Title

探討精神社區復健機構慢性精神分裂病患之充權感受及生活品質

Translated Titles

The Exploration of Empowerment Perception and Quality of Life Among Chronic Schizophrenia in Psychiatric Community Rehabilitation Institution

Authors

施雅雯

Key Words

精神社區復健活動 ; 充權感受 ; 生活品質 ; 精神社區復健機構 ; Psychiatric Community rehabilitation ; empowerment Perception ; quality of life ; community psychiatric rehabilitation institution.

PublicationName

臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2009年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

謝佳容

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究目的是以社區慢性精神分裂病患為對象,探討其精神症狀、精神社區復活動、充權感受及生活品質情形,更進一步探討其基本屬性與生活品質的差異,並進一步以路徑分析探討重要變項影響生活品質的作用機制,採橫斷性研究設計,以多階段集體隨機抽樣的方式(Probability proportional to size; PPS),自居住在北部地區合法立案之精神社區復健機構(包括社區復健中心、康復之家)病患190名,由研究者親自訪談及收集資料,其研究工具將包括:「病患基本資料」、「社區精神病症狀評量表」、「精神社區復健活動量表」、「充權感受量表」、「精神科病人生活品質量表」。統計方法將包括:描述性統計、t 檢定、變異數分析、路徑分析,所得資料以SPSS 15.0及Amos 7.0套裝軟體進行描述性及推論性統計。 結果如下: (1)男、女性各95名,年齡平均44.9歲,多數未婚、待業中。 (2)整體精神症狀在輕度範圍,不影響日常生活。 (3)康復之家慢性精神分裂病患之整體精神社區復健活動,以「生活支持」得分最高;社區復健中心慢性精神分裂病患以「生活自主」得分最高。 (4)精神社區復健機構慢性精神分裂病患之整體充權感受以「自尊」得分最高,以「合理表達生氣」得分最低。 (5)精神社區復健機構慢性精神分裂病患的生活品質與個人基本屬性中的「教育程度」、「工作狀況」、「年齡」、「患病時間」有統計上的顯著差異;但與「性別」、「婚姻狀況」之間並無顯著差異。 (6)路徑分析結果顯示,不論是透過直接或是間接的方式,充權感受對於生活品質都具有重要的影響。 期能藉此實證性研究的結果,瞭解慢性精神分裂病患於精神社區復健活動的生活品質與充權感受,讓病患之充權感受獲得重視,同時,研究結果將可提供精神社區復健政策與未來研究的參考。 關鍵字:精神社區復健活動、充權感受、生活品質、精神社區復健機構

English Abstract

The purpose of this study subjects are chronic mental illness to understand the Psychiatric Symptoms, Psychiatric Community Rehabilitation, Empowerment and Quality of life scale for psychiatric patients (QLSP) for chronic psychiatric patients in the community. Moreover, significant variables derived from bivariate analysis were then considered in the path model. A cross-sectional and the sampling will be used by stratified random sampling. The research subjects will selective from 190 subjects institutes of psychiatric rehabilitation in community which in the halfway house and Community rehabilitation Center; the instruments will be including demographic data, Psychiatric Symptoms Scales, Psychiatric Community Rehabilitation Scale, Empowerment Scale, the quality of care scale for psychiatric patient. Descriptive statistics, Independence t test, One-Way ANOVA, Tukey Post Hoc Tests and path analysis were utilized to analysis data. SPSS 15.0 and Amos 7.0 were used to analyze the data. Research result is as followed: (1) The gender of Community Psychiatric Rehabilitation Institution patients were about half and half, with mean age of 44.9 years. Most of the patients were unmarried and unemployed. (2) The overall psychotic symptoms was the mild level, it was not affect people's daily lives. (3)The subjects in the halfway house had Psychiatric community rehabilitation, the score of “Life support” concept was the highest, chronic psychiatric subjects in the community rehabilitation center had community rehabilitation, the score of “Independent life” concept was the highest. (4) The subjects in the community had empowerment perception, the score of “self-esteem” concept