:
  68. Okamoto, G., Hayase, F. and Kato, H. 1992. Scavenging of active oxygen species by glycated proteins. Biosci Biotech Biochem. 56 : 928-931.
    連結:
  69. Oyaizu, M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reaction : antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr. 44 : 307-315.
    連結:
  70. Packer, L. 1991. Protective role of vitamin E in biological system. Am J Clin Nutr. 53 : 1050s-1055s.
    連結:
  71. Panagiotou, G., Villas-Bôas, S. G., Christakopoulos, P., Nielsen, J. and Olesson, L. 2005. Intracellular metabolite profiling of Fusarium oxysporum converting glucose to ethanol. J Biotechnol. 115 : 425-434.
    連結:
  72. Pandey, A. 2003. Solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J. 13 : 81-84.
    連結:
  73. Parejo, I., Viladomat, F., Bastida, J., Rosas-Romero, A. and Saavedra, G. 2003. Investigation of Bolivian plant extracts for their radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity. Life Sci. 73 : 1667-1681.
    連結:
  74. Pedersen, L. H., Lene, D.O. and Larsen, K. L. 2000. Suitability and limitations of methods for characterization of activity of malto-oligosaccharide-forming amylase. Carbohydr Res. 329 : 109-119.
    連結:
  75. Perdon, A. A. Del-Rosario, E. J. and Juliano, B. O. 1975. Solubilization of starch synthetase bound to Oryza sativa (rice) starch granules. Phytochem. 14 : 949-951.
    連結:
  76. Podolak, P. K., Zayas, J. F., Kastner, C. L. and Fung, D. Y. C. 1996. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef by application of organic acids. J Food Prot. 59 : 370-373.
    連結:
  77. Pryor, W. A. 1994. Free radicals and lipid peroxidation : what they are and how they got that way. In : Frei, B. Nature antioxidants in human health and disease. pp. 1-24. Academic Press. San Diego, CA.
    連結:
  78. Rashid, M. H., Kato, F. and Murata, A. 1992. Effects of microorganisms on the peroxidation of lipid and fatty acid composition of fermented fish meal. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 56 : 1058-1061.
    連結:
  79. Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med. 26 : 1231-1237.
    連結:
  80. Reiter, R. J. 1998. Oxidative damage in the central nervous system : protection by melatonin. Prog Neurobiol. 56 : 359-384.
    連結:
  81. Richheimer, S. L., Bernart, M. W., King, G. A., Kent, M. C. and Bailey, D. T. 1996. Antioxidant activity of lipid-soluble phenolic diterpenes from rosemary. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 73 : 507-514.
    連結:
  82. Robak, J. and Grygelewski, I. R. 1988. Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem Pharma. 37 : 837-841.
    連結:
  83. Sarrela, M., Lahteenmaki, L., Crittenden, R., Salminen, S. and Mattila, S. T. 2002. Gut bacteria and health foods-the European perspective. Int J Food Microbiol. 78 : 99-117.
    連結:
  84. Sato, M., Ramarathnam, N., Suzuki, Y., Ohkubo, T., Takeuchi, M. and Ochi, H. 1996. Varietal differences in the phenolic content and superoxide radical scavenging potential of wines from different sources. J Agric Food Chem. 44 : 67-103.
    連結:
  85. Seppo, L., Jauhiainen, T., Poussa, T. and Korpela, R. 2003. A fermented milk high in bioactive peptides has a blood pressure-lowing effect in hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 77 : 326-330.
    連結:
  86. Shahidi, F., Janitha, P. K. and Wanasundara, P. D. 1992. Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev food Sci Nutr. 32 : 67-103.
    連結:
  87. Sharma, R. D. and Rukmini, C. 1986. Rice bran oil and hypocholesterolemia in rats. Lipid. 21 : 715-723.
    連結:
  88. Shiah, I. S., Robertson, H. A., Lam, R.W., Yatham, L. N., Tam, E. M. and Zis, A. P. 1999. Growth hormone response to baclofen in patients with seasonal affective disorder : effects of light therapy. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 24 : 143-153.
    連結:
  89. Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K. and Nakamura, T. 1992. Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J Agric Food Chem. 40 : 945-948.
    連結:
  90. Sohal, R. S. 2002. Oxidative stress hypothesis of aging. Free Radic Biol Med. 33 : 573-574.
    連結:
  91. Tadao, A., Naotaka, K., Nobutsugu, H. and Sadao, K. 1999. Effect of NAD+- dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH1, IDH2) disruption of sake yeast on organic acid composition in sake mash. J Biosci Bioeng. 88 : 258-263.
