Title

菇柄多醣對乳酸菌之助生性及應用在益生菌發酵乳之研究

Translated Titles

Study on prebiotic effect of polysaccharides from mushroom stipe on lactic acid bacteria and its application in fermented milk containing probitic bacteria

DOI

10.6845/NCHU.2011.00783

Authors

周韋廷

Key Words

菇類多醣 ; 益生菌 ; 益菌生 ; 發酵乳 ; Mushroom polysaccharide ; prebiotics ; probiotics ; fermented milk

PublicationName

中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2011年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

方繼

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

部份由植物中分離出的多醣由於具有促進乳酸菌生長的能力,因此被認為是一種益菌生物質(prebiotic)。而菇類多醣長久以來即因為免疫調節、抗腫瘤以及抗氧化等功效而廣為人知,但目前對於菇類多醣是否可做為益菌生物質了解仍不多。本研究利用香菇柄、杏鮑菇基部以及金針菇基部等做為多醣萃取來源,探討菇類多醣是否能提升乳酸益生菌(probiotic) Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 10695、Lactobacillus casei BCRC14080以及Bifidobacterium longum BCRC 14664於低溫儲存下之存活率,以及在腸胃道試驗中提升其對胃酸及膽鹽之抵抗能力,並評估添加多醣之發酵乳中的益生菌存活率以及是否有助增加發酵乳機能性。 實驗結果顯示,添加菇類多醣可以減緩三株測試乳酸菌在於低溫儲存下存活菌數減少之速率,中低劑量之多醣添加量(0.1%、0.5%(w/w))較添加高劑量(1.0%)者更能達到延緩乳酸菌死滅的效果。而添加0.5%多醣也可以改善乳酸菌對胃酸及膽鹽的抵抗能力,在同樣測試時間下,添加多醣之試驗組其存活菌數高於未添加多醣之控制組。 於低溫儲存試驗中,菇類多醣對發酵乳中益生菌之助益因菌種而異,其可維持L. acidophilus BCRC 10695於低溫下有較高存活菌數、可提升L. casei BCRC 14080之存活菌數以及減緩B. longum BCRC 14664存活菌數之減少速率,研究結果證明菇類多醣可幫助發酵乳中的乳酸菌,於低溫儲存下維持其存活率。 而在發酵乳蛋白質水解活性方面,含有B. longum BCRC 14664的發酵乳在添加金針菇多醣(FVP, Flammulina velutipes polysaccharide)後,於儲存期第28天時達到本次實驗中最高的蛋白質水解;ACE(Angiotensin I converting enzyme)抑制活性方面,發酵乳中的ACE抑制活性最高約為20%,且ACE抑制活性的變化與添加的多醣種類或儲存的天數沒有明顯的相關性, 本研究證實了藉由添加菇類多醣,可以提升益生菌在低溫儲存下的存活率、改善益生菌對胃酸及膽鹽的抵抗能力以及提升發酵乳中的益生菌存活率以及增進發酵乳的機能性,菇類多醣確實具有當做益菌生物值的潛力。

English Abstract

Some plant polysaccharides had been considered as having prebiotic effect which can selectively stimulate the growth of probiotics. The mushroom polysaccharides are well known for their immunomodulatory, anti-tumor and anti-cancer activity, however, litter information is available showing if they could be used as prebiotics. In this study, stipes of Lentinula edodes, bases of Pleurotus eryngii and Flammulina velutipes were used as raw materials for polysaccharides extraction. The effect of mushroom polysaccharides on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 10695, Lactobacillus casei BCRC14080 and Bifidobacterium longum BCRC 14664 under refrigerated storage and on their gastrointestinal tolerance were investigated. The viability of probiotics, proteolysis and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the fermented milk, which supplemented with mushroom polysaccharides were also investigated during cold storage. Results showed that mushroom polysaccharides enhanced survival of probiotics in MRS broth under refrigerated storage. Supplemented mushroom polysaccharides in lower concentrations (0.1-0.5% (w/w)) had better effect to enhance the probiotics viability than in higher concentration (1.0% (w/w)). The survival rate of probiotic bacteria in simulated gastric acid (pH 2.0) and bile juice (4.5%. pH 8.0) was higher compared to control group. Probiotic bacteria with 0.5% (w/w) mushroom polysaccharides supplementation improved their tolerance to such conditions. Supplementation with mushroom polysaccharides could keep the higher microbial counts of L. acidophilus BCRC 10695, improve viability of L. casei BCRC 14080 and retard the death of B. longum BCRC 14664 in fermented milk during cold storage. The presence of high functionality of proteolysis in fermented milk containing B. longum with 0.1 % (w/w) FVP (F. velutipes polysaccharide) at 28 days in cold storage was observed; 20% ACE inhibition was observed in the fermented milk In addition, the presence of prebiotics or storage period did not influence the ACE inhibitory activity. This study indicated that mushroom polysaccharides enhanced probiotics survival in MRS during cold storage and improve their tolerance in simulated gastric and bile juice. Supplementation with mushroom polysaccharides also increased the population of probiotics and functionality of the fermented milk, which suggest that mushroom polysaccharides are potential prebiotics.

