Title

山香種子多醣抗氧化能力及應用於益生菌發酵乳之研究

Translated Titles

Antioxidant activity of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit polysaccharides and its application on probiotic fermented milk

DOI

10.6845/NCHU.2015.01288

Authors

黃雅亭

Key Words

山香 ; 多醣 ; 抗氧化 ; 乳酸菌 ; 益菌生 ; 發酵乳 ; Hyptis suaveolens ; polysaccharides ; antioxidant ; lactic acid bacteria ; fermented milk.

PublicationName

中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2015年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

方繼

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

山香為台灣常見之傳統藥草,具有抗氧化、抗發炎、抗菌、抗腫瘤、幫助傷口修復等效果,而其種子俗稱為山粉圓,吸水後於表面膨潤出一層黏液狀多醣。先前研究指出部分植物多醣可做為膳食纖維及益菌生物質(prebiotics),而促進乳酸菌生長。目前對於山香研究主要著重於莖葉中之精油類成分等,有關其種子所產生之多醣探討及利用仍不多。本研究利用山香種子經水萃得之多醣,探討其抗氧化能力、抗病原菌能力、提升乳酸菌Streptococcus thermophilus BCRC 13680、Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus BCRC 10696以及Lactobacillus paracasei BCRC 12188於低溫儲藏下之存活率、於腸胃道之抵抗能力,以及評估多醣添加於發酵乳中是否有助於提升乳酸菌於低溫儲藏期間之存活率。 實驗結果顯示,山香種子多醣具有良好之抗氧化能力,尤其以100℃水溫萃取物最佳,在濃度為2 mg/mL時,於總抗氧化能力測定中最佳,可達96.39%之清除率,螯合亞鐵離子能力測定清除率為58.15%;而DPPH自由基清除率為 55.61%;還原力測試於O.D.700下吸光值可達0.68,相當於0.0813 mg/ml抗壞血酸之還原力。 於MRS培養基低溫儲藏試驗中顯示添加山香種子多醣有助於減緩試驗乳酸菌之減少速度,然因菌種而異。整體而言,中劑量(0.5-2%)之多醣添加較低(0.1%)或高(4%)劑量更具有延緩乳酸菌死滅之效果。而添加0.5%多醣亦可改善乳酸菌抵抗胃酸與膽鹽之能力,同樣培養條件下,添加多醣試驗組之存活率皆較未添加多醣之控制組佳。 發酵乳低溫儲藏試驗結果顯示乳酸菌之存活率皆較MRS培養基低溫儲藏試驗佳,尤其添加0.5%及1%多醣之組別,添加多醣組別之試驗菌存活率可達未加多醣控制組之1.5至3.8倍。結果顯示山香種子多醣有助於維持發酵乳中乳酸菌於低溫儲藏期間之存活率。 發酵乳感官品評結果顯示品評員對於添加山香種子多醣之發酵乳有一定之喜好度,其中以添加1%多醣組別之喜好度表現最佳。 本研究證實山香種子多醣具有良好抗氧化能力,且可提升乳酸菌及發酵乳中乳酸菌於低溫儲藏期間之存活率。添加該多醣於發酵乳中,其感官數據顯示該產品可被接受,顯示山香種子多醣具有做為益菌生,且開發為新型態機能性飲品之潛力。

English Abstract

Hyptis suaveolens is used as a common traditional herb in Taiwan and also Latin America. It provides a lot of benefits for our health, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-tumor, wound healing, etc. The seeds of Hyptis suaveolens can swell and form a mucus-like polysaccharide on the surface of seeds when soaked in water. Studies indicated that plant polysaccharides can be used as dietary fiber and prebiotics. So far, the research of Hyptis suaveolens is mainly focused on the essential oils, which extracted from the stem and leaves of the Hyptis suaveolens. In this study, we are focused on the polysaccharides of Hyptis suaveolens seeds extracted by water and evaluating its antioxidant capacity, anti-bacterial ability, the potential as a prebiotic to enhance the survival rate of the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus BCRC 13680, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus BCRC 10696 and Lactobacillus paracasei BCRC 12188 in MRS broth and in fermented milk during cold storage, and the viability of the lactic acid bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. In our results showed that the Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharide had good antioxidant capacity, particularly the polysaccharide extracted at 100℃. At the concentration of 2 mg/mL, the total antioxidant capacity was 96.39%, the ferrous ion chelating ability was 58.15%, the DPPH scavenging ability was 55.61%, and the reducing power was 0.68 which was equivalent to the absorbance of 0.0813 mg/ml ascorbic acid. Supplement with Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharides enhanced survival of lactic acid bacteria used in this study in MRS broth during cold storage, but the effect varied among the species of bacteria. Overall, supplemented polysaccharides medium concentration (0.5-2% (v/v)) performed better effect to enhance the lactic acid bacteria viability than in lower (0.1% (v/v)) or higher (4 % (v/v)) concentration. The survival rate of lactic acid bacteria with 0.5%(v/v) polysaccharides in stimulated gastric acid (pH 2.0) and bile juice (4.5%, pH 8.0) was higher than control group. Fermented milk with Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharides test results show the viability of lactic acid bacteria was relatively better than the results in MRS broth during cold storage. Especially the 0.5% and 1% (v/v) polysaccharide supplement groups, the results were 1.5 to 3.8 times than control group which was without polysaccharide supplement. The results showed Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharide could maintain the survival of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk during cold storage. The sensory evaluation of fermented milk with Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharides test showed that most of people with this test had over ordinary degree of preference. In particular, the group with 1% polysaccharide supplement got the best performance in all aspects. This study demonstrated that Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharides had good antioxidant capacity, and could enhance the survival of lactic acid bacteria in MRS broth and in fermented milk during the cold storage. Furthermore, most people could accept this kind of fermented milk with Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharides. The results in this study suggested that Hyptis suaveolens seed polysaccharide has the potential to be a prebiotic and develop a new functional drink.

