Title

添加柳橙果渣對麵條質地之影響

Translated Titles

The Effect of Added Orange (Liu-Cheng) Pomace on the texture of Noodles

Authors

廖嘉文

Key Words

膳食纖維 ; 麵條 ; 柳橙 ; 果渣 ; 質地剖面分析 ; dietary fiber ; noodles ; orange ; pomace ; texture profile analysis

PublicationName

中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2006年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

傅以中

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

中 文 摘 要 膳食纖維(dietary fiber)有促進腸胃蠕動、降低血膽固醇、預防心血管疾病等生理功效,近年來被努力開發運用於各類食品。本研究以柳橙榨汁後剩餘之果渣(含皮)為原料,製作高纖、風味特殊且具良好口感的麵條。實驗以四種方式(直接冷凍乾燥、直接烘箱乾燥、漂洗後冷凍乾燥、漂洗後烘箱乾燥)處理果渣。將果渣粉碎過篩,取得三種粒徑(<125 μm、104-149 μm、149-250 μm)樣品。以果渣取代部分麵粉添加於新鮮麵條與乾麵條,探討其理化性質及質地剖面分析、抗拉強度、抗彎曲度,並做官能品評。 果渣分析結果顯示,無漂洗果渣和有漂洗果渣的總膳食纖維含量 分別為64.41%、79.91%,其中果膠含量分別約有5.2 %、1.8%。無漂 洗果渣的保水力顯著小於有漂洗果渣。無漂洗果渣對麵條製作過程之 麵筋形成的影響較小。 以果渣取代15%麵粉、小麥麵筋蛋白取代5%麵粉並添加水量至40%的麵條品質分析結果顯示,凍乾或烘乾處理之果渣對新鮮麵條的品質影響無顯著差異。無漂洗果渣(<125 μm)所製作的新鮮麵條,品質分析結果較接近標準品(無添加果渣的白麵條)。添加果渣會影響新鮮麵條與乾麵條的品質,使麵條附著度增加,彈性度、膠性度、咀嚼度、抗拉強度變小。無漂洗果渣(<125 μm)的添加,使乾麵條的抗彎曲長度增加,較不易斷裂。 由官能品評的結果得知,以烘乾無漂洗果渣(<125 μm)取代15% 麵粉、小麥麵筋蛋白取代5%麵粉並添加水量至40%,所製成之新鮮果渣麵條烹煮後,除彈性度較標準品略小,色澤、風味、整體接受性等項目都在可接受的程度。

English Abstract

Abstract Known for their physiological effects of stimulating gastro-intestinal movement, lowering the cholesterol level and preventing cardiovascular diseases, dietary fibers have been applied to various types of food products in recent years. This study employs the pomace (including husk) of squeezed orange (Liu-cheng) as the raw material for making high-fiber noodles of delightful taste and good texture. The experiment processes the orange pomace samples through four different approaches (direct freeze-drying, direct oven-drying, post-washing freeze-drying, post-washing oven-drying). The dried orange pomaces are milled and screened into samples of three different particle diameters (<125 μm, 104-149 μm, 149-250 μm) to replace some of the flour added to make fresh and dry noodles. The physicochemical and texture properties of these noodles as well as their texture profile, tensile strength, flex strength, are analyzed. Sensory evaluation is also conducted to compare these noodles with those sold in the market. The results of the orange pomace analysis indicate that the total dietary fiber contents of washed and unwashed orange pomaces are 64.41% and 79.91%, respectively. The contents of pectin are 5% and 1.8%, respectively. The water-holding capacity of unwashed orange pomaces is less than that of washed orange pomaces. The impact of unwashed orange pomaces on the formation of gluten during noodle making is less significant. The results of noodle quality analysis show that the impacts of orange pomaces, dried through freeze-drying and oven-drying, on the quality of fresh noodles are not significantly different. Quality analysis of fresh noodles made of unwashed orange pomaces (<125 μm) is closer to that of the controled samples. Addition of orange pomaces will affect the quality of fresh and dry noodles, increase the adhesiveness and decrease the springiness, gumminess, chewiness and tensile strength of the noodles. Addition of unwashed pomace (<125 μm) to dry noodles enhances the flex distance of the noodles so they won’t break easily. The result of sensory evaluation of boiled fresh noodles, in which oven-dried unwashed orange pomaces (<125 μm) replace 15% of the flour and gluten replace 5% of the flour, showed that the color, odor, and overall acceptance of the noodles are within the acceptable range, except that the springiness of the noodles is slightly lower than that of the controled samples.