was the highest, while “righteous anger” was the lowest. (5)Among the demographic factors, chronic schizophrenia patients “educational level”, “work status”, “age”, “duration of illness” were significant differance on Quality of Life. No differance were found among the factors related to patients “sex” and “marital status”. (6) Path analysis showed that overall fit of adjusted model was acceptable, the result of path-analysis indicated that whether through directly or indirectly effect, empowerment perception have important impact to quality of life in community rehabilitation for chronic schizophrenia patients. By this result of evidence research, we can understand the quality of life and empowerment perception in community rehabilitation for chronic schizophrenia patients. The results of this study may enable the government to adapt mental health policy and in the future. keywords: Psychiatric Community rehabilitation, Empowerment Perception, Quality of Life, Community Psychiatric Rehabilitation Institution

Topic Category 醫藥衛生 > 社會醫學
護理學院 > 護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班
Reference
  1. 成和玲、楊美賞(1997)•門診與社區復健精神病患者生活品質之比較及影響生活品質之因素•Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences,13,748-756。
    連結:
  2. 余靜雲、鍾信心(2003)•門診精神分裂症患者生活事件之自我效能探討•護理雜誌,51(1),45-50。
    連結:
  3. 宋麗玉(2005)•精神障礙者之復健與復元-一個積極正向的觀點•中華心理衛生學刊,18(4),1-29。
    連結:
  4. 宋麗玉(2006)•增強權能量表之發展與驗證•社會政策與社會工作學刊,10(2),49-86。
    連結:
  5. 李育叔(2006)•慢性精神病患就業影響因素之探討•未發表的碩士論文,靜宜大學,台中。
    連結:
  6. 李柏森、劉靖旋(2005)•精神分裂病患者職業興趣之探討•台灣職能治療研究與實務,1,29-35。
    連結:
  7. 林承昌、林志強、諶立中(2006)•非典型症狀抗精神病藥物惡性症候群-病例報告•台灣家醫誌,16,134-41。
    連結:
  8. 林美伶、熊秉荃、林淑蓉、胡海國(2002)•精神分裂症患者之烙印處境•慈濟醫學,14(6),381 -388。
    連結:
  9. 林靜蘭、熊秉荃(2005)•社區中精神分裂症病患的社會技能訓練•台灣精神醫學, 192-203。
    連結:
  10. 邱淑貞(1994)•社區精神分裂病患者家庭功能與自我照顧之相關性•未發表的碩士論文,國立台灣大學,台北。
    連結:
  11. 邱淑貞、蕭淑貞(1998)•社區精神分裂病患家庭功能與自我照顧之相關性•中華衛誌,17(3),206-213。
    連結:
  12. 胡海國(1997)•全國精神分裂症一年中住院病人再次住院次數分析•當代醫學,24(2),964-968。
    連結:
  13. 胡海國(2002)•精神分裂症之社區流行病學•當代醫學,29(9),717-727。
    連結:
  14. 高麗芷、周美華(2004)•臺北市社區精神復健中心•北市醫學雜誌,1(4),503-511。
    連結:
  15. 張自強、施彥卿、陳昭文、劉怡佳、溫美芝等人(2004)•綜合醫院實施精神障礙者職業復健方案之成效探討•慈濟醫學,16(1),51-57。
    連結:
  16. 神病人者客觀生活品質之探討•護理研究,5,212-222。
    連結:
  17. 許嘉純、姚開屏、胡海國、熊秉荃(2005)•臺灣版精神分裂症病人生活品質評量表:信度與效度之研究•臺灣精神醫學,19(1),33-45。
    連結:
  18. 陳泰瑞、林麗晴、孫光天、鄭夙雯、蘇淑芳等人(2005)•輔助性音樂治療對女性慢性精神分裂症病患的療效•台灣精神醫學,19(4),305-313。
    連結:
  19. 曾冬勝(2002)•精神分裂病患社區治療與醫院治療模式生活品質之比較•未發表的碩士論文,高雄醫學大學,高雄。
    連結:
  20. 曾洙荔(2003)•慢性精神病患社區復健成效探討•未發表的碩士論文,慈濟大學,花蓮。
    連結:
  21. 曾華源、黃俐婷(2006)•心理暨社會派、生態系統觀及增強權能觀對「人在情境中」詮釋之比較•東吳社會工作學報,14,63-89。
    連結:
  22. 黃瑞琪(2002)•社區精神分裂症病患之病識感、社會支持與生活適應•未發表的碩士論文,高雄醫學大學,高雄。
    連結:
  23. 褚增揮(2001)•精神分裂症患者社區就業與注意力之相關性探討•職能治療學會雜誌,19,24-31。
    連結:
  24. 潘愛琬(1999)•應用動作與處理技巧測驗於精神分裂症病患的效度研究•職能治療學會雜誌,17,25-33 。
    連結:
  25. 鄭若瑟、歐陽文貞、李鳳墀(2006)•精神科病人生活品質量表之信效度•台灣精神醫學,20(1),19-30。
    連結:
  26. 謝佳容、蔡欣玲、蕭淑貞、陳展航(2001)•社區精神分裂病患主要照顧者人格堅毅性與其健康狀況相關性探討•新台北護理期刊,3(2),89-100。
    連結:
  27. 謝佳容、蕭淑貞(2006)•台灣地區社區復健機構之現況與未來發展•精神衛生護理雜誌,1(2),42-50。
    連結:
  28. 顏一秀、黃明欽(2004)•三組慢性精神分裂病患腦病變班達指數的比較分析•臨床心理學刊,1(1),13-20。