Topic Category 農業暨自然資源學院 > 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
生物農學 > 生物科學
Reference
  1. 林詩偉。2007。雪蓮乳酸菌益生菌特性評估與免疫調節及抗病原菌侵入試驗。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  2. 陳泳全。2008。麻竹筍膳食纖維對於藝生菌生長之助生性功效研究。中臺科技大學食品科技研究所學位論文。
    連結:
  3. 陳寶秀。1996。松杉靈芝子實體中多醣之完全利用。台北醫學大學醫學科學研究所碩士論文。
    連結:
  4. 陳淑芬。2007a。菇類食品發展現況與趨勢。2011/05/07截取。
    連結:
  5. 黃振哲。2010。食用菇類不同多醣體之製備與其抗氧化活性評估。中臺科技大學食品科技研究所學位論文。
    連結:
  6. 黃齡誼。2010。高麥角硫因含量之杏鮑菇菌絲體深層培養及其生理活性。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  7. 曾國權。2010。紅麴發酵產品中多醣成分之免疫調節機能探討。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  8. Adams, M. R. (1999). Safety of industrial lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Biotechnology, 68(2-3), 171-178.
    連結:
  9. Alm, L. (1982). Effect of fermentation on lactose, glucose, and galactose content in milk and suitability of fermented milk products for lactose intolerant individuals. Journal of Dairy Science, 65(3), 346-352.
    連結:
  10. Aso, Y., Akaza, H., Kotake, T., Tsukamoto, T., IMAI, T., & Naito, S. (1995). Preventive effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer in a double-blind trial. European Urology, 27(2), 104-109.
    連結:
  11. Aso, Y., & Akazan, H. (1992). Prophylactic Effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Urologia Internationalis, 49(3), 125-129.
    連結:
  12. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1968). Cell wall chemistry, morphogenesis, and taxonomy of fungi. Annual Reviews in Microbiology, 22(1), 87-108.
    連結:
  13. Berrada, N., Lemeland, J. F., Laroche, G., Thouvenot, P., & Piaia, M. (1991). Bifidobacterium from fermented milks: survival during gastric transit. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(2), 409-413.
    連結:
  14. Bruno, F., Lankaputhra, W., & Shah, N. (2002). Growth, viability and activity of Bifidobacterium spp. in skim milk containing prebiotics. Journal of Food Science, 67(7), 2740-2744.
    連結:
  15. Capela, P., Hay, T., & Shah, N. (2006). Effect of cryoprotectants, prebiotics and microencapsulation on survival of probiotic organisms in yoghurt and freeze-dried yoghurt. Food Research International, 39(2), 203-211.
    連結:
  16. Charalampopoulos, D., Wang, R., Pandiella, S. S., & Webb, C. (2002). Application of cereals and cereal components in functional foods: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 79(1-2), 131-141.
    連結:
  17. Church, F. C., Swaisgood, H. E., Porter, D. H., & Catignani, G. L. (1983). Spectrophotometric assay using o-phthaldialdehyde for determination of proteolysis in milk and isolated milk proteins1. Journal of Dairy Science, 66(6), 1219-1227.
    連結:
  18. Cushman, D., & Cheung, H. (1971). Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochemical Pharmacology, 20(7), 1637-1648.
    連結:
  19. Corcoran, B., Ross, R., Fitzgerald, G., & Stanton, C. (2004). Comparative survival of probiotic lactobacilli spray dried in the presence of prebiotic substances. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96(5), 1024-1039.
    連結:
  20. Cronin, D. A., & Ward, M. K. (1971). The characterisation of some mushroom volatiles. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 22(9), 477-479.
    連結:
  21. Cummings, J., & Macfarlane, G. (2002). Gastrointestinal effects of prebiotics. British Journal of Nutrition, 87(S2), S145-S151.
    連結:
  22. de Vrese, M., & Schrezenmeir, J. (2008). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Food Biotechnology, 1-66.
    連結:
  23. Dave, R. I., & Shah, N. P. (1996). Evaluation of media for selective enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and bifidobacteria. Journal of Dairy Science, 79(9), 1529-1536.
    連結:
  24. Dave, R. I., & Shah, N. P. (1997). Viability of yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in yoghurts made from commercial starter cultures. International Dairy Journal, 7(1), 31-41.
    連結:
  25. Deeth, H., & Tamime, A. (1981). Yoghurt: nutritive and therapeutic aspects. Journal of Food Protection (USA).
    連結:
  26. Desai, A., Powell, I., & Shah, N. (2004). Survival and activity of probiotic lactobacilli in skim milk containing prebiotics. Journal of Food Science, 69(3), FMS57-FMS60.
    連結:
  27. De Souza Oliveira, R. P., Perego, P., Converti, A., & De Oliveira, M. N. (2009). The effect of inulin as a prebiotic on the production of probiotic fibre-enriched fermented milk. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 62(2), 195-203.
    連結:
  28. Donkor, O., Henriksson, A., Vasiljevic, T., & Shah, N. P. (2005). Probiotic strains as starter cultures improve angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity in soy yogurt. Journal of food science, 70(8), m375-m381.
    連結:
  29. Donkor, O. N., Nilmini, S. L. I., Stolic, P., Vasiljevic, T., & Shah, N. P. (2007). Survival and activity of selected probiotic organisms in set-type yoghurt during cold storage. International Dairy Journal, 17(6), 657-665.
    連結:
  30. Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical chemistry, 28(3), 350-356.
    連結:
  31. Femia, A. P., Luceri, C., Dolara, P., Giannini, A., Biggeri, A., Salvadori, M., Clune, Y., Collins, K. J., Paglierani, M., & Caderni, G. (2002). Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis, 23(11), 1953.
    連結:
  32. Fernandes, C., Shahani, K., & Amer, M. (1987). Therapeutic role of dietary lactobacilli and lactobacillic fermented dairy products. FEMS microbiology letters, 46(3), 343-356.
    連結:
  33. Fitzgerald, R. J., & Murray, B. A. (2006). Bioactive peptides and lactic fermentations. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 59(2), 118-125.
    連結:
  34. Galdeano, C. M., & Perdigon, G. (2006). The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei induces activation of the gut mucosal immune system through innate immunity. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 13(2), 219-226.
    連結:
  35. Gibson, G. R., & Roberfroid, M. B. (1995). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. The Journal of Nutrition, 125(6), 1401-1412.
    連結:
  36. Gibson, G. R., Probert, H. M., Loo, J. V., Rastall, R. A., & Roberfroid, M. B. (2004). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutrition Research Reviews, 17(02), 259-275.
    連結:
  37. Gilliland, S., & Walker, D. (1990). Factors to consider when selecting a culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a dietary adjunct to produce a hypocholesterolemic effect in humans. Journal of Dairy Science, 73(4), 905-911.
    連結:
  38. Gobbetti, M., Ferranti, P., Smacchi, E., Goffredi, F., & Addeo, F. (2000). Production of angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme-inhibitory peptides in fermented milks started by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus SS1 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FT4. Applied and environmental microbiology, 66(9), 3898.
    連結:
  39. Gobbetti, M., Stepaniak, L., De Angelis, M., Corsetti, A., & Cagno, R. D. (2002). Latent bioactive peptides in milk proteins: proteolytic activation and significance in dairy processing. Critical Reviews in Food science and Nutrition, 42(3), 223-239.
    連結:
  40. Gokavi, S., Zhang, L., Huang, M. K., Zhao, X., & Guo, M. (2005). Oat based symbiotic beverage fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Journal of Food Science, 70(4), M216-M223.
    連結:
  41. Guo, F., Williams, B., Kwakkel, R., & Verstegen, M. (2003). In vitro fermentation characteristics of two mushroom species, an herb, and their polysaccharide fractions, using chicken cecal contents as inoculum. Poult Sci, 82(10), 1608-1615.
    連結:
  42. Guo, F. C., Kwakkel, R. P., Williams, B. A., Li, W. K., Li, H. S., Luo, J. Y., Li, X. P., Wei, Y. X., Yan, Z. T., & Verstegen, M. W. A. (2004). Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers. British Poultry Science, 45(5), 684-694.
    連結:
  43. Hamill, F. A., Hill, A., Azadi, P., Martzen, M. R., Donelson, R., Sweet, E., Schildt, S., & Wenner, C. A. (2008). Phagocytic activity is related to total polysaccharide concentration and percent (1,3), (1,4)-glucan in commercial mushroom extracts. Planta Medica, 74(9), 962-962.
    連結:
  44. Hata, Y., Yamamoto, M., Ohni, M., Nakajima, K., Nakamura, Y., & Takano, T. (1996). A placebo-controlled study of the effect of sour milk on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64(5), 767.
    連結:
  45. Havenaar, R., Ten Brink, B., & Huis In't Veld, J. (1992). Selection of strains for probiotic use. (pp. 209-224): Chapman & Hall, London.
    連結:
  46. Hikino, H., Konno, C., Mirin, Y., & Hayashi, T. (1985). Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of ganoderans A and B, glycans of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Plant. Med., 339-340.
    連結:
  47. Hyronimus, B., Le Marrec, C., Hadj Sassi, A., & Deschamps, A. (2000). Acid and bile tolerance of spore-forming lactic acid bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 61(2-3), 193-197.
    連結:
  48. Jong, S., & Birmingham, J. (1993). Medicinal and therapeutic value of the shiitake mushroom. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 39, 153-184.
    連結:
  49. Kiho, T., Hui, J., Yamane, A., & Ukai, S. (1993). Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 16(12), 1291.
    連結:
  50. Kiho, T., Sobue, S., & Ukai, S. (1994). Structural features and hypoglycemic activities of two polysaccharides from a hot-water extract of Agrocybe cylindracea. Carbohydrate Research, 251, 81-87.
    連結:
  51. Klaver, F. A. M., Kingma, F., & Weerkamp, A. (1993). Growth and survival of bifidobacteria in milk. Nederlands melk en Zuiveltijdschrift, 47(3-4), 151-164.
    連結:
  52. Konno, K. (1995). Biologically active components of poisonous mushrooms. Food Reviews International, 11(1), 83-107.
    連結:
  53. Korhonen, H., & Pihlanto, A. (2006). Bioactive peptides: production and functionality. International Dairy Journal, 16(9), 945-960.
    連結:
  54. Lamsal, B. P., & Faubion, J. M. (2009). The Beneficial Use of Cereal and Cereal Components in Probiotic Foods. Food Reviews International, 25(2), 103-114.
    連結:
  55. Lavi, I., Friesem, D., Geresh, S., Hadar, Y., & Schwartz, B. (2006). An aqueous polysaccharide extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on HT-29 colon cancer cells. Cancer Letters, 244(1), 61-70.
    連結:
  56. Laroia, S., & Martin, J. (1991). Methods for enumerating and propagating bifidobacteria. Cult. Dairy Prod. J, 26(2), 32-33.
    連結:
  57. Litchfield, J. (1967). Morel mushroom mycelium as a food flavoring material. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 9(3), 289-304.
    連結:
  58. Lourens-Hattingh, A., & Viljoen, B. C. (2001). Yogurt as probiotic carrier food. International Dairy Journal, 11(1-2), 1-17.
    連結:
  59. Mack, D. R., Michail, S., Wei, S., McDougall, L., & Hollingsworth, M. A. (1999). Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coliadherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 276(4), G941.
    連結:
  60. Mallett, A., Bearne, C., & Rowland, I. (1989). The influence of incubation pH on the activity of rat and human gut flora enzymes. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 66(5), 433-437.
    連結:
  61. Marteau, P., Flourie, B., Pochart, P., Chastang, C., Desjeux, J., & Rambaud, J. (1990). Effect of the microbial lactase (EC 3.2. 1.23) activity in yoghurt on the intestinal absorption of lactose: an in vivo study in lactase-deficient humans. British Journal of Nutrition, 64(1), 71-79.
    連結:
  62. Matsui, T., Matsufuji, H., & Osajima, Y. (1992). Colorimetric measurement of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity with trinitrobenzene sulfonate. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 56(3), 517-518.
    連結:
  63. Mattila, P., K. Suonpaa & V. piironen. (2000). Functional properties of edible mushrooms. Nutrition, 16(7-8), 694-696.
