A Study Establishment Standard Operating Procedure for Prevention of Oil Leaking and Pollution from Container Ship
海洋環境污染 ； 油污染 ； 貨櫃船 ； 作業程序 ； ocean environment pollution ； oil pollution ； container vessel ； operation procedure
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自2003年起，全球經濟加速增溫及復甦，隨著貿易行為及物品運送的需要，優於空運之海運業佔了很重要的地位，隨著貨運量大幅成長，各家船公司積極擴充航線及船隊，但在龐大的商機及運能背後，卻也隱藏了對海洋的危害。隨著全球環保意識抬頭，船舶所引起的油污問題，已成了聯合國海事組織及各政府關注的焦點，因為船難事故或人為惡意排放，對海洋生態的衝擊是無法量化的，且處理風險及難度上均高於陸地，尤其貨櫃船使用油係為黏度極高、揮發性較差的重油及機艙油，處理上較輕質油困難；當處理不當污染滲入生態中，對海洋生物的影響及戕害甚鉅。雖業界中有中大型船公司對油污防制有其管理及應變措施，但小型船公司對油污防制知識仍相當貧乏，導致防制的成效不彰。 欲將貨櫃船油污情況有效降低，可由船公司預先建制完善油污防制標準作業程序，再配合政府環保單位之應變設備與人力，方能有效的防止洩油事件發生，且減少洩油事件對環境的衝擊。本研究中建議船公司建立完善污染防制標準作業的程序，文中提及建立程序可透過工作安全分析、災害辨識及分析作業；再配合上公司的企業文化、教育訓練制度等彙整後制定。不論是事前預防、災害應變及災後處理，均可藉由作業程序及應變計劃，將油污預防機制強化、加速辨識污染來源能力及縮短油污處理時間，進而有效的控制污染及預防貨櫃船之油污問題。 油污防制標準作業程序雖不是防止船舶油污的萬靈丹，但透過油污防制標準作業程序及強化船員的教育訓練；兩者相輔相成下，除可減少人為惡意排放外，對船公司在處理船舶污染事故能有所依循。
Since 2003, the world economy has noticeably improved and recovered, and shipping industry superior to air freight industry takes on an important role quickly according to the required trade behavior and shipment transportation. As freight volume increases drastically, each shipping company aggressively expands shipping routes and fleets, but there is a danger to the oceans hidden behind the huge business opportunity and transportation capacity. Global environmental conscience arises, and oil pollution caused by ships has become an eye-catching issue of the International Maritime Organization of United Nation and governments of different countries, since maritime disasters and accidents or malicious discharges have immeasurable impacts on marine ecology and environment and the risk and difficulty of handling such pollution are higher than those on land. Particularly, oil used for containers is heavy oil or engine room oil having a high viscosity and a low volatility, and there is a higher level of difficulty of handling such oil than light distillate oil. If oil is handled improperly and permeated into the ecological environment, adverse influences and damages are imposed on marine life. Although large ship companies in the industry have controls and response measures for oil pollutions, yet small ship companies still have limited knowledge on oil pollution control, and thus the effect of preventing oil pollution is still ineffective. In fact, an effective pollution prevention standard operating procedure is required to reduce the oil pollution condition of containers, such that when crew members encounter an oil pollution, they can base on the operating procedure and response sequence to identify a polluting source immediately and control the pollution effectively. Therefore, ship companies should establish a comprehensive oil pollution control and prevention standard operating procedure in advance to prevent the oil pollution problem of containers effectively, and equipments and manpower of government environmental protection agencies are used together to prevent and control oil spill and recycle waste oil effectively, so as to reduce the impacts of oil accidents. Although the oil control and prevention standard operating procedure is not a cure-all solution for oil pollutions, both oil control and prevention standard operating procedure and education and training of crew members can reduce malicious discharges, and allow ship companies to have a guideline of handling ship pollution accidents and help speeding up the process of handling oil pollution and lowering the chance of spilling oil into the ocean.
工程學 > 土木與建築工程