New Product Development Process Case Study for a Global Organization -B Monitor Product Development as an Example
創新 ； 新產品開發程序 ； NPD(New product development) ； Innovation
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Porter (1990) 指出創新是源自於壓力與競爭挑戰。市場競爭環境愈複雜，則有效的知識及特色將更顯重要。市場佔有率及產品生命週期為評定新產品開發成功之指標。 在現今經濟市場中，產品特性趨向普遍為：產品生命週期短、產業間競爭激烈、新產品研發因難及利潤降低。為改善此一現象，企業紛紛把重心投向產品開發程序之之效率最佳化。 Porter and Kleinschmidt(1986)提出了13個新產品開發活動，認為此13個企業內部活動與企業新產品開發成功有密切影響，其為(1)Initial screening (2)Preliminary market assessment (3)Preliminary technical assessment (4)Detailed market study / <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=market research&v=56">market research</a> (5)Business / financial analysis (6)Product development (7) In-house product testing (8)Customer tests of product (9)Test market / trial sell (10)Trial production (11)Pre-commercialization <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=Business&v=56">Business</a> analysis (12)Production start-up (13)Market launch. 此13個活動被眾多學者引用，做為評估企業新產品開發之準則，即使是最近幾年的文獻也仍可看到。 本研究採實際樣本與NPD理論做相互印證為主軸，實證結果顯示，新產品開發程序仍為企業所重視，且為產業帶來正面效益。本研究以某一跨國組織為例，印證現今企業仍以此13個內部活動做為該企業新產品開發之標竿。本研究發現該企業在新產品開發程序上不僅充分應用了這13個活動，還另外藉由人力資源、供應商整合及不段進步此三個指標來促進該組織之新產品開發之效率與效益。
Porter(1990) points that innovation grows out of pressure and challenge, and the key issue of success is decided by group cooperation and competition in the knowledge-based economics. Base on the technology integration view, Ayers et al. (1997) find that the success of a new product increases with the intensity of communication between <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=marketing&v=56">marketing</a> and R&D. Success in new product development (NPD), both in terms of market share and cycle <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=time&v=56">time</a>, has become a key indicator of organizational success (Wheelwright and Clark, 1995). Porter and Kleinschmidt(1986) suggest a set of 13 activities which is for a new product process of the company per their critically view at the new product development process. And these 13 NPD stages are also used by Rochford and Rudelius’s study(1997), they develop a model to compare new product success between new-to-the-world products and product modifications using perceptions of R&D, <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=marketing&v=56">marketing</a>, and manufacturing managers along with top <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=management&v=56">management</a> about the importance and actual use of the NPD stage. Dooley and Johnson(2001) find that NPD change effort can be characterized by continuous quality improvement. And Griffin (1997) also find the lead user’s importance for new product. Hippel(1988) said, “Innovation by users tends to be concentrated among lead users of those products and processes.” B Company uses the Product Creation Process as the guide line for new product creation. And in the internal B Company, product creation process is also called <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=Business&v=56">Business</a> Creation Process(BCP) B Company also uses the BCP as the benchmark to <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=design&v=56">design</a> and develop their new product. And the internal audit will be held biyearly in order to keep every sites of B Company is following and keep in line with the B Company standard product creation process. Refer to this B Company product creation process chart, their product creation process is build up by the following 13 elements: (1)Know-how planning (2)Programming (3)Technology know-how planning (4)Architecture and standard <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=design&v=56">design</a> (5)Product realization (6)Industrialization (7)Market introduction (8)Project <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=management&v=56">management</a> (9)Management review (10)Methods and <a href="http://www.ntsearch.com/search.php?q=tools&v=56">tools</a> (11)Human resources (12)Supplier integration (13)Improvement This study try to compare and identify the difference future theories and the actual case and the result is that there are actually many new product necessary element and activities are duplicated. Only some of these using elements for the real case weren’t discussed in those published papers. But from this case study, every element for new product development process of a organization are really necessary, so these elements should be added up to the general element for new product development.
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