    連結:
  29. Accordino, M. P., & Herbert, J. T. (2000). Treatment Outcome of Four Rehabilitation Interventions for Persons with Serious Mental Illness. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22(3), 268.
    連結:
  30. Andreasen, N. C., Flaum, M., Swayze, V. W., Tyrrell, G., & Arndt, S. (1990). Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A critical reappraisal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47(7), 615-621.
    連結:
  31. Anthony, William A. (1994). The vocational rehabilitaton of people with severe mental illness: Issues and myths. Innovation and Research, 3(2), 17-24.
    連結:
  32. Barton, R. (1999). Psychosocial rehabilitation services in community support systems: a review of outcomes and policy recommendations. Psychiatric Services, 50(4), 525-534.
    連結:
  33. Bartle, E. E., Couchonnal, G., Canda, E. R., & Staker, M. D. (2002). Empowerment as a dynamically developing concept for practice: Lessons learned from organizational ethnography. Social Work, 47(1), 32-43.
    連結:
  34. post acute patients with schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry And Clinical Neuroscience, 253(5), 228-235.
    連結:
  35. Bhugra, D. (2005). The global prevalence of schizophrenia. Plos Medicine, 2(5), 175.
    連結:
  36. Brekke, J. S., Ansel, M., Long, J., Slade, E., & Weinstein, M. (1999). Intensity and continuity of services and functional outcomes in the rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 50(2), 248-256.
    連結:
  37. Brockington, I. F., Hall, P., Levings, J. (1993). The community’s tolerance of the mentallyill. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 93–99.
    連結:
  38. Browne, S., Roe, M., Lane, A., Gervin, M., Morris, M., Kinsella, A., et al. (1996). Quality of life in schizophrenia: relationship to sociodemographic factors, symptomatology and tardive dyskinesia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 94(2), 118-124.
    連結:
  39. Bjo¨rkman, T., & Svensson, B. (2005). Quality of life in people with severe mental illness. Reliability and validity of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 59(4), 302-306.
    連結:
  40. Caron, J., Mercier, C., Diaz, P., & Martin, A. (2005). Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. Psychiatry Research, 137(3), 203-213.
    連結:
  41. Chan, S., & Yu, I. W. (2004). Quality of life of clients with schizophrenia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(1), 72-83.
    連結:
  42. Chien, I. C., Chou, Y. J., Lin, C. H., Bih, S. H., Chou, P., & Chang, H. J. (2004). Prevalence and incidence of schizophrenia among national health insurance enrollees in Taiwan, 1996-2001. Psychiatry And Clinical Neurosciences, 58(6), 611-618.
    連結:
  43. Cohen. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. (2nd ed.,). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    連結:
  44. Corrigan, P. W., Faber, D., Rashid, F., & Leary, M. (1999). The construct validity of empowerment among consumers of mental health services. Schizophrenia Research, 38(1), 77-84.