    連結:
  92. Takahashi, T., Furukawa, A., Hara, S. and Mizoguchi, H. 2004. Isolation and characterization of sake yeast mutants deficient in γ-aminobutyric acid utilization in sake brewing. J Biosci Bioeng. 97 : 412-418.
    連結:
  93. Thakur, M. L. and Srivastava, U. S. 1996. Vitamin E metabolism and application. Nutr Res. 16 : 1767-1809.
    連結:
  94. Thomas, M. J. 1995. The role of free radicals and antioxidants : how do we know that they are working ? Crit Rev food Sci Nutr. 35 : 21-39.
    連結:
  95. Tsai, C. H., Miller, A., Spalding, M. and Rodermel, S. 1997. Source strength regulates an early phase transition of tobacco shoot morphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 115 : 907-914.
    連結:
  96. Ueno, H. 2000. Enzymatic and structural aspects on glutamate decarboxylase. J Mol Catal B-Enzym. 10 : 67-79.
    連結:
  97. Vermeij, T. A. C. and Edelbroek, P. M. 2004. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pregabalin, gabapentin and vigabatrin in human serum by precolumn derivatization with o-phtaldialdehyde and fluorescence detection. J Chrom B. 810 : 297-303.
    連結:
  98. Vescovi, P. P., Volpi, R. and Coiro, V. 1998. Alcoholism abolishes the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic control of GH secretion in humans. Alcohol. 16 : 325-328.
    連結:
  99. Vinson, J. A., Hao, Y., Su, X. and Zubik, L. 1998. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods : vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 46 : 3630-3634.
    連結:
  100. Wegeliu, K., Halonen, T. and Korpi, E. R. 1993. Gamma-viny GABA decreases voluntary alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 73 : 150-152.
    連結:
  101. Weisburger, J. H. 2000. Eat to live, not live to eat. Nutrition. 16 : 767-773.
    連結:
  102. William, W. B., Cuvelier, M. E. and Berset, C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm-Wiss Technol. 28 : 25-30.
    連結:
  103. Yang, C. S., Landau, J. M., Huang, M. T. and Newmark, H. L. 2001. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Annu Rev Nutr. 21 : 381-406.
    連結:
  104. Yen, G. C. and Chen, H. Y. 1995. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J Agric Food Chem. 43 : 27-32.
    連結:
  105. Yokoyama, S., Hiramatsu, J. I. and Hayakawa, K. 2002. Production of γ-aminobutyric acid from alcohol distillery lees by Lactobacillus brevis IFO-12005. J Biosci Bioeng. 93 : 95-97.
    連結:
  106. Yoon, K. Y., Woodams, E. E. and Hang, Y.D. 2005. Fermentation of beet juice by beneficial lactic acid bacteria. Lebensm Wiss u Technol. 38 : 73-75.
    連結:
  107. Yukihiko, A., Misato, K., Ritsuko K., Makoto, S., Haruhiro, M., Keiichiro, E. and Mitsuo, O. 1998. Isolation of sake yeast strains processing various levels of succinate-and/or malate-producing abilites by gene disruption or mutation. J Biosci Bioeng. 87 : 333-339.
    連結:
  108. 中國國家標準。CNS 2424。
  109. 中國國家標準。CNS13446。
  110. 王光輝。1998。清酒醪中酸度高的可能原因。製酒科技專論彙編,20 : 58-59。
  111. 王雪芬。2004a。GABA之生理功效。興大農業,49 : 19-23。
  112. 王進琦。1998。基礎微生物學。藝軒圖書出版社。台北,台灣。
