Title

影響留營意願之關鍵因素-以空軍A單位之技勤人員為例

Translated Titles

Key Factors of Influencing Intension to Stay – A Case Study of Technicians of the A Unit in the Air Force

Authors

吳蕙菁

Key Words

留營意願、決策實驗室法、網路分析程序法、多準則決策、政策與制度、工作壓力 ; Intension of stay ; DEMATEL ; Analytic Network Process(ANP) ; Multi-criteria decision-making( MCDM) ; policy and system ; work pressure

PublicationName

中原大學企業管理研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2017年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

胡宜中

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

近年來,國軍經「精進案」、 「精實案」、「精粹案」及「勇固案」等專案進行一連串有系統的員額縮減後,導致部隊技勤人員人力不斷減少,在人力不足、工作壓力及工作負荷急遽增加的情況下,已出現技勤人員高退伍率,形成技勤人力斷層的現象。技勤技術在部隊屬高度專業,任務屬性相對特殊,培養不易且所需訓練成本甚鉅。對空軍而言,飛機妥善率的良窳更與技勤人員的技術與經驗息息相關。然而,一連串的政策制度導致這些擁有高度專業及豐富經驗的技勤人員,多選擇在服滿基本役期後就選擇退役,人員大量流失更造成技術與經驗傳承不易。因此,如何提升技勤人員的留營意願,以降低部隊的訓練成本,並避免人員經驗的流失,對空軍而言,特別是飛行部隊,是一個相當重要的研究課題。 本研究透過德爾菲法訪談部隊高階主官(管),建構出適用於技勤人員留營因素之研究架構,並運用多準則決策分析中能有效分析關鍵因素與因果關係的決策實驗室法與網路分析程序法,針對空軍屬飛行部隊的 A 單位屬修護職類、補給職類及基勤職類之技勤人員所填答的問卷進行分析。研究結果顯示,「工作壓力」、「政策與制度」、「工作負荷」、「工作保障」、「升遷發展機會」及「公平獎賞」為影響技勤人員留營之關鍵因素。 因果關係顯示,有效提升技勤人員之留營意願,可以考慮「政策與制度」或「工作壓力」著手改善,但由於「政策與制度」屬於傾向影響其他準則的「因」,而「工作壓力」屬於傾向被其他準則影響的「果」,因此由「政策與制度」出發改善其他關鍵因素的績效有其合理性。部隊現行的「政策與制度」導致技勤人員長期下來,需承受人員退補失衡及工作時間過長,所造成的工作壓力及工作負荷感,對於技勤人員的留營意願有一定程度的影響。因此本研究因果關係亦顯示,「工作壓力」、「工作負荷」與「公平獎賞」三者為完備政策制度面的首要考量,改善策略如下: 一、 就「工作壓力」而言,建議部隊研擬符合現在單位所需的政策與制度及建議部隊能夠全面開放及極力推廣公餘進修,鼓勵人員多重學習及多重技術培養等,以降低人員工作壓力,改善目前窘境。 二、 就「工作負荷」而言,建議部隊著手規劃政策與制度的修訂及可由部隊辦理營區開放活動與應屆畢業生參訪活動,提升全民國防意識等,以達到降低對工作的負荷感。 三、 就「公平獎賞」而言,建議部隊研擬一套有系統、有制度且具體的獎勵計畫,讓技勤人員滿意後,並願意留於部隊服務,進而強化整體戰力,降低部隊潛藏危機。 此外,本研究受訪對象為在營資深技勤人員與已退伍技勤人員兩種族群,其研究結果顯示受訪者均關注「工作壓力」 、「政策與制度」、「工作保障」、「工作負荷」、「升遷發展機會」,顯示這些關鍵準則是空軍部隊留住技勤人員應特別關注的因素。

English Abstract

In the recent years, the R.O.C. Armed Forces has launched a series of systematic armed forces downsizing programs named as “ Jingjin”, “Jingshih”, “Jing-Tsui” and “Yong Ku”, which results in an ongoing decline in the number of military technicians. Consequently, workforce shortages, work pressure and rapidly increasing workload have led to high retirement rate of technicians, and a skills gap is grown in the armed forces. In the armed forces, techniques of technicians are highly professional with relatively special task attributes; as a result, it is not easy to foster a technician and requires extremely high costs. For the air force, the aircraft availability correlates closely with the techniques and experiences of a technician. However, on account of a series of policies and systems, the high professional and experienced technicians chose to discharge from the armed forces, which causes a sharp decline in the talent pool and their techniques and experiences are hard to pass down to new ones. Therefore, how the technicians’ intension of stay could be raised up so that the training costs could be decreased and talent loss could be avoided, is an extremely important research subject for the air force, in particular, the flying unit. In the study, Delphi method was applied to interview high-ranking officers in the armed forces, and built a conceptual framework applicable to the key factors to affect the technicians’ intension of stay. Subsequently, DEMATEL and Analytic Network Process (ANP) in the Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), which are effective to analyze key factors and causation, were applied to analyze the questionnaire results. The interviewees of the questionnaire focused on technicians who serve in the A unit of a flying unit in the air force for repair and maintenance or supply or base service. The results showed that “work pressure”, “ policy and system”, “ workload” ,“ job security”, “ promotion & development opportunity” and “fair reward” are key factors to affect the technicians’ intension of study. The causation in the study showed that to effectively raise up the technicians’ intension of stay could initiate from the aspect of “ policy and system” or “work pressure”. However, “ policy and system” is the cause, and “work pressure” is the effect; therefore, it is reasonable to initiate from the aspect of “ policy and system” to improve the impact of the other key factors. Technicians have suffered from work pressure and workload as a result of workforce demand and supply being not balanced and overlong working hours because of the current “policy and system” in the armed forces and this comparatively affects their intension of stay. In addition, the causation also showed that “work pressure”, “workload” and “fair award” are three primary concerns to make comprehensive“ policies and systems”, and the improvement strategies are listed as the followings: 1.For work pressure, it is suggested for the arm forces to make policies and systems III which meet demands of the current units, and to comprehensively open and promote off- hours advanced studies to encourage officers for multiple learning and technique training so that their work pressure could be decreased to improve the current difficulty. 2.For workload, it is suggested to initiate policy and system revisions. In addition, the armed forces could host open day activities and graduating class visits to raise up national defense awareness to decrease the sense of workload. 3.For fair award, it is suggested to make a systematic and comprehensive award plan to satisfy technicians. As a result, they would like to continue serving in the armed forces and subsequently, the overall combat effectiveness could be strengthened and the potential crisis could be managed. In addition, interviewees in the study were from two groups: current senior technicians in the armed forces and retired ones. The results showed that “work pressure”, “ policy and system”, “ job security”, “ workload” and “ promotion & development opportunity” are key factors for the air force to keep its technicians.

Topic Category 商學院 > 企業管理研究所
社會科學 > 管理學
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