    連結:
  45. Crane-Ross, D., Lutz, W. J., & Roth, D. (2006). Consumer and case manager perspectives of service empowerment: relationship to mental health recovery. The Journal Of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 33(2), 142-155.
    連結:
  46. Crow, T. J. (1980). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process? British Medical Journal, 280(6207), 66-68.
    連結:
  47. De Willige, G.V., Wiersma, D., Nienhuis, F. J., & Jenner, J. A. (2005). Changes in quality of life in chronic psychiatric patients: A comparison between EuroQol (EQ-5D) and WHOQoL. Quality of Life Research, 14(2), 441-451.
    連結:
  48. Donald, M. (2006). Empowering people with severe mental illness : A practical guide. New York : Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  49. Dor, I. A. B., & Savaya, R. (2007). Community rehabilitation for persons with psychiatric disabilities: comparison of the effectiveness of segregated and integrated programs in Israel. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31(2), 139-148.
    連結:
  50. Eisenberg, L., Leff, J. (2000). Psychiatry as a world wide public health problem. In M. G. Gelder, J. J. Loperz-lbor, N. Andreasen, (Ed.), New oxford textbook of psychiatry (1nd ed., pp. 9-13). New York: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  51. Ferrans, C., & Powers, M. (1985). Quality of Life Index: development
    連結:
  52. Ferraz, H., & Wellman, N. (2008). The integration of solution-focused brief therapy principles in nursing: a literature review. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 15(1), 37-44.
    連結:
  53. Ferrans, C. E., Zerwic, J. J., Wilbur, J. E., & Larson, J. L. (2005). Conceptual model of health-related quality of life. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37(4), 336-342.
    連結:
  54. Fitzgerald, P. B., Williams, C. L., Corteling, N., Filia, S. L., Brewer, K., Adams, A., et al. (2001). Subject and observer-rated quality of life in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 103(5), 387-392.
    連結:
  55. Fujii, D. E., Wylie, A. M., & Nathan, J. H. (2004). Neurocognition and long-term prediction of quality of life in outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness. Schizophrenia Research, 69(1), 67-73.
    連結:
  56. Geller, J. L. (2000). The last half-century of psychiatric services as reflected in psychiatric services. Psychiatric Services, 51(1), 41-67.
    連結:
  57. "Since I have my case manager, I am back to life" case management in Croatia. Psychiatria Danubina, 20(1), 63-70.
    連結:
  58. Goldman, H. (1981). Defining and counting the chronically mentally ill. Hospital & community psychiatry, 32(1), 21-27.
    連結:
  59. Hagerty, B.M., & Williams, R.A. (1999). The effects of sense of
    連結:
  60. belonging, social support, conflict, and loneliness on depression.
    連結:
  61. Hall, P. L., & Tarrier, N. (2003). The cognitive-behavioral treatment of low self-esteem in psychotic patients: a pilot study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(3), 317-332.
    連結:
  62. Hansson, L., & Bjo¨ rkman, T. (2005). Empowerment in people with a mental illness: reliability and validity of the Swedish version of an empowerment scale. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 19(1), 32-38.
    連結:
  63. Happell, B., & Roper, C. (2003). The role of a mental health consumer in the education of postgraduate psychiatric nursing students: the students' evaluation. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 10(3), 343-350.
    連結:
  64. Heider, D., Angermeyer, M. C., Winkler, I., Schomerus, G., Bebbington, P. E., Brugha, T., et al. (2007). A prospective study of Quality of life in schizophrenia in three European countries. Schizophrenia Research, 93(1-3), 194-202.
    連結:
  65. Henry, A. D., & Lucca, A. M. (2004). Facilitators and barriers to employment: The perspectives of people with psychiatric disabilities and employment service providers. Work, 22, 169-182.
    連結:
  66. Horton, R. (2002). Differences in assessment of symptoms and quality of life between patients with advanced cancer and their specialist palliative care nurses in a home care setting. Palliative Medicine, 16(6), 488-494.
    連結:
  67. Holloway, F., Carson, J. (2002). Quality of life in severe mental illness. International Review of Psychiatry, 14, 175-184.