  113. 王麗蓉。2004b。製麴與酒母製備條件對清酒釀造之影響。國立中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。
  114. 毛青鐘。2001。黃酒發酵過程中乳酸桿菌的功與過。釀酒科技,28 : 72-75。
  115. 白松、林向阳、阮榕生、鄭丹丹、劉玉環、何承云。2005。γ-胺基丁酸的分布與製備。現代食品科技,21 : 202-205。
  116. 朱文深。1994。乳酸菌之遺傳工程研究。食品工業,26 : 13-22。
  117. 朱巧蓉。2004。乳酸菌於糖化山藥漿液生長條件之探討。國立中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。
  118. 吳丁山、周正俊。1984。利用芳香乳酸菌製備發酵米奶飲料。第二報:發酵米奶中成份之變化與發酵米奶飲料之製備。食品科學,12 : 60-66。
  119. 吳奕頡。2003。富含γ-胺基丁酸乳酸發酵糙米奶之研製。國立嘉義大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。
  120. 李秀、賴滋漢、柯文慶。2000。食品分析與檢驗。富林出版社。台中,台灣。
  121. 李婉媜。1994。乳酸發酵芋頭飲料及冷凍甜點之開發。私立輔仁大學食品營養學研究所碩士班碩士論文。
  122. 周惠明、張民平。2002。糙米中功能性成分的研究。食品科技,5 : 17-19。
  123. 孟憲梅、余平。2004。天然營養保健糙米食品的開發與生產。糧食與飼料工業,10 : 27-29。
  124. 林俊杰。1990。酵母菌之葡萄糖代謝。製酒科技專論彙編,12 : 135- 141。
  125. 林俊杰。1996。製麴之理論。製酒科技專論彙編,18 : 169-174。
  126. 林姿岑。2000。紅麴菌二級代謝物之發酵生產研究―γ-胺基丁酸及monacolin K。國立台灣大學農業化學研究所碩士論文。
  127. 林苑暉。2002。糙米添加芡實之擠壓食品理化特性及其生理活性之探討。國立中興大學食品科學研究所博士論文。
  128. 林富美。2004。乳酸菌與免疫調節作用。食品工業,36 : 16-26。
  129. 林讚峰。1998。酒類食品工廠實務技術手冊-清酒麴之製造與品質管理。經濟部工業局。新竹,台灣。
  130. 林讚峰。1999。清酒麴之製造與品質管理。清酒製造技術,19-38。
  131. 邱雪惠。2004。乳酸菌之抗癌機制。食品工業,36 : 27-33。
  132. 姚念周。2001。感官品評-基礎與應用。樞紐科技顧問出版。新竹,台灣。
  133. 孫付保,任洪豔,趙長新。2005。啤酒酵母發酵產有機酸的生理代謝機制。食品工業科技,26 : 70-72。
  134. 徐岳正、周建弟、丁關海。2004。淺談紹興酒中的有機酸。釀酒科技,6 : 77-78。
  135. 翁瑞光、顏國欽。1997。豆芽、黃豆芽及蘿蔔嬰抗氧化性之研究。中國農業學會誌,5 : 661-670。
  136. 張月眉、施瑋筑、陳桐榮。2006。利用兩株不同乳酸菌混菌發酵花生乳生產γ-胺基丁酸最適條件之探討。台灣食品科技學會第卅六屆年會壁報論文。B-51。
  137. 張守文。2003。糙米的營養保健功能。糧食與飼料工業,12 : 38-41。
  138. 張暉、姚惠源、姜元榮。2002。富含γ-胺基丁酸保健食品的研究與開發。食品與發酵工業,28 : 69-72。
  139. 區少梅。2003。食品感官品評及實習。華格那出版。台中,台灣。
  140. 許建軍、江波、許時嬰。2002。生物合成γ-胺基丁酸的乳酸菌的篩選。食品科技,10 : 7-8。
  141. 陳海軍、林親录、李麗輝。2006。食品原料中GABA的富集研究發展。現代食品科技,22 : 196-198。
  142. 陳慶源。2004。益生菌治療法。食品工業,36 : 45-53。
  143. 黃正財。1983。麴。製酒科技專論彙編,5 : 145-160。
  144. 黃國榮、余嚴尊、李綉鈴。1993。台灣發酵麴菌之研究(I)保存麴菌之酵素生成性。食品科學,20 : 567-573。
  145. 楊宗熙。1996。油脂氧化安定性與天然抗氧化劑效力之評估。食品工業,48 : 22-32。
  146. 楊洋、韋小英、阮征。2002。國內外天然食品抗氧化劑的研究進展。食品科學,23 : 137-140。
  147. 楊勝遠、陸兆新、呂風霞、別小妹。2005。γ-胺基丁酸的生理功能和研究開發進展。食品科學,26 : 546-551。
  148. 楊媛絢。1998。原生保健菌種(probiotics)與益菌助生質(prebiotics)之應用。食品工業,30 : 11-21。
  149. 葉伶宜。2002。紅麴菌之二次代謝產物及其分析方法簡介。食品工業,34 : 11-20。
  150. 雷少平。1980。米糠油中米糠醇與對烏腳病之膳食治療之研究。國立台灣大學農業化學研究所碩士論文。
  151. 劉月好、任力民。2004。糙米的營養價值及在食品中的應用。糧食加工,2 : 18-20。
  152. 劉伯康。1997。數種傳統食用植物抗氧化性之研究。國立中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。
  153. 劉祖君。2002。製酒用麴及其相關酵素的介紹。食品工業,34 : 14-18。
  154. 歐陽港生。1998。大麴。製酒科技專論彙編,20 : 138-150。
  155. 蔣宗哲。1998。米食加工-釀造類。米食加工,pp.149-154。豐年社。台北,台灣。
  156. 蔡英傑。1998。乳酸菌與益生菌。生物產業,9 : 98-104。
  157. 盧訓。1991。穀類科學與加工,pp.92。國立中興大學。台中,台灣。
  158. 賴滋漢、金安兒。2003。食品加工學(加工篇)。富林出版社,台中,台灣。
  159. 羅國仁、余立文。2004。固態發酵製程的開發與應用。食品工業,36 : 2-10。
  160. 蘇遠志。2001。應用微生物學。華香園出版社。台北,台灣。
  161. 續光清。1977。食品製造。徐氏基金會。台北,台灣。
  162. 大森正司。1992。ギャバロン茶健康法―高血圧と二日酔いに特効。建友館。東京。
  163. 岡田忠司。2001。GABA富化コメ胚芽の生理機能。食品と開發,36 : 7-9。
  164. 津志田藤二郎。1986。血壓降下作用を強化した茶の製造。茶,39 : 1-6。
  165. Blakeney, A. 1984. Rice grain quality. In : Rice Growing in New South Wales (edited by A. Currey). pp. 1-5. Yanco, Australia : Department of Agriculture New South Wales and the Rice Research Committee.
