Title

利用數值模式探討地形效應對空氣品質所造成之影響

Translated Titles

A numerical study of terrain effect on air pollution

DOI

10.6833/CJCU.2014.00181

Authors

楊鈞淇

Key Words

地形效應 ; 空氣污染 ; 中尺度氣象模式 ; terrain effect ; air pollution ; mesoscale model

PublicationName

長榮大學資訊管理學系(所)學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2014年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

賴信志

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

台灣位於世界最大陸塊與最大海洋的交界,地理位置非常特殊,深受季風系統的影響;加上地形複雜,中央山脈佇立在台灣島的中央,隔開東西兩區。因此當綜觀天氣系統影響台灣時,對於局部地區大氣環境條件的討論,還必須考量到中央山脈地形所造成的變化,尤其在空氣污染的相關議題上,地形效應更是重要的因子。 因空氣污染物之傳輸與擴散受氣流影響極大,加上氣流經過台灣地形時會產生流場的變化,因此要探討台灣的空氣污染問題時,氣流經過地形與台灣空氣品質之間的關係為主要的關鍵議題,此關鍵即為本研究之主要目的。本研究首先利用環保署的監測資料篩選出2003年到2012年的空氣污染個案,並調查當時綜觀天氣系統的型態,發現主要綜觀天氣型態為高壓迴流及東北季風。接著依據污染個案的風場分布將台灣依照地形區分,以此了解高污染事件與天氣系統及地形之關連性。為更清楚了解高污染事件之大氣環流型態變化,本研究利用MM5中尺度氣象模式完成模擬2003年到2012年共10年的氣象模擬資料庫,此MM5資料庫時間解析度為1小時,空間

English Abstract

Taiwan is located at the junction of the world's largest land mass and ocean, the location is very special, heavily influenced by the monsoon system. Taiwan is complex terrain , central mountain range stands in the center of Taiwan’s and two areas separated Taiwan .When the synoptic weather systems affected Taiwan, atmospheric conditions in some areas of discussion, and have to consider the terrain changes caused by the central mountains, especially on issues related to air pollution, the terrain effect is even more important factor. Because the transmission and diffusion of air pollution are extremely affected by the flow, and the airflow field varies when the flow pass through the terrain of Taiwan. Therefore, when it comes to the air pollution in Taiwan, the relationship between the flow passed through terrain and the quality of the air in Taiwan is the primary issue which is the main purpose of our research. First, our research utilizes the EPA’s monitoring data to filter the air pollution cases from 2003 to 2012. After investigating the type consists of High-Pressure Reflux and Northeast Monsoon. Second, according to the wind field distribution of air pollution cases, we distinguish Taiwan into several terrains in order to realize the connection between high pollution events, weather system and terrain. To understand the type variation of atmosphere circumfluence in the high pollution events more clearly, our research uses MM5 middle meteorology mode to completely simulate the meteorology simulation database for ten years, from 2003 to 2012. In MM5 database, the time resolution of atmosphere environment data is one hour and the space resolution of atmosphere environment data is three kilogram. By utilizing the MM5 database, we can analysis the IV variation of atmosphere circumfluence in the high pollution events within different area. Moreover, we can also study the relationship between the wind fields underground or in high level and the terrain. The result of analysis reveals that the phenomena of terrain flow around is