    連結:
  68. Hoffmann, D. A., Young, D., Manges, L. C., Chambers, W., & Miller, M. (2004). A Collaborative approach to the development of psychiatric rehabilitation services in a piblic behavioral health managed care environment. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 28(2), 109-112.
    連結:
  69. Huang, C. L., & Wang, H. H. (2005). Community health development: What is it ? International Nursing Review, 52(1), 13-17.
    連結:
  70. Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. ( 2003). Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences / Clinical Psychiatry. In Williams & Wilkins, ( ed.,). New York.
    連結:
  71. Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
    連結:
  72. Kopelowicz, A., Liberman, R. P., & Zarate, R. (2006). Recent Advances in Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 12-23.
    連結:
  73. Lamb, H. R. (2001). A century and a half of psychiatric rehabilitation in the United States. New Directions For Mental Health Services, (90), 99-110.
    連結:
  74. Lecomte, T., Cyr, M., Lesage, A. D., Wilde, J., Leclerc, C., & Ricard, N. (1999). Efficacy of a self-esteem module in the empowerment of
    連結:
  75. individuals with schizophrenia. The Journal Of Nervous And Mental Disease, 187(7), 406-413.
    連結:
  76. Legere, L. (2007). The importance of rehabilitation. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 30(3), 227-229.
    連結:
  77. Lehman, A. F., Postrado, L. T., & Rachuba, L. T. (1993). Convergent validation of quality of life assessments for persons with severe mental illnesses. Quality Of Life Research: An International Journal Of Quality Of Life Aspects Of Treatment, Care And Rehabilitation, 2(5), 327-333.
    連結:
  78. Lehman, A. F., Word, N. C., & Linn, L. S. (1982). Chronic mental patients: The quality of life issue. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1271-1276.
    連結:
  79. Lenzenweger, M. F., Dworkin, R. H., & Wethington, E. (1989). Models of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: an empirical evaluation of latent structures. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98(1), 62-70.
    連結:
  80. Mandzuk, L. L., & McMillan, D. E. (2005). A concept analysis of quality of life. Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing, 9(1), 12-18.
    連結:
  81. Meehl, P. E., & Waller, N. G. (2002). The Path Analysis Controversy: A new statistical approach to strong appraisal of verisimilitude. Psychological Methods, 7(3), 283-300.
    連結:
  82. Mueser, K. T., Aalto, S., Becker, D. R., Ogden, J. S., Wolfe, R. S., Schiavo, D., et al. (2005). The effectiveness of skills training for improvingoutcomes in supported employment. Psychiatric Services, 56(10), 1254-1260.
    連結:
  83. O'Brien, D., & Revell, G. (2005). The Milestone Payment System: results based funding in vocational rehabilitation . Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 23(2), 101-114.
    連結:
  84. Oe, M., & Okagami, K. (1998). Community-based care for the mentally disordered in Kawasaki City: Experiences from Kawasaki City Psychiatric Rehabilitation Center. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 52, 359-363.
    連結:
  85. Oliver, J. P., Huxley, P. J., Priebe, S., et al. (1997). Measuring the quality of life of severely mentally ill people using the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 32, 76-83.
    連結:
  86. Padmavathi, R., Rajkumar, S., & Srinivasan, T. N. (1998). Schizophrenic patients who were never treated-a study in an Indian urban community. Psychological Medicine, 28(5), 1113-1117.
    連結:
  87. Parse, R. R. (1999). Community: An alternative view. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12, 119-124.
    連結:
  88. Pinikahana, J., Happell, B., Hope, J., & Keks, N. A. (2002). Quality of life in schizophrenia: a review of the literature from 1995 to 2000. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 11(2), 103-111.
    連結:
  89. Reger, G., Wong-McDonald, A., & Liberman, R. P. (2003). Psychiatric rehabilitation in a community mental health center. Psychiatric Services, 54(11), 1457-1459.
    連結:
  90. Rogers, E. S., Chamberlin, J., Ellison, M. L., & Crean, T. (1997). A consumer-constructed scale to measure empowerment among users of mental health services. Psychiatric Services, 48(8), 1042-1047.
    連結:
  91. Ritsner, M., Gibel, A., & Ratner, Y.(2006). Determinants of Changes in Perceived Quality of Life in the Course of Schizophrenia. Quality of Life Research, 15(3), 515-526.