    連結:
  64. Mau, J. L., Lin, Y. P., Chen, P. T., Wu, Y. H., & Peng, J. T. (1998). Flavor compounds in king oyster mushrooms Pleurotus eryngii. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(11), 4587-4591.
    連結:
  65. Michida, H., Tamalampudi, S., Pandiella, S. S., Webb, C., Fukuda, H., & Kondo, A. (2006). Effect of cereal extracts and cereal fiber on viability of Lactobacillus plantarum under gastrointestinal tract conditions. Biochemical engineering journal, 28(1), 73-78.
    連結:
  66. Minato, K. (2008). Immunomodulation activity of a polysaccharide fraction of a culinary-medicinal mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer (Agaricomycetideae), in vitro. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 10(3), 235-244.
    連結:
  67. Nakamura, Y., Yamamoto, N., Sakai, K., Okubo, A., Yamazaki, S., & Takano, T. (1995). Purification and characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors from sour milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 78(4), 777-783.
    連結:
  68. Nakamura, Y., Masuda, O., & Takano, T. (1996). Decrease of tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity upon feeding sour milk in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 60(3), 488-489.
    連結:
  69. Nanji, A. A., Khettry, U., & Sadrzadeh, S. (1994). Lactobacillus feeding reduces endotoxemia and severity of experimental alcoholic liver (disease). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 205(3), 243-2477
    連結:
  70. Oliveira, M., Sodini, I., Remeuf, F., & Corrieu, G. (2001). Effect of milk supplementation and culture composition on acidification, textural properties and microbiological stability of fermented milks containing probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal, 11(11-12), 935-942.
    連結:
  71. Ozer, D., Akin, S., & Ozer, B. (2005). Effect of inulin and lactulose on survival of Lactobacillus Acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-02 in acidophilus-bifidus yoghurt. Food Science and Technology International, 11(1), 19.
    連結:
  72. Park, Y. S., Lee, J. Y., Kim, Y. S., & Shin, D. H. (2002). Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from feces of newborn baby and from dongchimi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(9), 2531-2536.
    連結:
  73. Parvez, S., Malik, K. A., Kang, S. A., & Kim, H. Y. (2006). Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100(6), 1171-1185.
    連結:
  74. Peter, C. K. C. (1996). Dietary fiber content and composition of some cultivated edible mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(2), 468-471.
    連結:
  75. Prasad, J., Gill, H., Smart, J., & Gopal, P. K. (1998). Selection and characterisation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for use as probiotics. International Dairy Journal, 8(12), 993-1002.
    連結:
  76. Price, L., Wenner, C., Sloper, D., Slaton, J., & Novack, J. (2008). Stimulation of TNF-alpha secretion by Polysaccharide Krestin, a Trametes versicolor mushroom extract, is toll-like receptor 4-dependent and dectin-1 independent. Planta Medica, 74(9), 984-984.
    連結:
  77. Rajalakshmi, R., & Vanaja, K. (1967). Chemical and biological evaluation of the effects of fermentation on the nutritive value of foods prepared from rice and grams. British Journal of Nutrition, 21(02), 467-473.
    連結:
  78. Ramchandran, L., & Shah, N. P. (2010). Influence of addition of Raftiline HP (R) on the growth, proteolytic, ACE- and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of selected lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium. Lwt-Food Science and Technology, 43(1), 146-152.
    連結:
  79. Rosburg, V., Boylston, T., & White, P. (2010). Viability of bifidobacteria strains in yogurt with added Oat beta glucan and corn starch during cold storage. Journal of Food Science, 75(5), C439-C444.
    連結:
  80. Schrezenmeir, J., & de Vrese, M. (2001). Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics approaching a definition. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 73(2) 361S-364S.