Topic Category 農業暨自然資源學院 > 食品暨應用生物科技學系所
生物農學 > 生物科學
Reference
  1. 安純。1991。山粉圓。17(16): 25-26。
    連結:
  2. 江君理。2013。客家酸柑茶之保健功能研究─抗氧化、抗發炎及抗菌能力探討。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  3. 吳柔鋒。2008。黃白木耳發酵豆奶生產胞外多醣之條件探討。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  4. 何振隆、蘇裕昌。2008。精油之抗菌活性。林業研究專訓。15(3): 31-37。
    連結:
  5. 周韋廷。2011。柄菇多醣對乳酸菌之助生性及應用在益生菌發酵之研究。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  6. 林佩怡。2013。洛神籽抗氧化及其機能性評估。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  7. 林柏緯,汪碧涵。2011。具抑菌能力的中草藥用植物表面酵母菌。台灣農業化學與食品科學,49(4),181-184。
    連結:
  8. 高智慧。2014。Lactobacillus fermentum FSB303胞外多醣之界面活性及生理活性探討。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  9. 陳欣怡。2011。Aspergillus carneus M34發酵木賊藥渣之抗氧化與抗發炎活性探討。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  10. 陳惠英,顏國欽。1998。自由基、抗氧化防禦與人體健康。中華民國營養學會雜誌。 23(1) : 105-121。
    連結:
  11. 黃敬堯。2007。台灣酸菜中高胞外多醣益生乳酸菌之篩選與其醃漬液製作酸菜醃蛋可行性之研究。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  12. 黃郁芬。2009。黃白木耳多醣與發酵豆奶萃取物製備與其生理活性評估。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  13. 張雅琳。2008。初步探討黃白木耳發酵豆奶之機能性與保健產品開發。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系碩士論文。
    連結:
  14. 戚祖沅,張芳瑜,陳清美,鄭維智。2013。101年度台灣地區食品中毒案件分析。食品藥物研究年報。Rec 4 : 16-22。
    連結:
  15. 劉紹毅。2005。自由基醫學講座: 第一章 自由基簡介。中華民國血液淨化醫學會雜誌第十卷第一期。38-41。
    連結:
  16. Amarowicz, R., Pegg, R.B., Rahimi-Moghaddam, P., Barl, B., Weil, J.A.(2004), Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from the Canadian prairies. Food Chemistry, 84:551–562.
    連結:
  17. Ana, I. H., Adriana, Z., Paloma, M. (2004). Protective effect and cytokine production of a Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from ewes’ milk cheese. International Dairy Journal, 14(1): 29–38.
    連結:
  18. effect of antioxidants. Food Chem. Toxic., 37:1015-1025.
    連結:
  19. Ali, N.M., Yeap, S. K., Ho, W. Y., Beh, B.K., Tan, S.W., and Tan,S.G. (2012). The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2012:1-9.
    連結:
  20. Archana, G., Sabina, K., Babuskin, S., Radhakrishnan, K., Fayidh, M.A., Babu, P.(2013).Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, 98(1):89–94.
    連結:
  21. Ashraf, R. and Shah, N. P.(2011). Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt — A review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 149: 194-208.
    連結:
  22. Berrada, N., Lemeland, J. E., Laroche, G., Thouvenot, P. and Piaia, M. (1991). Bifidobacterium from fermented milks: survival during gastric transit. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 409-413.
    連結:
  23. Botterweck, A.A.M, Verhagen, H., Goldbohm, R.A., Kleinjans, J., van den Brandt, P.A.(2000). Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk: results from analyses in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38(7): 599-605.
    連結:
  24. Bradford MM.(1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem, 72: 248–254.
    連結:
  25. viability and activity of Bifidobacterium spp. in skim milk containing prebiotics. Journal of Food Science, 67: 2740–2744.
    連結:
  26. prebiotics and microencapsulation on survival of probiotic organisms in yoghurt and freeze-dried yoghurt. Food Research International, 39: 203–211.
    連結:
  27. Casiraghi, M.C., Canzi, E., Zanchi, R., Donati, E., Villa, L., (2007). Effects of a synbiotic milk product on human intestinal ecosystem. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103: 499–506.
    連結:
  28. Chance, B., Sies, H. and Boveris, A. (1979). Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiological Reviews, 59(3): 527-605.
    連結:
  29. major constituents on lipid oxidation and soybean lipoxygenase
    連結:
  30. activity. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 69: 999-1002.
    連結:
  31. Chen, G.-W., Tsai, J.-S., Pan, B. S. (2007). Purification of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides and antihypertensive effect of milk produced by protease-facilitated lactic fermentation. International Dairy Journal, 17(6):641-647.
    連結:
  32. Channe Gowda, D. (1984). Polysaccharide components of the seed-coat mucilage from hyptis suaveolens. Phytochemistry, 23(2) : 337–338.
    連結:
  33. Christiaen, D., Bodard, M. (1983). Spectroscopie infrarouge de films d’agar de Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenfuss. Bot. mar., 26: 425–427.
    連結:
  34. Charteris, W.P., Kelly, P.M., Morelli, L., Collins, J.K. (1998). Development and application of an in vitro methodology to determine the transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in the upper human gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 84: 759–768.