Topic Category 農業暨自然資源學院 > 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
生物農學 > 生物科學
Reference
  1. 農業統計年報,2004。行政院農業委員會。
    連結:
  2. 蕭思玉、葉安義,1990。麵粉筋性和氧化還原劑對麵糰流變性質和擠出麵條品質之影響。台灣農業化學與食品科學,38(6):498 -507。
    連結:
  3. AOAC, 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
    連結:
  4. AOAC, 2000. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th ed, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
    連結:
  5. Brandt, M. A., Skinner, E. Z. and Coleman, J. A., 1963. Texture Profile Method. Journal of Food Science, 28:404-409.
    連結:
  6. of Protein Concentrates from Three Chinese Indigenous Legume Seeds, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 45: 2500-2503.
    連結:
  7. Crosbie, G. B.,1991. The Relationship between Starch Swelling Properties, Past Viscosity and Boiled noodle Quality in Wheat Flour. Journal of Cereal Science. 13: 145-150.
    連結:
  8. Dexter, J. E.,Matsuo, R. R. and Dronzek, B. L., 1979. A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Japanese Noodles. Cereal Chem. 56: 202.
    連結:
  9. Eliasson, A. C., 1985. Starch Gelatinization in Presence of Emulsifiers. Starch/Starke. 37: 411.
    連結:
  10. Epsteint, J., Morris, C. F. and Hubert, K. C., 2002. Instrumental Texture of Salted Noodles Prepared from Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat Differing in the Three Granule Bound Starch Synthase (Waxy) Genes. Journal of Cereal Science. 35: 51-63.
    連結:
  11. Friedman, H. H., Whitney, J. E. and Szczesniak, A. S., 1963. The Texturometer-A New Instrument for Objective Texture Measurement. Journal of Food Science, 28: 390.
    連結:
  12. George, E. Inglett, Steven C. Peterson, Craig J. Carriere, Saipin Maneepun, 2005. Rheological, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Asian Noodles Containing An Oat Cereal Hydrocolloid. Food Chemistry, 90: 1-8.
    連結:
  13. Its Correction in Pectin Analysis Using the m-Hydroxydiphenyl Method. Journal of Food Science, 47(3): 756.
    連結:
  14. Peleg, M., 1976. Texture Profile Analysis Parameters Obtained by an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Journal of Food Science, 41: 721 -724.
    連結:
  15. Szczesniak, A. S., 1963. Classification of Textural Characteristics.
    連結:
  16. Journal of Food Science, 28: 387-389.
    連結:
  17. Tang, Q., Mccarthy, O. J. and Munro, P. A., 1995. Effect of pH on Whey Protein Concentrate Gel Properties: Comparisons between Small Deformation (Dynamic) and Large Deformation (Failure) Testing. Journal of Texture Studies, 26: 255.
    連結:
  18. for Dietary Fiber Intake in Childhood. Pediatrics, 96: 985-988.
    連結:
  19. Pectin Content as Affected by Electron Beam Irradiation. Journal of
    連結:
  20. 參 考 文 獻
  21. 中華民國營養學會。http://www.nutrition.org.tw。Accessed 21/05/2006。
  22. 中國國家標準,2003。總號4991,類號5158。乾麵條檢驗法。經濟部中央標準局,台灣。
  23. 中國國家標準,2002。總號9320,類號6170。通心麵與西式麵條檢
  24. 驗法。經濟部中央標準局,台灣。
  25. 食品工業統計資料彙編,2005。食品工業發展研究所。
  26. 食品分析方法手冊,1990。新竹,台灣。
  27. 王一凱,1975。食品組織之儀器測定簡介。食品工業。21(4):20-25。
  28. 王怡晶,2002。烏龍麵與黃麵之品質與物化性質。食品工業。34(7):58-71。
  29. 王禮陽,1994。台灣果菜誌。時報出版公司。
  30. 李彥霏,2001。麵粉種類、麵糰水分含量與食用膠之添加對麵條性質之影響。靜宜大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
  31. 宋文杰,2001。食用膠在烘焙產品的應用。烘焙工業。96:41-49。
  32. 吳招親,2002a。麵糰的攪拌。烘焙工業。105:30-33。
  33. 吳崑崙,2002b。有益健康的高纖低脂烘焙食品(上)。烘焙工業,104:52-57。
  34. 吳崑崙,2002c。有益健康的高纖低脂烘焙食品(下)。烘焙工業,106:54-58。
  35. 邱永和,1989。小麥澱粉之特性與製麵適用性。食品工業。21(6):45-51。
  36. 沈瑞良,1993a。麵條的熟成。烘焙工業。48:57-59。
  37. 沈瑞良,1993b。麵條的複合壓延及切線。烘焙工業。48:57-59。
  38. 林鴻崇,2001。蒟篛粉與蒟篛凍添加量對蒟篛油麵性質之影響。大葉大學食品工程學系碩士論文。
  39. 林冠宇,1998。麻竹筍與蘿蔔質地之官能品評物化及儀器分析。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
  40. 周清源,2004。中式麵點製作技術。中華榖類食品工業技術研究所、美國小麥協會。
  41. 范念慈,1991。柑橘學。國立中興大學教務處出版組。
  42. 施明智,1991。食物學原理。藝軒圖書出版社。
  43. 郭封谷,1991。不同添加物對東方式麵條品質之影響。國立中興大
  44. 學食品科學系博士論文。
  45. 郭玉華,1995。冷凍麵。食品工業,27(1):17-24。
  46. 紀小婷,2000。菠菜與四季豆質地測定方法之探討。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
  47. 姚念周,1994。食品組織的物理特性。食品工業,26(7):22-29。
  48. 姚念周,1995。食品組織的感官分析。食品工業,27(5):33-42。
  49. 姚念周,1999。食品感官生理現象的簡介。食品工業,31(7):42-52。
  50. 姚念周,2002。感官品評介紹、應用與未來發展。食品資訊,192: 44-47。
  51. 高川,2000。纖維素在烘焙食品中的重要性。烘焙工業,89:37-38。
  52. 程琮源,2001。添加乳化濟及山藥對米榖粉麵糰物性及米麵條品質影
  53. 響之探討。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
  54. 黃宏隆、郭文怡、徐華強,1995。麵條加工技術。中華榖類食品工業技術研究所,台北。
  55. 黃雅玲,2003。柳橙皮與百香果渣纖維理化性質及生理活性之研究。國中興大學食品科學碩士論文。
  56. 黃中平,2005。膳食纖維的益處。食品市場資訊,94(9):84-88。
  57. 曾曉玲,2000。甘藍與毛豆質地感官與儀器分析相關性之探討。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
  58. 傅偉光,2002。膳食纖維的機能性及其分析方法。食品工業,34(10): 3-10。
  59. 楊鵑華,1999。甜菜纖維之食品加工特性。烘焙工業,85:66-68。
  60. 楊書瑩,2002。營養保健麵條的發展。烘焙工業,105:23-25。
  61. 廖宏儒,2000a。如何從麵包製程中之理化特性掌控麵條品質。烘焙工業,93:27-31。
  62. 廖宏儒,2000b。麵包製程中麵糰的物化特性。烘焙工業,89:68-73。
  63. 廖宏儒,2001。麵糰壓延的原理。烘焙工業。98:52-57。
  64. 鄭美娟,1995。高纖烘焙產品的功臣-抗酵素水解澱粉。烘焙工業,64:245-247。
  65. 劉厚蘭,2003。山藥、枸杞理化特性之探討及山藥枸杞麵條產品之開發。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
  66. 劉曉薇,2005。柳橙果渣添加量對土司製作影響之探討。國立中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
  67. 蔡平里,1997。蔬果芬芳錄。豐年社。
  68. 蔡明原、陳弘文、楊鵑華,1998。酒粕在高纖烘倍至品及麵製品之應用。烘焙工業,80:43-47。
  69. 賴喜美,1998。營養也要可口-高纖麵包的製作。烘焙工業,77:68-71。
  70. 盧訓、林子清,1988。影響麵條品質質地之探究。食品工業,20(1):38-41。
  71. 盧訓、郭封谷、高馥君,1991。酸、鹼和鹽類對東方式麵條品質之影響。食品科學,18(2):99 -110。
  72. 盧訓、郭封谷,1991。乳化劑和澱粉對東方式麵條品質之影響。食品科學,18(4):313-323。