    連結:
  81. Sendra, E., Fayos, P., Lario, Y., Fernandez-Lopez, J., Sayas-Barbera, E., & Perez-Alvarez, J. A. (2008). Incorporation of citrus fibers in fermented milk containing probiotic bacteria. Food Microbiology, 25(1), 13-21.
    連結:
  82. Shahani, K., Friend, B., & Bailey, P. (1983). Antitumor activity of fermented colostrum and milk. Journal of Food Protection. 46 (5), 385-386.
    連結:
  83. Shankar, P., & Davies, F. (1976). Associative bacterial growth in yogurt starters, initial observation on stimulatory factors. J. Soc. Dairy Technol, 30, 33.
    連結:
  84. Sheih, I. C., Fang, T. J., & Wu, T. K. (2009). Isolation and characterisation of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from the algae protein waste. Food Chemistry, 115(1), 279-284.
    連結:
  85. Singh, J., Khanna, A., & Chandar, H. (1980). Effect of incubation temperature and heat treatments of milk from milk of cow and buffalo on acid and flavour production by S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus. Journal of Food Protection, 43, 399-400.
    連結:
  86. Sodini, I., Lucas, A., Oliveira, M., Remeuf, F., & Corrieu, G. (2002). Effect of milk base and starter culture on acidification, texture, and probiotic cell counts in fermented milk processing. Journal of Dairy Science, 85(10), 2479-2488.
    連結:
  87. Stanton, C., Ross, R. P., Fitzgerald, G. F., & Sinderen, D. V. (2005). Fermented functional foods based on probiotics and their biogenic metabolites. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 16(2), 198-203.
    連結:
  88. Synytsya, A., Mickova, K., Jablonsky, I., Spevacek, J., Erban, V., Kovarikova, E., & Copikova, J. (2009). Glucans from fruit bodies of cultivated mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii: Structure and potential prebiotic activity. Carbohydrate Polymers, 76(4), 548-556.
    連結:
  89. Taranto, M., Medici, M., Perdigon, G., Ruiz Holgado, A., & Valdez, G. (1998). Evidence for hypocholesterolemic effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in hypercholesterolemic mice. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(9), 2336-2340.
    連結:
  90. Tharmaraj, N., & Shah, N. P. (2003). Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria. Journal of Dairy Science, 86(7), 2288-2296.
    連結:
  91. Tseng, Y. H., Young, J. H. & Mau, J. L. Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae. Food Chemistry, 170(2), 732-738.,
    連結:
  92. Vermeirssen, V., Van Camp, J., Decroos, K., Van Wijmelbeke, L., & Verstraete, W. (2003). The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on the formation of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity from pea and whey protein. Journal of Dairy Science, 86(2), 429-438.
    連結:
  93. 丁懷謙。2000。食藥用菇多醣體之免疫生理活性。食品工業,32(5):28-53。
  94. 方繼,李根永,李清福,林建谷,林順富,范晉嘉,陳惠英,虞積凱,蔡國珍譯。1999。現代食品微生物學。偉明圖書。(Jay, J. M., 1996)。
  95. 水野卓,川合正允著。賴慶亮譯。1992。菇類的化學•生化學。國立編譯館。
  96. 王伯徹。2000。食藥用菇保健產品之開發。食品工業,32(5):18-27。
  97. 王伯徹,陳啟禎,華杰著。1998。食藥用菇類的培養與應用。財團法人食品工業發展研究所。
  98. 卯曉蘭。1989。中國的食用和藥用大型真菌。微生物學通報。16:290-197。
  99. 林彥斌。1998。香姑柄部、柳松菇基部與金針菇子實體的熱水和鹼液萃取物之品質評估與純化分析。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科學系碩士論文。
  100. 徐岩譯。李敏雄總校閱。發酵食品微生物學。2007。藝軒圖書。( B. J. B. Wood (ed.), 1998)。
  101. ITIS智網,http://www.itis.org.tw/rptDetail.screen?industry=3&ctgy
  102. =19&rptidno=D8F2A27980987B88482572E6001518C2&check=o。
  103. 陳淑芬。2007b。菇類生鮮與保健食品市場調查與分析。食品工業,39(5):56-64。
  104. 陳健祺。2000。食藥用菇類在醫藥上的應用。食品工業,32(5):54-69。
  105. 黃建榕。1998。酵素及果寡醣添加對酸酪乳品質及風味之影響。畜產研究31(1):35-42。
  106. 黃琪雅。2009。純化與定序具有抑制血管收縮素轉化酵素活性之雞蛋蛋白胜月太。東海大學食品科學系碩士論文。
  107. 廖啟成。2003。乳酸菌有到底含有那些菌種?。2011/05/07擷取,臺灣乳酸菌協會,http://www.talab.org.tw/FAQ.htm。
  108. 廖啟成。2003。除了喝優酪乳之外,還有那些產品也會含有益生菌呢?。2011/05/07擷取,臺灣乳酸菌協會,http://www.talab.org.tw/FAQ.htm。
  109. 潘子明。2005。我國乳酸菌最近的研究趨勢暨通過健康食品認證之乳酸菌產品現況。農業生技與產業季刊。3:19-27。
  110. 遲貴榮,徐琳,吳繼衛,邢建欣。杏鮑菇多醣的抗病毒、抗腫瘤研究。萊陽農業學院學報。23(3):174-176。
