Title

微化豆渣機能特性及高纖麵條製備技術之研究

Translated Titles

Study on the functional properties of micronized soybean by-product and the technology of preparing noodle with high dietary fiber

Authors

蔡惠玲

Key Words

黃豆副產物 ; 豆渣 ; 微化 ; 機能特性 ; 膳食纖維 ; 麵條 ; soybean by-product ; soybean residue ; micronization ; functional properties ; dietary fiber ; noodle

PublicationName

中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2011年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

江伯源

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究利用黃豆加工副產物-豆渣為原料,經乾燥、研磨、過篩等步驟處理後製備成微化黃豆渣粉末,經評估其理化性質及機能性成分,並將其添加取代部份麵粉製備高纖麵條,探討粒徑大小、添加量等對麵條製備品質之影響。 將豆渣分別經冷凍乾燥(FD)及熱風乾燥(HD)處理、研磨微化後篩分為五種大小不同片段,其總膳食纖維含量範圍為66.99 - 78.60 %是膳食纖維的良好來源,實驗結果如下:色澤分析:L值(明亮度)與粒徑大小呈負相關,a值(紅色度)及b值(黃色度)則呈正相關;理化特性方面:體積密度、保水性、膨脹性與粒徑大小呈正相關;保油性於試樣經脫脂處理後隨粒徑大小降低而遞增,陽離子交換力亦隨粒徑大小降低而有顯著上升情形,保水性、保油性、膨脹性又以冷凍乾燥較熱風乾燥者為高;機能性成分分析中膳食纖維組成以非水溶性膳食纖維(IDF)為主,含量範圍為63.34 - 75.84%,大豆異黃酮含量範圍為26.38 - 82.19 µg/g,亦隨粒徑大小降低而上升。另以熱風乾燥處理之粗粒徑(316.72 µm)、中粒徑(126.85 µm)、細粒徑(35.25 µm)微化黃豆渣粉末各分別以5 %、10 %、15 %取代部份麵粉製備高纖麵條,探討豆渣粒徑大小、取代量、加水量對製麵過程中麵筋網狀結構以及麵條品質之影響;在麵條用粉成糊性質方面:尖峰黏度,崩裂黏度,終點黏度,黏度回復值等,均隨豆渣取代量增加而遞減,膨潤力(SP)、水溶性指標(WSI)及吸水指標(WAI)與溫度及粒徑大小呈正相關;麵條品質特性方面:生麵條及熟麵條經色澤分析L值、b值、W.I.值(白色度)及B.I.值(褐變指標)隨取代量增加呈現下降趨勢,另 L值、a值、W.I.值與粒徑大小呈負相關,b值及B.I.值則為正相關;熟麵條的硬度(HD)、附著度(AD)及抗拉強度(TS)隨取代量增加而遞減,但隨粒徑大小降低而提高;烹煮特性方面:烹煮損耗率、烹煮增重率、烹煮膨脹比隨取代量增加而增加,但隨粒徑大小降低而遞減。實驗結果顯示細粒徑微化豆渣粉及取代量較少者有較佳的麵條品質特性、烹煮特性及感官品評結果。其粒徑以38.25 µm,添加量5 ~ 10 %有較受歡迎之整體接受性,由本實驗微化豆渣粉末可應用作為天然纖維素材開發營養及口感兼具的機能性麵條。

English Abstract

This study uses soybean residue a by-product of soybean processing as the raw materials to produce micronized soybean residue powder through drying, grinding, sieving, etc. Their physicochemical and functional properties are determined. Soybean by-product powder were added in the place of some parts of the flour in noodle to examine the effects of various particle sizes and additives ratio on the quality of the noodles. The soybean by-products were divided into five groups of different sizes after freeze drying (FD), hot drying (HD), and sieving of the ground micronized powder. The total dietary fiber contents were around 66.99-78.60%, which showed the by-products can be a good source of dietary fiber. The experimental results were as follows: in the color analysis, there was a negative correlation between the L values and particle sizes. The a and b values had a positive correlation with particle sizes. The physicochemical properties analysis show that there was a positive correlation between bulk density, water-holding capacity, swelling capacity and particle size. There was a gradual increase in oil-holding capacity along with a decrease in particle sizes after the degreasing treatment. There was a distinctive increasement in cation-exchange capacity when the particle size decreased. The water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity and swelling capacity were higher in the freeze-dried samples than in the hot-dried samples. In the section of functional composition analysis, the functional dietary fiber contents were mainly consisted of insoluble dietary fiber, ranging from 63.34 to 75.84 %. The soy flavonoid contents were 26.38 ~ 82.19 μg/g, which increased as particle size decreased. The micronized soybean by-product powder of big particle size (316.72 μm), medium particle size (126.85 μm), and small particle size (35.25 μm) ,treated with hot drying, were used to replace 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % of the flour respectively, and effects of them on the quality of the noodles were examined. Analysis of the pasting properties of the noodles showed that there was a gradual decrease in the peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity and setback viscosity when the replacement amount increased. The swelling power, water soluble index and water absorption index have a positive correlation with temperature and particle size. The quality characteristics of the noodles showed that there was a decreasing trend in the L value , b value, W.I. and B.I. values when the replacement amount increased. There was a negative correlation between the L value, a value, W.I .value and particle size. The b value and B.I. value have a positive correlation with particle sizes. Hardness (HD), adhesiveness (AS), and tensile strength (TS) of the noodles decreased when the replacement amount increased, but they increased when the particle size decreased.. The cooking properties showed that there was an increase in the cooking loss, cooked weight gain, and cooked volume gain when the replacement amount increased, but they decreased when the particle size became smaller. The experimental results showed that there was an increasing trend in the quality characteristics, cooking properties and the sensory evaluation analysis of the noodles when the particle size and the replacement amount decreased.. The addition of micronized soybean by-product powder of 35.25 μm particle size to replace 5 - 10 % of the flour had a similar result with the noodles made from pure flour. This result showed that other ingredients besides flour can be used to develop nutritious and tasty noodles.

Topic Category 農業暨自然資源學院 > 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
生物農學 > 生物科學
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