A Study of Li Gou’s Concept of Moral Transformation
李覯 ； 教化 ； 禮論 ； 政治思想 ； 人民 ； Li Gou ； Moral transformation ； Ritual ； Political Thought ； the People
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本論文以「李覯的教化思想」切入，結合北宋前期的時代背景，析論李覯如何思考教化、如何想像實踐的可能，並進而發展出他以其自身經歷與思想傾向所形成的教化思想。 第二章為時代背景與李覯其人之踐履。宋初中央集權、重文抑武的政策，造成種種國家社會問題，李覯與范仲淹等人，關心天下國家、志在濟世，並渴望透過政治實踐實現其教化治道理念。李覯所著者多立意於康國濟民，但因屢試不第，至終皆未能得其位以行道。觀李覯教化思想之形成，因其長期在野，格外重視改善時弊與人民之教化，具有強烈的現實意義。 第三章主要以其教化思想的內部理論為核心。第一節討論教化的基礎為禮，李覯使用並重新詮釋儒家之「禮」，將其來源解為聖人承天道所制，內容基本涵括所有生活法度、人倫秩序，為將天地萬物秩序實現於人間的媒介。他將仁、義、智、信、樂、政、刑七者一同涵攝於禮，強調禮在滿足人情（順）以及約束行為（節）方面的作用，強化其在社會物質需求及政治制度上的功能與地位，以此作為其教化思想的主軸。第二節討論賦予教化可能的性論。為了肯定教化之必要性，李覯繼承並發展了中唐韓愈之性論，認為人普遍為需要教化之「中人之性」，故需具先天善性的聖人「會之為禮」。他強調人之賢善與否不決定於天生之性，而在於其人自身對於學禮的渴望，因此主張賢人乃「學禮而後能」者，學成則性即同於聖人。第三節探討後天之人事與環境的教化作用。李覯在其性論的基礎上，標舉人常近於賢聖、日習禮儀，並受其潛移默化而感通成善的教化過程，將之視為人修德、培養心性的重要教化途徑。 第四章以現實環境之教化實踐為核心，第一節討論「文」之於教化。由於北宋前期西崑體盛行，李覯憂心於當時文風與科舉取仕的傾向受到的影響，故繼承韓愈的文觀，試圖藉著文學型態（古文）的改革，重建及普及一種符合聖人之道的思想價值觀。他將「文」解為「治物之器」，將其價值定位於政教之用，認為「文」與國家之治密不可分，且具有文化的意涵。第二節接續探討政治之於人民的教化實踐。李覯渴望透過政治實踐重建秩序、實現教化，故他對人民的想象是消極而被動的，亟需一個積極有為的政府為之節以制度。他主張教化施行的流動性為由內而外、由上而下，君王個人當脩德、明家道，以其身為人效習之表率。至於政令、制度上的教化實踐，首先在興學校。李覯認為學校的目的在養士，士入於朝，便得以行政；在野，則為鄉里間之表率，故不論得仕與否，皆與民之教化息息相關。他主張國家應廣設州縣、調整學制，並以德行為取士標準，使士皆有德，教化風俗便可教民成善。其次，他主張君王應謹於禮，具體表現在為民明立制度。他為君王訂出一份聖王治政藍圖，主張應循此為民訂立合於禮的制度以養民、教民，並論證君、士大夫與民的關係，認為治民者乃官吏，故君王應重視選任賢能，並定時施行賞罰廢置，使治道一致，教化乃行。
Li Gou was an important thinker during the early Northern Song and an intellectual ally of Fan Zhongyan, one of the most famous politicians of his time. Both Li and Fan shared similar political ideals, and they worked tirelessly to implement their dao in government. One of the cornerstones of their political ideology was the concept of moral transformation or jiaohua 教化. This thesis analyzes Li Gou’s conception of moral transformation, and his view of how it could be implemented by literati and the state, against the background of early Northern Song politics. This study begins with a brief discussion of Li Gou’s life and times found in Chapter Two. This sets the stage for Chapter Three, which focuses on Li’s theory of moral transformation. Li reinterpreted this concept as it was found in Pre-Qin Confucianism in order to meet the needs of his time. He argued that the sages (shengren 聖人) created ritual norms in high antiquity in response to human sentiments and societal conditions. Li moreover expanded the significance of ritual by linking it to seven key moral and political norms: ren 仁, yi 義, zhi 智, xin 信, yue 樂, zheng 政 and xing 刑. Li emphasized that the function of ritual was not only to satisfy human desire but also to control it. He also developed Han Yu’s theory of the human nature, arguing that man’s goodness was not innate, but rather depended on his desire to improve himself through the study and practice of ritual. Li asserted that through hard work and study it was possible for human beings to match the achievements of the ancient sages. In Chapter 4, I turn to the problem of how Li Gou’s concept of moral transformation could be implemented within government and society. Despite the fact that Li never managed to pass the exams and become an official, he cared for the people and thought deeply about how to enlighten and educate them. He maintained that literati could use writing to explicate moral principles and spread the ritual teachings of the sages. Li worried about the corrupting influence of the Xikun style (西崑體) popular during the early Northern Song, which stressed literary refinement over moral principles. In response, he championed Han Yu’s view of guwen (古文), and its emphasis on using writing to illuminate the dao. Li stressed the political and educational function of writing, and argued for its utility in educating the people and ruling the state. In addition, Li contended that the state had an important role to play in implementing the moral transformation of the populace. Li advocated for the government to establish local schools, and modify the examination system to place a greater emphasis on the moral virtue of prospective officials. He also recommended that the emperor comply with ritual norms and institute clear policies for the people to follow. In his writings, Li provided a blueprint based on the political system devised by the ancient sages, arguing that it could guide the emperor and his rule. He believed that if the emperor followed his blueprint for morally transforming the populace, then the people’s needs would be met and the state would attain peace.
人文社會學院 > 中國文學系