    連結:
  35. Comparative survival of probiotic lactobacilli spray-dried in the
    連結:
  36. 96:1024–1039.
    連結:
  37. Conmay, P. L., Gorbach, S. L., and Goldin, B. R. (1987). Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells. Journal of Dairy Science, 70: 1-12.
    連結:
  38. antioxidative activity of some acid-phenols: Structure-activity
    連結:
  39. Deed, A. and Seviour, R. J. (1989) Formulation and regeneration of protoplasts of Sclerotium. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31:259.
    連結:
  40. Denter, J., Bisping, B.(1994).Formation of B-vitamins by bacteria during the soaking process of soybeans for tempe fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology,22(1): 23–31.
    連結:
  41. probiotic lactobacilli in skim milk containing prebiotics. Journal of
    連結:
  42. Food Science, 69: 57–60.
    連結:
  43. Donkor, O.N., Nilmini, S.L.I., Stolic, P., Vasiljevic, T., Shah N.P.(2007). Survival and activity of selected probiotic organisms in set-type
    連結:
  44. Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A and Smith, F. (1956). Colorimeteric method for determination of sugar and related substances. Anal.Chem, 28(3):350-356.
    連結:
  45. Duh, P. D., Du, P. C. and Yen, G. G. (1999). Action of methanolic extract of mung bean hulls as inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and non-lipid oxidative damage. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 37: 1055–1061.
    連結:
  46. Duygu, D., Udoh, A. U., Ozer, T., Akbulut, A., Erkaya1 , Ilkay K.,Yildiz and Guler .(2012). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for
    連結:
  47. identification of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1890 and Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing 1833.African Journal of Biotechnology ,. 11(16): 3817-3824.
    連結:
  48. Fan, Y., Wu, X., Zhang, M., Zhao, T., Zhou, Y., Han, L., Yang. L. (2011). Physical characteristics and antioxidant effect of polysaccharides extracted by boiling water and enzymolysis from Grifola frondosa. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 48(5):798-803.
    連結:
  49. Floyd, R. A. (1990). Role of oxygen free radicals in carcinogenesis and
    連結:
  50. brain ischemia. The Journal of the Federation of American Sciences for Experimental Biology, 4: 2587-2597.
    連結:
  51. Fooks, L.J., Fuller, R., Gibson, G.R. (1999). Prebiotics, probiotics and human gut microbiology. International Dairy Journal, 9: 53–61.
    連結:
  52. Foulds,G.(1986).Pharmacokinetics of sulbactam/ampicillin in humans: a review. Review of Infectious Diseases, 8(5):S503-511.
    連結:
  53. Fric, P. (2007). Probiotics and prebiotics—renaissance of a therapeutic principle. Central European Journal of Medicine, 2: 237–270.
    連結:
  54. Galdeano, C. M., Perdigon, G.(2006). The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei induces activation of the gut mucosal immune system through innate immunity. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 13(2):219-226.
    連結:
  55. human colonic microbiota; introducing the concept of prebiotics.
    連結:
  56. Gilliland, S. E. (1979). Beneficial interrelationships between certain microorganism and humans: candidate microorganisms for use as dietary adjuncts. Journal of Food Protection, 42:164-167.
    連結:
  57. Gilliland, S.E. (1990). Health and nutritional benefits from lactic acid bacteria, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 87:175–188.
    連結:
  58. Gilliland, S.E., and Walker, D. K. (1990). Factors to consider when selecting a dietary adjunct to produce a hypocholesteroleric effect in humans. Journal of Dairy Science, 73: 905-911.
    連結:
  59. Gramza, A , Korczak, J.(2005). Tea constituents (Camellia sinensis L.) as antioxidants in lipid systems. Trends in Food Science & Technology,
    連結:
  60. Gunasekaran, S., ArunBalaji, R., Kumaresan, S., Anand, G.and VivekAnand, M. (2009). Computation and interpretation of vibrational spectra on the structure of Nitrazepam using semi-empirical and density functional methods. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 1 (4):1109-1124.
    連結:
  61. Gutteridge, J.M.C. and Halliwell, B. (1994). Antioxidants in nutrition, health and disease. Oxford University Press Inc. New York, 21.
    連結:
  62. Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C.(1995). The definition and measurement of antioxidants in biological systems. Free Radical Biology and Medicine,18(1):125-126.
    連結:
  63. Halliwell, B. (1994) b. Vitamin C: the key to health or a slow-acting
    連結:
  64. carcinogen. Redox Report,1:5-9.
    連結:
  65. Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C.(1990). Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: an overview. Methods Enzymol, 186: 1-85.
    連結:
  66. Hannan, J. M. A., Ali, L., Rokeya, B., Khaleque, J., Akhter, M., Flatt, P. R., et al. (2007). Soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancing insulin action. British Journal of Nutrition, 97:514–521.
    連結:
  67. Hirayama, K. and Rafter, J. (2000). The role of probiotic bacteria in cancer prevention. Microbes and Infection, 2(6):681-686.
    連結:
  68. Holzapfel, W. H., Haberer, P., Snel, J., Schillinger, U. and Huis, H. J. (1998).Overview of gut flora and probiotics. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 41:85-101.
    連結:
  69. Hosseini-Parvar, S.H., Matia-Merino, L., Goh, K.K.T., Razavi, S.M.A.,Mortazavi., S.A. (2010). Steady shear flow behavior of gum extracted from Ocimum basilicum L. seed: Effect of concentration and temperature. Journal of Food Engineering, 101: 236–243.
    連結:
  70. Hyronimus, B., Le Marrec, C., Hadj Sassi, A., and Deschamps, A. (2000). Acid and bile tolerance of spore-forming lactic acid bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 61(2-3),193-197.
    連結:
  71. Jain, R.M.,Mody, K., Joshi, N., Mishra, A. and Jha, B.(2013).Effect of unconventional carbon sources on biosurfactant production and it application in bioremediation. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 62: 52-58.
    連結:
  72. Jayasekeraa, S., Molanb, A.L., Gargc, M., and Moughana, P.J.(2011). Variation in antioxidant potential and total polyphenol content of fresh and fully-fermented Sri Lankan tea. Food Chemistry, 125(2): 536-541.
    連結:
  73. Jesus,N.Z.T.H.,Falcão,S.,Lima,G.R.M.,CaldasFilho,M.R.D., Sales, I.R.P., Gomes, I.F., GSantos, S. Tavares, J.F., Barbosa-Filho, J.M., Batista, L.M.(2013). Hyptis suaveolens (L.)Poit(Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant protects the stomach against several gastric ulcer models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology,150: 982-988.
    連結:
  74. Jin, L. Z., Ho, Y.W., Abdullah, N., Jalaludin, S. (1998). Growth performance, intestinal microbial populations, and serum cholesterol of broilers fed diets containing lactobacillus cultures. Poultry Science. 77(9)1259-1265.
    連結:
  75. Johnson, T. R. and Case, C. L. (1995). Laboratory experiments in microbiology, 4th edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. Inc.
    連結:
  76. content. Food Hydrocolloids, 37:40-48.
    連結:
  77. Kacurakova, M., Capek, P., Sasinkova, V., Wellner, N. and Ebringerova A. (2000). FT-IR study of plant cell wall model compounds: pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses. Carbohydrate Polymers, 43(2):195-203.
    連結:
  78. Kaplan, H., & Hutkins, R. (2000). Fermentation of fructooligosaccharides
    連結:
  79. Khazaeia, N., Esmaiilia, M., Djomeh, Z. E., Ghasemlou, M., Joukid, M. (2014). Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum. Carbohydrate Polymers, 102: 199– 206.
    連結:
  80. Larson,R.A.(1998). The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry,
    連結:
  81. Lenzi, A., Gandini, L., Picardo, M., Tramer, F., Sandri, G., and Panfili, E. (2000). Lipoperoxidation damage of spermatozoa polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): scavenger mechanisms and possible scavenger therapies. Frontiers in Bioscience, 5(1), 1-15.
    連結:
  82. Makars, L., De Vuyst, L. (2005). The in vitro inhibition of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria by bifidobacteria is caused by the production of organic acids. International Dairy Journal,16(9): 1049-1057.
    連結:
  83. Martinez, R.C. R., Wachsman, M., Torres, N. I., LeBlanc, J. G., Todorova,S. D., Gombossy de Melo Francoa, B. D.(2013). Biochemical, antimicrobial and molecular characterization of a noncytotoxic bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ST71KS. Food Microbiology,34(2): 376–381.
    連結:
  84. Michida, H., Tamalampudic, S., Pandiellab,S.S.,Webbb, C., Fukudac, H. and Kondoa, A. (2006) Effect of cereal extracts and cereal fiber on viability of Lactobacillus plantarum under gastrointestinal tract conditions. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 28(1):73-7.
    連結:
  85. Mirhosseini, H., and Amid, B. T. (2012). A review study on chemical composition and molecular structure of newly plant gum exudates and seed gums. Food Research International, 46: 387-398.