Topic Category 資訊暨工程學院 > 資訊管理學系(所)
社會科學 > 管理學
Reference
  1. 5. 吳承翰(2002),「亞洲沙塵暴之模擬」,國立中央大學大氣物理研究所碩士論文,中壢。
    連結:
  2. 6. 林彥穎(2004),「區域局部環流隊臺北地區空氣品質之影響」,國力臺灣大氣科學研究所碩士論文,臺北。
    連結:
  3. 8. 蔡德明(2006),「應用Model-3/CMAQ以PC cluster研究高速公路網與電廠對南高屏地區臭氧濃度之影響」,國立成功大學環境工程學系博士論文,臺南。
    連結:
  4. 11. 王起讚(2007),「1993~2006台灣中部及雲嘉南地區空氣品質變遷與原因探討」,台灣大學環境工程學研究所碩士論文,台北。
    連結:
  5. 20. 蔡宗樺(2012),「利用WRF模式探討臺灣東部海上對流線之個案研究」,國立中央大學大氣物理研究所碩士論文,桃園縣。
    連結:
  6. 21. 中華民國空氣品質監測報告九十二年年報,行政院環境保護署。
    連結:
  7. 22. 中華民國空氣品質監測報告九十九年年報,行政院環境保護署。
    連結:
  8. 23. 中華民國空氣品質監測報告一百年年報,行政院環境保護署。
    連結:
  9. 1. Archer,C.L.,and Jacobson,M.Z.(2005).”The Santa Cruz eddy. Part II:Mechanisms of formation.” Monthly Weather Review 133:2387-2405.
    連結:
  10. 2. Brighton, B.W.M.,white,W.H.,and Smith,T.B.(1978).”Anatomy of a Los Angels smog episode : Pollutant transport in the daytime see breeze regime.” Atomospheric Environment 12:893-907.
    連結:
  11. 3. Blumenthal, D.L., White, W.H., Smith, T.B. (1978), “Anatomy of A Los Angeles Smog Episode: Pollutant Transport in the Daytime Sea Breeze Regime.” Atmospheric Environment, 12, 893-907.
    連結:
  12. 4. Cheng,W.L.,(2001) . “Synoptic patterns in relation to ozone concentrations in west-central Taiwan. ”Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 75:251-258
    連結:
  13. 5. C. Hogrefe, J. Biswas, B. Lynn, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, J. Rosenthal,C. Rosenzweig, R. Goldberg, P.L. Kinney,(2004). “Simulating regional-scale ozone climatologyover the eastern United States: model evaluation results. ” 38: 2627–2638
    連結:
  14. 6. C. Hogrefe, B. Lynn, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, J. Rosenthal, C. Rosenzweig,R. Goldberg, S. Gaffin, K. Knowlton, and P. L. Kinney,(2004). “Simulating changes in regional air pollution over the eastern United States due to changes in global and regional climate and emissions. ”
    連結:
  15. 7. Dosio,A., Emeis, S., Graziani,G., Junkermann,W., Levy,A.,(2001).”Assessing the meteorological conditions of deep Italian Alpine valley system by means of a measuring campaign and simulations wuth two models during a summer smog episode.” Atmospheric Environment 35:5441-5454.
    連結:
  16. 8. Draxler, R.R. and G.D. Hess, 1998, “An Overview of the Hysplit_4 Modeling System for Trajectories, Dispersion, and Deposition. ”, Aust. Met. Mag. , 47, 295-308.
    連結:
  17. 11. E. Roeckner, R. Brokopf, M. Esch, M. Giorgetta, S. Hagemann, L. Kornblueh, E. Manzini, U. Schlese, U. Schulzweida (2006) ”Sensitivity of Simulated Climate to Horizontal and Vertical Resolution in the ECHAM5 Atmosphere Model. ”
    連結:
  18. 12. Filippo Giorgi , Frédérick Meleux,(2007). ”Modelling the regional effects of climate change on air quality. ”, 339 :721–733
    連結:
  19. 13. Gálvez, O., 2007, “Synoptic-scale transport of ozone into Southern Ontario.” Atmospheric Environment, 41 8579-8595.
    連結:
  20. 14. Hunt,J.C.R.,and Snyder,W.H.,(1980).”experiments on stably and neutrally stratified flow over a model three-dimensional hill.”Journal
    連結:
  21. of Fluid Mechanics 96:671-704.
    連結:
  22. 16. IPCC, (2007) . ”Climate Change 2007: The Physical Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change. ”, edited by Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    連結:
  23. 17. Jacob, D.J., and Winner, D.A. ,(2009). ”Effect of climate change on air quality in Atmospheric Environment. ” 43(1): 51-63
    連結:
  24. 18. Jazcilevich,A.D.,Garcia,A.R.,Caetano,E.,(2005).”Locally induced surface air confluence by complex terrain and its effect on air pollution in the valley of Mexico.” Atmospheric Environment 39:5481-5489.