  73. 蕭思玉,2004。原物料成分對麵條品質的影響。食品資訊,203:38-40。
  74. 謝明哲、胡淼琳、陳俊榮、徐成金、陳明汝、楊素卿,2003。實用營養學。華杏出版社。
  75. 薛聰賢,2000。台灣蔬果實用百科。農學社。
  76. 平田敢、青山伸彥,1989。水溶性食物纖維の食品ヘの利用。New Food Industry,31(5):18-23。
  77. 菊池裕人、有塚勉,1999。びートフアイバーの食品加工特性。New Food Industry,41(1):21-26。
  78. 梅南正田,1971。麵の技術。食品資材研究會。日本東京。
  79. AACC , 2000. Method 16-50, 10th ed, In Approved Methods of the
  80. Association of America Cereal Chemist, The Association, St. Paul,
  81. MN.
  82. AACC, 2001. The Definition of Dietary Fiber. Cereal Foods Word, 46: 112.
  83. ADA , 2002. ADA reports. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(7): 993-999.
  84. Bourne, M. C., 1978. Texture Profile Analysis. Food Technology, 33(7): 62-66.
  85. Braddock, R. J.,1995. By-products of Citrus Fruit. 49: 74-77.
  86. Chau, C. F., Cheung, P. C. K., and Wong, Y. S., 1997. Functional Properties
  87. Chung, O. K., Rho, K. L. and Seib, P. A., 1989. Noodles, VIII. The Effect of Wheat Flour Lipids, Gluten, and Several Starches and Surfactants on the Quality of Oriental Dry Noodles. Cereal Chem. 66:276-282.
  88. Feillet, P., Fevre, E. and Kobrehel, K., 1977. Modification of Durum Wheat
  89. Protein During Pasta Dough Sheeting. Cereal Chem, 54: 580.
  90. Kintner, P. K., and Van Buren, J. P., 1982. Carbohydrate Interference and
  91. Meilgarrd, M., Civille, G. V. and Carr, B. T., 1999. In “Sensory
  92. Evaluation Techniques”, Chapter 9. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton,
  93. FL.
  94. Oh, N. H., Seib, P. A., Deyoe, C. W. and Ward, A. B., 1983. Noodles, I.
  95. Measuring the Textural Characteristics of Cooked Noodles. Cereal
  96. Chem. 60: 433-438.
  97. Oh, N. H., Seib, P. A. and Chung, D. S., 1985. Noodles, III. Effect of Processing Variables on Quality Characteristics of Dry Noodles. Cereal Chem. 62: 437.
  98. Stone, H. and Sidel, J. L., 1985. Descriptive Analysis in “Sensory Evaluation Practices”, Chapter 6: 194-226. Academic Press, Inc., London.
  99. Szczesniak, A. S., 1979. Recent Developments in solving consumer-oriented texture problems. Food Technol, 33(10): 61-64.
  100. Williams C.L., Bollella M., Wynder E.L., 1995. A New Recommendation
  101. Yu, L., Reitmeier, C. A., Love, M. H., 1996. Strawberry Texture and
  102. Food Science. 61(4): 844-846.
Times Cited
  1. 洪家蕙(2015)。牛蒡中式麵條之製作及品質分析。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2015。1-67。 
  2. 粟隆瑋(2010)。添加龍鬚菜對中式麵條理化性質之影響。亞洲大學保健營養生技學系碩士班學位論文。2010。1-122。
  3. 張雅鈞(2013)。麵條中添加香米與紫米之製備。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2013。1-83。
  4. 何玉瀞(2016)。麵條消費行為調查與紅豆麵條開發。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2016。1-86。