    連結:
  86. acrylamide: synthesis, characterization and swelling behavior.
    連結:
  87. Carbohydrate Polymers, 72(4):608–15.
    連結:
  88. Miller, N.J., Rice-Evans, C.A., Davies, M.J., Gopinathan, V. , Milner, A. (1993) A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clinical Science, 84: 407–412
    連結:
  89. Namiki, M. (1990). Antioxidants/antimutages in food.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 29: 273-300.
    連結:
  90. Nakamura, Y., Masuda, O., Takano, T.(1996). Decrease of tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity upon feeding sour milk in spontaneously hypertensive Rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and
    連結:
  91. Biochemistry, 60(3):488-489.
    連結:
  92. Naimeh K., Mohsen E., Zahra E. D., Mehran G.,Mohammad J.(2014). Characterization of new biodegradable edible film made from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) gum. Carbohydrate Polymers, 102: 199– 206.
    連結:
  93. Oliveira, R. P. De S., Florence, A. C.R., Perego, P., Oliveira, M. N. De, Attilio, C. (2011). Use of lactulose as prebiotic and its influence on the growth, acidification profile and viable counts of different probiotics in fermented skim milk. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 145:22-27.
    連結:
  94. seed (Ocimum bacilicum L.): Effect of polysaccharide and protein content. Food Hydrocolloids, 37: 40-48.
    連結:
  95. Pazur, J. H. (1986). In M. F. Chaplin, & J. F. Kennedy (Eds.), Carbohydrate analysis a practical approach, London: Oxford Press. (3): 55–95.
    連結:
  96. antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoid and phenolic acids.
    連結:
  97. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 20: 933-956.
    連結:
  98. invader, Hyptis suaveolens Poit from India. Journal of Ecology and Application, 11(2):115-20.
    連結:
  99. Randall, R.P. (2012). A Global Compendium of Weeds. Second Edition.
    連結:
  100. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia. 1125.
    連結:
  101. (2011). Modified gums: Approaches and applications in drug delivery.
    連結:
  102. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83:1031–1047.
    連結:
  103. Roberfroid, M. B. (2001). Prebiotics and probiotcs: Are they functional
    連結:
  104. Sakai, T., Oishi, K., Asahara, T., Takada, T., Yuki, N.,Matsumoto, K., Nomoto, K., Kushiro, A.(2010). M-RTLV agar, a novel selective medium to distinguish Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei from Lactobacillus rhamnosus. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 139:154–160.
    連結:
  105. Sandholm, T. (1999). The technology of probiotics. Trends Food Science and Technology, 10: 387–392.
    連結:
  106. Sandholma, T. (2000). Probiotic bacteria: safety, functional and technological properties. Journal of Biotechnology, 84(3):197-215.
    連結:
  107. Sabia, C., Anacarso, I., Bergonzini, A., Gargiulo, R., Sarti, M., Condòa, C., Messia, P., Simona de Niederhauserna, Iseppia, R., Bondia, M. (2014). Detection and partial characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by Lactobacillus fermentum CS57 isolated from human vaginal secretions. Anaerobe, 26 : 41-45.
    連結:
  108. Schiffrin, E. J., Brassart, D., Servin, A. L ., Rochat, F. and Donnet-Hughes, A.(1997). Immune modulation of blood leukocytes in humans by lactic acid bacteria: criteria for strain selection. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66: 515S-520.
    連結:
  109. Sekkal, M., Huvenne, J.P., Legrand, P., Sombret, B.,Mollet, J.C., Mouradi Givernaud, A., Verdus, M.C. (1993) .Direct structural identification of polysaccharides from red algae by FTIR microspectrometry. Localization of agar in Gracilaria verrucosa sections. Mikrochim. Acta ,112: 1–10.
    連結:
  110. Sendra, E., Fayos, P., Lario, Y., Fernandez-Lopez, J., Sayas-Barbera, E., and Perez-Alvarez, J. A. (2008). Incorporation of citrus fibers in fermented milk containing probiotic bacteria. Food Microbiology, 25(1), 13-21.
    連結:
  111. Shah, N.P.,(2000). Probiotic bacteria: selective enumeration and survival in
    連結:
  112. Shah, N. P. (2000b). Some beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria.Bioscience
    連結:
  113. Shah, N. P., and Jelen, P. (1990). Survival of lactic acid bacteria and their
    連結:
  114. Singha, H. B., Singha, B. N., Singha, S. P., and Nautiyalb, C.S.(1992). Solid-state cultivation of Trichoderma harzianum NBRI-1055 for modulating natural antioxidants in soybean seed matrix. Bioresource Technology, 101(16):6444-6453.
    連結:
  115. Singh,N., Rajini,P.S.(2004) Free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of potato peel. Food Chemistry,85(4):611-616.
    連結:
  116. Silva, I., Campos, F. M., Hogg, T., Couto, J. A.(2011). Factors influencing the production of volatile phenols by wine lactic acid bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology,145(2-3):471-475.
    連結:
  117. Shimada, K., Fujikawa, K., Yahara, K. and Nakamure, T. (1992).Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autioxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40(6):945-948.
    連結:
  118. Srinivasan, K. (2006). Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): A review of health beneficial physiological effects. Food Reviews International, 22: 203–224.
    連結:
  119. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium lactis in fermented milk. International Dairy Journal ,17: 1107–1114.
    連結:
  120. probiotic yogurts: Influence on the survival of probiotic bacteria and protective techniques. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 3:117–124.
    連結:
  121. Tharmaraj, N., Shah, N.P. (2003).Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria. J. Dairy Sci,.86(7):2288–2296.
    連結:
  122. flavonoides and reactivity with peroxy radicals. Phytochemistry,
    連結:
  123. Tsiapali, E., Whaley, S., Kalbfleisch, J., Ensley, H.E., Browder, I.W., Williams, D.L. (2011). Glucans exhibit weak antioxidant activity, but stimulate macrophage free radical activity. Free Radical Biology and Medicine,30(4):393-402.
    連結:
  124. Anarado Charity, E. and Egwuatu Chinyelu, I. (2014). The Efficacy of Hyptis Suaveolens: A Review of Its Nutritional and Medicinal Applications. European Journal of Medicinal Plants,4(6): 661-674.
    連結:
  125. US Food and Drug Administration (1994). A food labeling guide—Appendix C: Health claims. Rockville, MD: United States Food and Drug Administration.
    連結:
  126. A.S.,Coutinho, J.A.P.(2012) Simple screening method to identify toxic/non-toxic ionic liquids:Agar diffusion test adaptation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 83(3):55–62.
    連結:
  127. Wang, J., Zhang, Q., Zhang, Z., Li, Z.(2008). Antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Laminaria japonica. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 42: 127–132.
    連結:
  128. Wang, R. F., Yang, X. W., Ma, C. M., Shang, M. Y., Liang, J. Y., and Wang, X. (2003). Alkaloids from the seeds of Sterculia lychnophora (Pangdahai). Phytochemistry, 63: 475–478.
    連結:
  129. Microbiology, 87:631–639.
    連結:
  130. Weeds of Australia Factsheet — Hyptis suaveolens . 2015/05/01 cited from
    連結:
  131. Xu, Guihua, Ye,Xingqian,Chen,Jianchu and Liu, Donghong.(2007). Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,55 (2):330-335.
    連結:
  132. Yamaguchi, T.,Takamura, H., Matoba,T. and Terao,J.(1998) HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity by foods by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry,62(6):1201-1204.
    連結:
  133. Yen, G.C., Duh, P.D., Chuang, D.Y. (2000) .Antioxidant activity of anthraquinones and anthrone. Food Chemistry, 70 :437–441.
    連結:
  134. Yuan, Y. V., Bone, D. E., Carrington, M. F. (2005). Antioxidant activity of dulse (Palmaria palmate) extract evaluated in vitro. Food Chemistry,91:485-494.
    連結:
  135. Z´arate, G., Chaia, A.P., Gonz´alez, S., Oliver, G. (2000). Viability and galactosidase activity of dairy propionibacteria subjected to digestion by
    連結:
  136. 方繼,李根永,李清福,林建谷,林順富,范晉嘉,陳惠英,虞積凱,蔡國珍。1999。現代食品微生物。偉銘圖書。(Jay,J.M.,1996)
  137. 李丹,崔洪斌。2004。植酸及其生理學活性研究現況。國外醫學: 衛生學分冊。2:104-108。
  138. 吳展才。2008。民俗植物-山粉圓、樹薯、藜。鄉間小路。34(5): 68-69。
  139. 袁于婷,曾鶯芳,鄭龍。2001。辣椒的抗氧化性及清除自由基效力之研究。冠順事業有限公司,國立高師大附中。
  140. 白文智。1989。山粉圓解渴又消暑。農業周刊。15(34):6-7。
  141. 高馥君,李敏雄。1998。食品保存與抗氧化劑。食品工業。30(12): 17-24。
  142. 徐岩譯。李敏雄總校閱。2007。發酵食品微生物學。藝軒圖書。
  143. 陳慶源。1998。綜論乳酸菌之多元化應用。食品工業。40(9): 1-3。
  144. 陳權榴。2002。獸醫藥理學。中國農業出版社。
  145. 黃永慶。2007。利用表面增強拉曼射線偵測細菌表層結構的變化和抗藥反應。國立陽明大學生醫光電研究所碩士論文。
  146. 張瑞卿。1990。天然植物性點心 山粉圓。鄉間小路。16 (51): 16-20。
  147. 潘子明。2005。我國乳酸菌最近的研究趨勢暨通過健康食品認證之乳酸菌產品現況。農業生技產業資訊網。2015/04/28瀏覽。http://agbio.coa.gov.tw/theme/detailinfo.aspx?dno=12970&gno=5
  148. 趙強。1997。對抗疾病與老化的新發現─自由基與抗氧化物質。美食天下。64 :116。
  149. 價格網。2015/05/01瀏覽。http://www.findprice.com.tw/datalist.aspx?s=g&q=%E5%B1%B1%E7%B2%89%E5%9C%93
  150. Abdullahi, M., Muhammed, G., Abdulkadir, N.U. (2003).Medicinal and economic plants of Nupeland. Jube: Evans Books and Publications. Pages 140–140.
  151. Akbari, I., Ghoreishi, S. M., and Habibi, N. (2014). Supercritical CO2
