Title

以固態發酵製備樟芝米及其品質與抗氧化性質

Translated Titles

Preparation of Taiwanofungus camphoratus fermented rice using solid state fermentation and its quality and antioxidant properties

DOI

10.6845/NCHU.2006.00254

Authors

吳彩平

Key Words

樟芝 ; 固態發酵 ; 呈味品質 ; 抗氧化性質 ; 機能性成分 ; Taiwanofungus camphoratus ; solid state fermentation ; taste quality ; antioxidant properties ; functional components

PublicationName

中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2006年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

毛正倫

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

樟芝(Taiwanofungus camphoratus Wu et al.) 為一種珍稀的食藥用菇,含有許多生理活性物質,包括:多醣體、三萜類、過氧歧化酶、腺苷及麥角固醇。在藥理活性研究中發現樟芝具有抗發炎、抗氧化、抗癌、抗腫瘤及保肝作用。近年來國內因稻米生產過剩,而導致農民生計受到影響。故本研究以胚芽米為固態發酵樟芝米之基質,並針對樟芝米一般成份、營養、物理性質、呈味、生理活性物質及抗氧化活性進行評估。 以加水量50% 之胚芽米為基礎培養基,在不同發酵條件下生長所得之樟芝米,經分析後發現樟芝米 (T. camphoratus fermented rice; Chang-Chih rice) 較適合的生長條件分別為:溫度 (25°C)、初始 pH 值 (5.0)、氮源 (1% 黃豆粉)、碳源 (1% 蔗糖)、無機鹽類 (0.05% 磷酸氫二鉀)、水分含量 (50%)、菌種型態 (液態菌酛)、菌種均質時間 (0 sec)、菌種培養時間 (8 days) 和菌酛接種比例 (10%)。而以25°C下進行培養可使樟芝菌絲體生長達最高量 (123.09 mg/g)。 樟芝米和胚芽米在一般組成上並無太大差異。在營養方面,樟芝菌絲體之必需脂肪酸含量 (62.68%) 較樟芝米 (33.79%) 及胚芽米 (31.67%) 更高。而吸水性和白色度 (whiteness index) 之物性方面,樟芝米和菌絲體皆在數值上較胚芽米低。在呈味成分含量 (以等價鮮味值表示) 方面,依其含量多寡依序為菌絲體 (6.72) > 樟芝米 (0.09) > 胚芽米 (0.05 g /100 g)。在生物活性物質方面,粗三萜含量以菌絲體 (24.12) 高於樟芝米 (9.19 mg/g);而腺苷和麥角固醇含量亦是以菌絲體 (2.16 和 135.84 mg/g) 高於樟芝米 (0.18 和 7.92 mg/g)。 在樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體之熱水萃取物方面,整體來說,以樟芝米具有較好之抗氧化力活性。在清除 DPPH 自由基上,20 mg/mL 之樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體的能力分別為 99.45, 84.22 和 41.81%。 樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體之乙醇萃取物在 20 mg/mL 時,抗氧化力分別為 100、100 和 96.47%。在還原力上,樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體之乙醇萃取物在濃度為 20 mg/mL 時,分別為 1.41、0.56 和 0.98。在清除 DPPH 自由基能力上,於濃度10 mg/mL時,依序為菌絲體 (95.67) > 樟芝米 (94.86) > 胚芽米 (93.94) 。在螯合亞鐵離子能力上,在萃取物濃度 20 mg/ml 時,樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體分別為 74.64、89.86 和 44.8%。 由此結果可知,胚芽米經過固態發酵為樟芝米後,可提高樟芝米之營養、呈味和生理活性物質之含量及抗氧化性質。因此,利用本研究之結果即可開發出具營養、機能及保健性之稻米產品,並提高稻米產品之消費,而有助於改善國內稻米生產過剩之問題。

English Abstract

Taiwanofungus camphoratus Wu et al. (Chang-chih or Niu-chang-ku) is a precious edible and medicinal mushroom due to the fact that it contains many physiologically active materials, including polysaccharides, triterpenoids, superoxide dismutase, adenosine and ergosterol. In addition, the medicinal effects such as immunoregulatory, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-tumor and hepatoprotective had been found. Recently, the overproduction of rice greatly influences farmer's life. The objectives of this study were to prepare Chang-Chih rice using embryo rice as a base, to analyze its proximate composition, nutritional, taste and physiologically active components and antioxidant properties. The Chang-Chih rice was obtained from the solid state fermentation of cooked rice with 50% moisture content as the base under various conditions. The optimal growth conditions sought were: temperature (25 °C), initial pH value (5.0), nitrogen source (1% soybean meal), carbon source (1% sucose), mineral (0.05% K2HPO4), grain meal (1% pearled barley), water supplementation (50%), inoculum type (liquid), homogenization time of inoculum (0 sec), incubation time of inoculum (8 days) and inoculation rate (10%). Temperature at 25 °C could get the highest yield (123.09 mg/g). Generally, the proximate compositions of Chang-Chih rice and rice differed slightly. With regard to nutritional components, content of essential fatty acids of mycelia (62.68%) was higher than this of Chang-Chih rice (33.79%) and embryo rice (31.67%). With regard to the physical properties of water absorption and whiteness index, Chang-Chuh rice and mycelia showed lower values than embryo rice. With regard to contents of taste component as expressed as equivalent umami concentration, mycelia (6.72) were higher than those of Chang-Chih rice (0.09) and embryo rice (0.05 g MSG/100 g). With regard to physiologically active components, the content of crud triterpenoids, adenosine and ergosterol of mycelia (24.12, 2.16 and 135.84 mg/g) was higher than those of Chang-Chih rice (9.19, 0.18 and 7.92 mg/g). With regard to antioxidant properties of hot water extracts, embryo rice exhibited better antioxidant activity. At 20 mg/ml, scavenging abilities of embryo rice, Chang-Chih rice and mycelia on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 99.45, 84.22 and 41.81%, respectively. For Chang-Chih rice, embryo rice and mycelia, at 20 mg/ml, antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts were 100, 100 and 96.47% whereas at 20 mg/ml reducing powers were 1.41, 0.56 and 0.98, respectively. At 10 mg/ml, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were in the order of mycelia (95.67) > Chang-Chih rice (94.86) > embryo rice (93.94%). Ethanolic extracts from Chang-Chih rice, embryo rice and mycelia chelated ferrous ions by 74.64, 89.86 and 44.80% at 20 mg/ml, respectively. Based on the results obtained, the Chan-Chih rice prepared from the solid state fermentation of embryo rice contained higher contents of nutritional and physiologically active components and better antioxidant properties. Accordingly, the application of the information obtained herein can develop a new rice product with high nutritional, high functional and health, and increase the consumption of the rice product and thereby, reducing the stress raised from the overproduction of rice.

Topic Category 農業暨自然資源學院 > 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
生物農學 > 生物科學
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  3. 葉展均(2009)。以固態發酵製備白樺茸胚芽米及其呈味性質與生理活性。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2009。1-137。 
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