  166. Champagne, E. T., Hron R. J., and Abraham, G. 1991. Stabilizing brown rice product by aqueous ethanol extraction. Cereal Chem. 68 : 267-271.
  167. Jay, J. M. 1992. Modern Food Microbiology, 4th ed. pp. 131-147. Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY.
  168. John, M. A. and Fischer, J. G. 1994. Role of minerals in protection against free radicals. Food Technol. 48 : 112-120.
  169. Meilgaard, M., Civille, G. V. and Carr, B. T. 1991. Descriptive Analysis Techniques. In Sensory Evaluation Techniques. pp.187-200. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton.
  170. Rahardjo, Y. S. 2005. Fungal mats in solid-state fermentation. PhD thesis, pp. 107-134. Wageningen university, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  171. Sohal, R. S., Mockett, R. J. and Orr, W. C. 2002. Mechanisms of aging : An appraisal of the oxidantive stress hypothesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 33 : 575-586.
  172. Stone, H. and Sidel, J. L. 1993. Sensory Evaluation Practices, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.
  173. Tortora, G. J., Funke, B. R. and Case, C. L. 1992. Microbiology an introduction (4th ed.). The benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company ,Inc.
Times Cited
  1. 楊志佳(2011)。利用二階段發酵法製備米糠乳酸發酵飲品及米糠再利用性提升之研究。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2011。1-153。 
  2. 黃千芸(2010)。以根黴菌發酵不同米基質對其抗氧化性質及機能性成分生成之影響。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2010。1-132。 
  3. 陳慧如(2008)。山胡椒精油抗氧化活性暨微膠囊製備之研究。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2008。1-116。 
  4. 高繪雯(2011)。大豆糙米飯對過重停經後婦女體脂肪及血脂之影響。臺北醫學大學保健營養學研究所學位論文。2011。1-127。 
  5. 施宜興(2013)。益生菌優酪乳改善便祕之第一二期臨床試驗。中國醫藥大學中西醫結合研究所碩士班學位論文。2013。1-54。 
  6. 張相儀(2015)。探討大麥芽對乳酸菌發酵黑豆奶抗氧化能力之影響。臺灣大學食品科技研究所學位論文。2015。1-74。 
  7. 江冠威(2008)。利用米水解液培養 Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens 之培養基組成及培養條件研究。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2008。1-117。
  8. 涂曉君(2009)。以米酵素水解液培養 Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens 生產發酵飲品。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2009。1-150。
  9. 陳建宇(2009)。回春水製備條件及抗氧化活性探討。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2009。1-103。
  10. 黃貞儒(2010)。益生菌於發芽糙米奶中發酵特性及對其維生素含量影響之研究。中臺科技大學食品科技研究所學位論文。2010。1-91。
  11. 黃貞儒(2010)。益生菌於發芽糙米奶中發酵特性及對其維生素含量影響之研究。中臺科技大學食品科技研究所學位論文。2010。1-91。
  12. 黃震宇(2011)。以黑豆為基質製備放射毛黴種麴及其機能性與應用。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2011。1-130。
  13. 余敏揚(2014)。無花果發酵液之抗氧化特性分析。虎尾科技大學生物科技研究所學位論文。2014。1-78。
  14. 吳沛瑄(2017)。香杉芝菌絲體區分物對血糖調節酵素與抗氧化活性之評估。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2017。1-140。