    連結:
  25. 19. Lars Gidhagen, Magnuz Engardt, Boel L¨ovenheim, and Christer Johansan., (2012). ”Modeling Effects of Climate Change on Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Planning Scenarios. ”, doi:10.1155/2012/240894
    連結:
  26. 20. Mai Khiem, Ryozo Ooka, Hong Huang, Hiroshi Hayami, (2011) . ”A numerical study of summer ozone concentration over the Kanto area of Japan using the MM5/CMAQ model. ”, 23(2) 236–246
    連結:
  27. 21. Pirovano, G., Coll, I., Bedogni, M., Costa, M.P., Gabusi, V., Lasry, F., Menut, L., Vautard, R., 2007, “On the influence of meteorological input on photochemical modeling of a severe episode over a coastal area.” Atmospheric Environment, 41, 6445-6464.
    連結:
  28. 22. Rodríguez, S., Torres, C., Guerra, J.C., Cuevas, E., 2004, “Transport pathways of ozone to marine and free-troposphere sites in Tenerife, Canary Islands.” Atmospheric Environment, 38, 4733-4747.
    連結:
  29. 23. Sigman, R., Hilderink, H., Delrue, N., Braathen, N-A, and Leflaive, X., (2012). Health and Environment, in OECD (2012), ”OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050. ”, Paris: OECD Publishing
    連結:
  30. 24. Sokhi, R.S., José, S.R., Kitwiroon, N., Fragkou, E., Pérez, J.L., Middleton, D.R., 2006, “Prediction of ozone levels in London using the MM5-CMAQ modeling system.” Environ. Modelling &Software, 21, 566-576
    連結:
  31. 25. Smolarkiewicz,P.K.,Rasmussee, R.,Clark, T.L,(1988).”on the dynamics of Hawaiian cloud bands.”Jaounal of atmospheric Science 45,1872-1905.
    連結:
  32. 26. Sun,W.Y.,Chern,J.D.,Wu,C.C.,Hsu,W.R.,(1911).”Numerical simulation of mesoscale circulation in Taiwan and surrounding area.”Monthly Weather Review 119:2558-2573.
    連結:
  33. 一、中文文獻
  34. 1. 吳清吉、祁立中(1992):海風環流下污染物之擴散,第九屆空氣污染控制技術研討會論文專輯。
  35. 2. 李俊毅(1995),「台灣南部地區臭氧污染分析」,台灣大學環境工程研究所論文,臺北。
  36. 3. 張艮輝、張能復、鄭福田、莊秉潔、陳王焜、賴信志、蔡俊鴻、余泰毅、林文印、林沛練(1997):空氣品質模式對模擬增量管制策略效益檢討及未來新增污染對空氣品質長期衝擊評估,環保署EPA-96-FA14-03-D071。
  37. 4. 陳正達、許晃雄、官岱毅、朱啟豪、程美靜、蕭裕陸(1999):臺灣環境與全球氣候變遷衝擊之評析-氣候,國科會。
  38. 7. 吳義林、賴信志、盛揚帆(2005):地形效應對高屏總量管制區空氣污染物傳輸影響之模擬研究,國科會。
  39. 9. 童慶斌、戴昌鳳、李培芬、曾昭衡(2007): 建立氣候變遷對環境與生態永續性衝擊預警指標與機制,行政院國家科學委員會。
  40. 144
  41. 10. 劉紹臣、許乾忠、陳正平(2007): 臺灣地區之氣候變遷: 區域及全球效應。
  42. 12. 林明煌(2008),「境外傳輸對台灣空氣品質影響及臭氧污染特徵之氣象分析研究」,雲林科技大學環境與安全為生工程系碩士論文,雲林。
  43. 13. 邱宏城(2009),「大氣懸浮微粒濃度及化學組成與氣象因子變異關聯性研究」,國立中山大學環境工程學系碩士論文,高雄。
  44. 14. 余培倫(2010),「中部空品區天氣型態與二次氣膠之探討分析」,東海大學環境科學與工程學系碩士論文,台中。 15. 蔡俊鴻、賴信志、蔡德明、曾庭科(2011):臺灣清淨空氣計畫規劃暨近成施行方案研訂,行政院環境保護署。
  45. 16. 許晃雄、吳宜昭、周佳、陳正達、陳永明、盧孟明(2011):臺灣氣候變遷科學報告2011,行政院國家科學委員會。 17. 蔡俊鴻、劉保文、賴信志、蔡德明、廖肇寧、曾庭科(2011):臺灣空氣品質策略因應氣候變遷調適研究,國科會。
  46. 18. 蔡俊鴻、江鴻龍、劉保文、賴信志、蔡德明(2012):氣候變遷對臺灣空氣品質潛在衝擊評估與因應策略先期研究,國科會。
  47. 19. 國家氣候變遷調適政策綱領(2012),行政院經濟建設委員會。
  48. 145
  49. 24. 空氣品質模式中心網站,http:// http://aqmc.epa.gov.tw。
  50. 25. 交通部中央氣象局網站,http://www.cwb.gov.tw。
  51. 26. 行政環境保護署空氣品質監測網站,http://taqm.epa.gov.tw。
  52. 二、英文文獻
  53. 146
  54. 9. E. Roeckner, G. Bäuml, L. Bonaventura, R. Brokopf, M. Esch, M. Giorgetta, S. Hagemann, I. Kirchner, L. Kornblueh, E. Manzini, A. Rhodin, U. Schlese, U. Schulzweida, A. Tompkins (2003). ”The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model description. ”
  55. 10. E. Roeckner, R. Brokopf, M. Esch, M. Giorgetta, S. Hagemann, L. Kornblueh, E. Manzini, U. Schlese, U. Schulzweida (2004). ”The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 Part II: Sensitivity of simulated climate to horizontal and vertical resolution”
  56. 147
  57. 15. IGBPandIGAC, (2012). ”Time To Act: The Opportunity to Simultaneously Mitigate Air Pollution and Climate Change”, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, 6pp.
  58. 148