  152. Generation of Nanometric Structure from Ocimum basilicum Mucilage
  153. Prepared for Pharmaceutical Applications. AAPS PharmSciTech, 16(2):428-34.
  154. Ahad, H.A., Sreeramulu, J., Bindu, V.H., Ramyasree, P., Padmaja, B.S., Sravanthi, M. (2011). Isolation and physicochemical characterization of Ficus reticulata fruit mucilage. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP), 5(2):131–4.
  155. Anderson, D., Philips, B.J.(1999). Comparative in vitro and in vivo
  156. Angelo, A. J. S. (1996). Lipid oxidation in foods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition., 36(3): 175-224.
  157. Anukam, K.C. and Reid G. (2007).Probiotics:100 years (1907-2007) after Elie Metchnikoff’s Observation. Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology,466-474.
  158. Bruno, A., Lankaputhra, W. E. V. and Shah, N. P. (2002). Growth,
  159. Capela, P., Hay, T. K. C., & Shah, N. P. (2006). Effect of cryoprotectants,
  160. Chen, Q., Shi, H. and Ho, C. T. (1992).Effects of rosemary extracts and
  161. Corcoran, B. M., Ross, R. P., Fitzgerald, G. F. and Stanton, C. (2004).
  162. presence of prebiotic substances. Journal of Applied Microbiology,
  163. Curry, B., Crow, V. (2003). Lactobacillus spp. general characteristics. In: Roginski, H.,Fuquay, J., Fox, P. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of dairy science. Academic Press Elsevier Science, Cornwall, UK. 1479–1511.
  164. Cuvelier, M. E., H. Richard, and C. Berset. (1992). Comparison of the
  165. relationship. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 56: 324-325.
  166. Dai, J., Mumper, R. J.(2010). Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their
  167. Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties. Molecules, 15:7313-7352.
  168. Danmalam, U.H., Abdullahi, L.M., Agunu, A., Musa, K.Y. (2009).Acute toxicity studies and hypoglycemic activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,8(2):87-92.
  169. David, L. N., Michael M. C. (2008). Principles of Biochemistry, fifth edition, New York.
  170. Desai, A. R., Powell, I. B., & Shah, N. P. (2004). Survival and activity of
  171. yoghurt during cold storage. International Dairy Journal,17 : 657–665.
  172. Dziezak, J. D. (1986). Preservatives: antioxidant. Food Technology, 40:94-102.
  173. Edeoga, H.O., Omosun, G., Uche, L.C.(2006). Chemical composition of Hyptis suaveolens and Ocimum gratissimum hybrids from Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(10):892-895.
  174. FAO/WHO. (2002). Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Retrieved August 23: 2006.
  175. Fennema, O. R. (1996). Lipids in Food Chemistry 3rd edition, New York.
  176. Gibson, G. R., & Roberfroid, M. B. (1995). Dietary modulation of the
  177. Journal of Nutrition, 125:1401–1412.
  178. 16(8):351–358.
  179. Harvenaar, R., Brink, B.T. and Huis In’t Veld, J.H.J. (1992). Selection of strains for probiotics use in Probiotics, the sciencific basic. Ed. R. Filler. Chapman and Hall, London, New York, 209-222.
  180. Hofmann, A.F. and Mysels, K. J. (1992). Bile acid solubility and precipitation in vitro and in vivo : the role of conjugation, pH and Ca2+ ions. Journal of Lipid Research, 33: 617-626.
  181. Holleman, A. F.,Wiberg, E. (2001) Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press: San Diego.
  182. James, N. B., Roy, L. W., David, G. B.,Chyi-Cheng C.(1993).Chapter 9 – Aloe, Chia, Flaxseed, Okra, Psyllium seed, Quince seed, and Tamarind gums. Industrial Gums (Third Edition) Polysaccharides and Their Derivatives. Pages 227–256.
  183. Joenalyn P. O., Seyed H. H., Lara M., Matt G.(2014). Emulsifying properties of a novel polysaccharide extracted from basil
  184. seed (Ocimum bacilicum L.): Effect of polysaccharide and protein
  185. by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66: 2682–2684.
  186. Klaver, F.A.M. and van der Meer, R. (1993). The assumed assimilation of cholesterol by lactobacilli and bifidobacterium bifidum is due to their bile salt deconjugating activity. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 59(4): 1120–1124.
  187. 27:969-978.
  188. Lourens-Hattingh, A.and Viljeon, C. B. (2001). Yoghurt as probiotic
  189. carrier food. International Dairy Journal, 11: 1–17.
  190. Marinova, D., Ribarova, F., and Atanassova, M.(2005). Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 40(3): 255-260.
  191. Makras, L., Van Acker, G., and De Vuyst, L. (2005). Lactobacillus casei
  192. subsp. casei 8700:2 degrades inulin-type fructans exhibiting different