    連結:
  92. Ritsner, M., Modai, I., Endicott, J., Rivkin, O., Nechamkin, Y., Barak, P., et al. (2000). Differences in quality of life domains and psychopathologic and psychosocial factors in psychiatric patients. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(11), 880.
    連結:
  93. Rogers, E. S., Chamberlin, J., Ellison, M. L., & Crean, T. (1997). A consumer-constructed scale to measure empowerment among users of mental health services. Psychiatric Services, 48(8), 1042-1047.
    連結:
  94. Roth, D., & Crane-Ross, D. (2002). Impact of services, met needs, and service empowerment on consumer outcomes. Mental Health Services Research, 4(1), 43-56.
    連結:
  95. Rusch, N., Angermeyer, M. C., & Corrigan, P. W. (2005). Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma. The Journal of The Association of European Psychiatrists, 20(8), 529-539.
    連結:
  96. Rutman, I. (1994). How psychiatric disability expresses itself as a barrier to employment. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 17, 15-35.
    連結:
  97. Sally Chan, I. W. Y. (2004). Quality of life of clients with schizophrenia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72-83.
    連結:
  98. Socall, D. W., & Holtgraves, T. (1992). Attitudes toward the mentally ill: The effects of label and beliefs. The Sociological Quarterly, 33(3), 435-445.
    連結:
  99. Speer, P. W., & Peterson, N. A. (2000). Instrument development. Psychometric properties of an empowerment scale: testing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains. Social Work Research, 24(2), 109-118.
    連結:
  100. Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
    連結:
  101. Stirling, J., White, C., Lewis, S., Hopkins, R., Tantam, D., Huddy, A. & Montague, L. (2003). Neurocognitive function and outcome in firstepisode schizophrenia: a 10-year follow-up of an epidemiological cohort. Schizophrenia Research, 65(3), 75-86.
    連結:
  102. Swartz, M., Swanson, J., & Hannon, M. (2003). Does fear of coercion keep people awayfrom mental health treatment? Evidencefrom a survey of persons with schizophreniaand mental health professionals. Behavioral Science and the Law, 21, 459-472.
    連結:
  103. Svirskis, T., Korkeila, J., Heinimaa, M., Huttunen, J., Ilonen, T., Ristkari, T., et al. (2007). Quality of life and functioning ability in subjects vulnerable to psychosis. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48(2), 155-160.
    連結:
  104. Thara, R., Padmavati, R., Aynkran, J., & John, S. (2008). Community mental health in India: A rethink. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 2(1), 11-10.
    連結:
  105. Vauth, R., Kleim, B., Wirtz, M., & Corrigan, P. W. (2007). Self-efficacy and empowerment as outcomes of self-stigmatizing and coping in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 150(1), 71-80.
    連結:
  106. Von Knorring L, L. E. (1995). Principal components and further possibilities with the PANSS. Acta Psychiatrica Scand, 91, 5-10.
    連結:
  107. Wallace, C. J., Liberman, R. P., Tauber, R., & Wallace, J. (2000). The independent living skills survey: a comprehensive measure of the community functioning of severely and persistently mentally ill individuals. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26(3), 631-658.
    連結:
  108. Wallerstein, N. (1992). Powerlessness, empowerment, and health: implications for health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Promotio, 6(3), 197-205.
    連結:
  109. Wehmeier, P. M., Kluge, M., Schacht, A., Helsberg, K., & Schreiber, W. (2007). Correlation of physician and patient rated quality of life during antipsychotic treatment in outpatients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 91(1-3), 178-186.
    連結:
  110. Whelton, C., Pawlick, J., & Cook, P. E. (1999). Growing with people with a psychiatric disability in a psychosocial rehabilitation program. Psychiatr Rehab, 22, 290-293.
    連結:
  111. World Health Organization.(2001). The World Health Report: Mental Health, New Understand, New Hope. Geneva: WHO.
    連結:
  112. Wing, J. K. (1990). Meeting the needs of people with psychiatric disorders.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,25,2-8.
    連結:
  113. World Health Organization Quality of Life Group. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF Quality of Life Assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551-558.