  111. Ashar, M. N., & Chand, R. (2004). Fermented milk containing ACE-inhibitory peptides reduces blood pressure in middle aged hypertensive subjects. Milchwissenschaft, 59(7-8), 363-366.
  112. Brown, I., Wang, X., Topping, D., Playne, M., & Conway, P. (1998). High amylose maize starch as a versatile prebiotic for use with probiotic bacteria. Food Australia-official journal of CAFTA and AIFST., 50(12), 603.
  113. Chang, S. T. & Miles, P. G. (1989). The nutritional attributes and medicinal values of edible mushroom. Chapter 2. P.27-40. In:Edible Mushrooms and Their Cultivation. CRC Press, Inc.
  114. Dellaglio, F. (1988). Starter for fermented milks. Thermophilic starters. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation (IDF), No. 227, 27-34.
  115. Kariya, K., Nakamura, K., Nomoto, K., Matama, S., & Saigenji, K. (1992). Mimicking of superoxide dismutase activity by protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL, and oxidative stress relief for cancer patients. Molecular Biotherapy, 4(1), 40.
  116. Kurmann, J. A., & Rasic, J. L. (1991).The health potential of products containing bifidobacteria. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Therapeutic properties of fermented milks (pp. 117–158). London, UK: Elsevier Applied Food Sciences.
  117. Maturin, L. & Peeler, J. T. (1998). Aerobic Plate Count. Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Edition 8, Revision A. (Chapter 3.) Retrieved May 25, 1011, from http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/BacteriologicalAnalyticalManualBAM/UCM063346.
  118. Miettinen, M., Isomaa V., Peltoketo H., Ghosh D., & Vihko P. (2000). Biocenter Oulu and WHO collaborating center for research on reproductive health, Finland. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia. 5(3), 259-270.
  119. Mohan, J., Arora, R., & Khalilullah, M. (1990). Preliminary observations on effect of Lactobacillus sporogenes on serum lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 92, 431.
  120. Ravula, R. R., & Shah, N. P. (1998). Selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei from yogurts and fermented milk drinks. Biotechnology Techniques, 12(11), 819-822.
  121. Sneath, P. H. A., Mair, N. S., Sharpe, M. E., & Holt, J. G. (1986). Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Volume 2. Williams & Wilkins.
  122. Terzaghi, B. E., & Sandine, W. (1975). Improved medium for lactic streptococci and their bacteriophages. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 29(6), 807.
  123. Tuomola, E., Crittenden, R., Playne, M., Isolauri, E., & Salminen, S. (2001). Quality assurance criteria for probiotic bacteria. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73(2), 393S.
  124. Verstegen, M., & Schaafsma, G. (1999). Some developments on alternatives for antibiotics as growth promotor. Nutrition and gastrointestinal physiology today and tomorrow. TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute. Wageningen, The Netherlands. AJM Jansman and J. Huisman (Editors), 65-73.
  125. WASP user manual. (1995). Counting procedures. WASP user manual. (Section 10). Don Whitley Scientific Ltd.
Times Cited
  1. 黃雅亭(2015)。山香種子多醣抗氧化能力及應用於益生菌發酵乳之研究。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2015。1-125。 
  2. 紀玉婷(2015)。利用Lactobacillus plantarum NCD2 生產gamma-胺基丁酸之較適生產條件探討及其製作發酵乳可行性之研究。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2015。1-117。 
  3. 楊景文(2014)。利用Lactobacillus NCH26發酵進行單寧酶生產條件及其活性、特性探討。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2014。1-114。 
  4. 張文柏(2014)。以微流體系生化系統檢測 Lactobacillus acidophilus、L. fermentum、L. plantarum、L. paracasei subsp. paracasei、L. rhamnosus、 Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2014。1-73。 
  5. 劉心愉(2017)。以胚芽乳酸桿菌發酵杏鮑菇多醣及其生理活性。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2017。1-120。
  6. 張凱維(2017)。黃酒粕萃取液添加至Lactobacillus plantarum SLC13培養液中抗氧化與美白效果之探討。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2017。1-108。