  193. degrees of polymerization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology,
  194. 71: 6531–6537.
  195. Masís, A., Espinoza, R.,Chavarria, F., Guadamuz, A. y Perez, D.(1998). Species Page de Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae). Species Home Pages, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. 2015/04/30 cited from http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr
  196. McClements, D. J. (2005). Food emulsions: Principles, practice and techniques (2nd Ed.).Boca Raton: CRC Press.
  197. Mishra, A., Clark, J.H., Pal, S.(2008), Modification of Okra mucilage with
  198. Mollet, J.C., Rahaoui , A. and Lemoine, Y. (1998).. Yield, chemical composition and gel strength of agarocolloids of Gracilaria gracilis, Gracilariopsis longissima and the newly reported Gracilaria cf. vermiculophylla from Roscoff (Brittany, France). Journal of Applied Phycology, 10: 59–66.
  199. Navnath, M. P., Karmveer, B. J., Dushmant, M., Anjali, B. S., Tanaji, G.J.(2010) Free radical scavenging, reducing power, phenolic and biochemical composition of Porphyra species. Journal of Algal Biomass utilization, 1(2): 60-73.
  200. Osano, J. P., Hosseini-Parvar, S. H., Matia-Merino, L., Golding, M. (2014). Emulsifying properties of a novel polysaccharide extracted from basil
  201. Oyaizu, M. (1986) Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Japanese Journal of Nutrition, 44: 307-315.
  202. Pereira, L., Sousa , A., Coelho, H., Amado , A. M., Ribeiro-Claro, P.J.A.,
  203. Rice-Evans, C. A., Miller, N. J. and Paganga, G. (1996). Structure
  204. Raizada, P.(2006). Ecological and vegetative characteristics of a potent
  205. Rana, V., Rai, P., Tiwary, A. K., Singh, R. S., Kennedy, J. F., & Knill, C. J.
  206. foods? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71:1682S–1687S.
  207. Saxelin, M., Grenov, B., Svensson, U., Fonde´n, R., Reniero, R., Mattila-
  208. Saarelaa, M., Mogensenb, G., Fondénc, R., Mättöa, J., Mattila-
  209. Seyed M. A. R., Seyed A. M., L. Matia-Merino, Seyed H. H., Ali M.,& Elham K. (2009). Optimization study of gum extraction from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum L.) International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 44: 1755–1762.
  210. Shah, N.P. (2001).Functional foods, probiotics and prebiotics. Food Technology ,55: 46–53.
  211. dairy foods. Journal of Dairy Science, 83:894–907.
  212. Microflora, 19: 99–106.
  213. lactases under acidic conditions. Journal of Food Science, 55: 506–509.
  214. Sneath, P.H.A., Mair, N.S., Sharpe, M. E. and Holt, J.G.(1986). Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Volumn 2, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, U.S.A.
  215. Stadtman, E. R. Oliver, C. N. (1991). Metal-catalyzed Oxidation of
  216. Proteins. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266(4): 2005-2008.
  217. Tabasco, R., Paarup, T., Janer, C., Pela´ ez, C., Requena, T.(2007). Selective enumeration and identification of mixed cultures of
  218. Talwalkar, A., and Kailasapathy, K. (2004). A review of oxygen toxicity in
  219. Tortora, G. J., Funke, B. R., Case, C. L. (2010). Microbiology, an introduction, 10th edition, Pearson International Edition.
  220. Torel, J., Cillard, J. and Cillard, P. (1986). Antioxidant activity of
  221. 25:383-385.
  222. Umedum Ngozi, L., Nwajagu Ugochukwu, Udeozo Ifeoma, P.,
  223. Ventura, S.P.M., Barros, R.L.F., Sintra, T., Soares, C.M.F., Lima,
  224. Wang, X., Brown, I.L., Evans, A.J., Conway, P.L. (1999). The protective effects
  225. of high amylose maize (amylomaize) starch granules on the survival of
  226. Bifidobacterium spp. in the mouse intestinal tract. Journal of Applied
  227. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Hyptis_suaveolens.htm
  228. Williams, P. A., and Phillips, G. O. (2000). Introduction to food hydrocolloids. In G. O. Phillips, and P. A. Williams (Eds.), Handbook of hydrocolloids New York, NY: CRC Press, 1–19.
  229. Yves, L. L., Florence, B. and Michel, G. (2003) Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genet. Mol. Res., 2: 63-76.
  230. artificial gastric and intestinal fluids. Journal of Food Protection, 63:1214–1221.
  231. Zheng, S. Z. (1993) Study of protective effect of Tremella fuciformis Berk, preparation (TFB) on immunity of irradiated tumor-bearing mice. Chinese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20:451-454.
Times Cited
  1. 張凱維(2017)。黃酒粕萃取液添加至Lactobacillus plantarum SLC13培養液中抗氧化與美白效果之探討。中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系所學位論文。2017。1-108。