    連結:
  114. Wowra, S. A., & McCarter, R. (1999). Validation of the Empowerment Scale With an Outpatient Mental Health Population. Psychiatric Services, 50(7), 959-961.
    連結:
  115. Wykes, T., & Holloway, F. (2000). Community rehabilitation: past failures and future prospects. International Review of Psychiatry, 12(3), 197-205.
    連結:
  116. Xiang, Y. T., Weng, Y. Z., Leung, C. M., Tang, W. K., & Ungvari, G. S. (2007). Quality of life of Chinese schizophrenia outpatients in Hong Kong: relationship to sociodemographic factors and symptomatology. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(5), 442-449.
    連結:
  117. Yamada, S., & Suzuki, K. (2007). Application of Empowerment Scale to patients with schizophrenia: Japanese experience. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 61(6), 594-601.
    連結:
  118. Yu Tao, X., Yong Zhen, W., Chi Ming, L., Wai Kwong, T., & Ungvari, G. S. (2008). Subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia in Hong Kong and Beijing: relationship to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Quality of Life Research, 17(1), 27-36.
    連結:
  119. Zhan, L. (1992). Quality of life: conceptual and measurement issues. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(7), 795-800.
    連結:
  120. Zimmerman, M. A., & Warschausky, S. (1998). Empowerment theory for rehabilitation research: Conceptual and methodological issues. Rehabilitation Psychology, 43, 3-16.
    連結:
  121. 中文部分
  122. 立法院(2007,7月11日)•身心障礙者權益保障法•2008年1月1日取自http://law.moj.gov.tw/Scripts/News Detail.asp? no=1D0050046
  123. 行政院(2007)•我國長期照顧十年計畫-大溫暖社會福利套案之旗艦計劃,臺北:行政院社會福利推動委員會。
  124. 吳肖琪(2003)•行政院衛生署九十二年度醫政業務補助研究計畫-精神醫療網計劃執行成效評估與展望•台北:行政院衛生署。
  125. 呂淑貞(2004)•豐富精神障礙者社區生活內涵•於胡海國總編輯,台灣精神障礙者照護發展研討會彙編(33-41頁)•台北︰財團法人國家衛生研究院論壇長期照護委員會。
  126. 林惠珍(1994)•精神分裂病患主觀性生活品質之探討•未發表的碩士論文,國立臺灣大學,台北。
  127. 武茂玲(1998)•以行動研究法探討影響臺北市北頭區泉源?埵悁~人健康檢查行為之相關因素•未發表的碩士論文,國立陽明大學,台北。
  128. 邱佩青(2006)•門診精神分裂病患憂鬱症狀、堅毅、病識感、社會支持與生活品質之相關性探討•未發表的碩士論文,長庚大學,台北。
  129. 姚敏貞(2005)•都會社區精神復健機構「康復之家」住民生活品質之影響因素探討•未發表的碩士論文,國立陽明大學,台北。
  130. 洪家偉(2005)•抗精神病藥物於精神分裂症患者之使用評估•未發表的碩士論文,國立成功大學,台南。
  131. 張玨(2004)•國家心理健康政策研究:國際回顧•台北:行政院衛生署。
  132. 梁玉雯、蔣欣欣、李從業、吳玫勳、嚴小燕等人(1997)•慢性精
  133. 曾文星、徐靜(1994)•現代精神醫學•台北:水牛出版社。
  134. 葉玲玲、李玉春、楊銘欽、劉絮愷、胡海國(1997)•嚴重精神病患經濟成本分析•中華心理衛生學刊,10,1-15。
  135. 葉玲玲(2003)•台灣精神分裂症患者之健康照護需要與需求研究•未發表的博士論文,陽明大學,台北。
  136. 褚增輝、陳珠璋(1987) •慢性精神病人復健潛能與工作適應的關係•中華心理衛生學刊,3,17-25。
  137. 劉智民(2004)•精神分裂症•於李明濱編著,實用精神醫學(123-136頁)台北:國立台灣大學醫學院。
  138. 鄭若瑟(2003)•台灣精神障礙者照顧之現況分析與未來發展面-醫療面•於胡海國總編輯,台灣精神障礙者照護發展研討會彙編(35-39頁)•台北︰財團法人國家衛生研究院論壇長期照護委員會。
  139. 英文部分
  140. Alcock, P. (1997). Understanding Poverty (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  141. Andrew, G., Peters, L., & Teeson, M. (1994). Measurement of
  142. Consumer Outcome in Mental Health. NSW, Australia: University
  143. of New South Wales, Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety Disorders.
  144. Anthony, W., Cohen, M., Farkas, M., & Gagne, C. (2002). Psychiatric rehabilitation. Boston, US: Center for psychiatric Rehabilitation, Boston University.
  145. Bechdolf, A., Klosterkötter , J., Hambrecht, M., Knost, B., Kuntermann, C., Schiller, S., et al. (2003). Determinants of subjective quality of life in
  146. Bloch, S., Chodoff, P., & Green, S. A. (1999). Appendix: Codes of ethics. In S. Bloch, P. Chodoff, & S. A. Green (Ed), Psychiatric ethics (3rd ed., pp. 511-531). New York: Oxford University Press.
  147. Cardoso, C. S., Caiaffa, W. T., Bandeira, M., Siqueira, A. L., Abreu, M. N. S., & Fonseca, J. O. P. (2005). Factors associated with low quality of life in schizophrenia. Cadernos De Saúde Pública / Ministério Da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional De Saúde Pública 21(5), 1338-1340.
  148. Clareci Silva Cardoso, W. T. C., Marina Bandeira Arminda Lucia Siqueira; Mery Natali Silva AbreuII, José Otávio Penido FonsecaI. (2005). Factors associated with low quality of life in schizophrenia. Cad Sae Plica, 5(21), 1338-1340.
  149. and psychometric properties. Advances in Nursing Science 8, 15-24.
  150. Geyer, E. (1990). Self-care issues For the elderly. Dimensions in Oncology Nursing, 4(2), 33-35.
  151. Gruber, E. N., Ivezić-Strkalj, S., Agius, M., & Martić-Biocina, S. (2008).
  152. Gutiérrez, L., Oh, H. J., & Gillmore, M. R. (1998). Toward an Understanding of Empowerment for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Adolescent Women. Sex Roles, 42, 581-661.
  153. Nursing Research, 48(4), 215-219.
  154. Kallert, T. W., Stoll, A., Leisse, M., & Winiecki, P. (2004). Assessing deinstitutionalization of the nursing home area of a large state mental hospital from the point of view of patients and staff. Fortschritte Der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 72(8), 446-459.
  155. McQuistion, H. L., Goisman, R. M., & Tennison, C. R., Jr. (2000). Psychosocial rehabilitation: issues and answers for psychiatry. Community Mental Health Journal, 36(6), 605-616.
  156. Mechanic, D. (2001). Mental health policy at the millennium: Challenges and opportunities. In R. W. Manderscheid & M. J. Henderson (Ed.), Mental health, United States (pp.53-63). Rockville, MD: U. S.
  157. Staples, L. H. (1999). Consumer empowerment in a mental health system: Stakeholder roles and responsibilities. In W. Shera & L. M. Wells (Ed.), Empowerment practice in social work: Developing richer conceptual foundations (pp. 119-141). Toronto: Cadian Scholar's Press.
  158. Wehmeyer, M. L., Kelchner, K., & Richards, S. (1996). Essential characteristics of self-determined behavior of individuals with mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Retardatio, 100(6), 632-642.
Times Cited
  1. 鍾佳芳(2013)。中高齡慢性精神病患健康促進生活型態與生活品質的預測因素。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-226。 
  2. 湯茹雲(2018)。充權團體工作應用於精神科日間病房之成效評估。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2018。1-136。 
  3. 鍾佳伶(2010)。精神障礙者家屬社會支持、權能感與烙印感之相關性探討。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2010。1-154。 
  4. 王思淳(2012)。發展遲緩兒童家長的社會支持、充權與生活品質之相關研究:以臺北市及新北市接受早期療育服務之家長為例。臺灣師範大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2012。1-161。
  5. 丘小丹(2016)。探討思覺失調症病人充權感受與健康相關生活品質之關係。長榮大學護理學系(所)學位論文。2016。1-93。