Analyzing Key Factors of Affecting Employee Retention by Psychological Contract-A Case Study of R & D Staff in the Sapphire Substrate Industry
藍寶石基板 ； 研發人員 ； 員工留任 ； 心理契約 ； 決策實驗室法 ； 分析程序法 ； 多準則決策 ； Sapphire substrate ； R&D staff ； Employee retention ； Psychological contract ； DEMATEL ； ANP ； MCDM
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藍寶石基板製造業為LED產業鏈中最上游之元件材料領域，藍寶石基板之表面加工品質影響後端LED照明，因此藍寶石基板製造是LED產業鏈中重要的一環，隨著大陸對LED之高度需求，對藍寶石基板之需求亦呈現正向成長，而此一趨勢提供台灣LED元件與LED照明產業佈局之機會。 依據政府單位所公佈之LED產業招募人才資料顯示，招募困難點以年輕人就業力不足、專業人才數量不足、人才被挖角及專業能力不足為主，顯示LED產業招募人才以同業相關經驗之人才為最優先之招募對象。企業之生存及競爭力在於維持正常生產及不斷創新、研發及改良不被市場所淘汰之產品，進一步不斷創新及研發領先市場之產品，因此具有維持、研發、創新及改良等專業能力之研發人員為企業生存及持續發展之關鍵人才。事實上，員工與企業間存在著無形的心理契約，也由此產生員工與企業之間的連結，對於員工是否願意留任有很重要的意義。員工與企業組織都有各自的心理契約，但所關注的重點卻相當值得探討。基於心理契約之重要性以及對於藍寶石基板製造業在研發人員留任可能造成的影響，本研究由代表員工的研發人員以及代表組織的研發主管探討心理契約中影響員工留任之關鍵因素，並進一步探討兩者間之差異，以提供留才策略供業界參考。 本研究透過文獻探討，並應用德爾菲法訪談業界專家以建構出適用於藍寶石基板製造業之員工留任研究架構。透過決策實驗室法與網路分析程序法就受訪者問卷進行分析。研究結果顯示：由員工心理契約來看，影響員工留任的關鍵準則包含「具競爭優勢的企業」、「成就感」、「在企業長期工作」、「晉升」、「績效薪酬」、「福利待遇」及「忠誠」；由組織心理契約來看，關鍵準則包含「具競爭優勢的企業」、「創新研發能力」、「晉升」、「績效薪酬」、「福利待遇」及「在企業長期工作」。有趣的是，企業的研發主管並不認為「忠誠」與「成就感」是影響留任意願的關鍵準則，取而代之的是對研發人員的「創新研發的能力」。而且，企業應該負起較多的責任，也就是在組織心理契約的關注上，以提升研發人員的留任意願。 此外，因果圖顯示員工與組織都認為建立「具競爭優勢的企業」是提升研發人員留任意願的重要根源。對組織而言，由於數據呈現「晉升」、「績效薪酬」、與「創新研發能力」是影響具競爭優勢企業最大的關鍵準則，而「福利待遇」、「忠誠」與「績效薪酬」則是員工認為影響建立競爭優勢企業最大的關鍵準則，因此本研究提出「建構吸引人才的晉升制度」、「建構具競爭力的績效薪酬制度」、「建立完善的福利制度」以及「建立創新研發團隊」與「提升員工忠誠度」等發展策略，以有效提升企業之優勢與競爭力。在藍寶石基板製造業的研發人員留任上有其貢獻。
Sapphire substrate manufacturing is of the most upstream material component field in the LED industry chain. The surface processing quality of sapphire substrate directly affects the backend LED illumination and therefore it makes sapphire substrate manufacturing the most critical part in the LED industry chain. With the high demand of LED from China, the demand of sapphire substrate is also growing positively, which forms a trend and provides Taiwan an oppurtinity for industry layouting regarding LED component and illumination. Based on the LED industry recruitment information released by the government units, the difficulties of recruitment appear to be low employment of the youth, professional talent shortage, insufficient talent due to poaching and lack of professional ability, which show that the LED industry is focusing on the talents with related experience as the most preferred recruiting objects ofr talent recruiting. Enterprises' survival and competitiveness depend on maintaining normal production and continuous innovation, research and development of product which keep the enterprise from being eliminated by the market before it can further innovate and develop leading-market products. Therefore, the key talents with professional ability of maintenance, research, innovation and improvement are essential for enterprise's survival and sustainable development. In fact, there is an intangible psychological contract between an employee and the enterprise, from which it generates a link between both parties and is of great meaning for the willingness of the employee's retention. Employees and enterprises or organizations have their own pychological contracts, but what is worth of exploration is on the key points that are concerned. Based on the importance of psychological contract and the possible influence of R&D staff's retention in the sapphire substrate manufacturing, this research explored the key factors in the psychological contract which influence employee's retention through the R&D staff, who represent employees and the R&D supervisors, who represent organizations. The differences between both parties were further explored to offer a reference of talent retention strategy for the industry. Through literature review, this research introduced Delphi technique to interview industrial experts and built a suitable research architecture for employee retention of sapphire substrate manufacturing. DEMATEL and ANP were used to analyze the questionnaires of respondents. The research result shows that, from the employees' psychological contract perspective, the key codes that affect employee's retention are "enterprise with competitive advantage", "sense of achievement", "long-term employment in enterprise", "promotion", "performance payment", "welfare" and "loyalty"; from the organizations' psychological contract perspective, the key codes include "enterprise with competitive advantage", "innovative research and development ability", "promotion", "performance payment", "welfare" and "long-term employment in enterprise". What is interesting is that R&D supervisors in enterprises do not consider "loyalty" and "sense of achievement" as the key codes that affect retention willingness but "innovative research and development ability" is. Besides, enterprises shall take more responsibility, that is, to pay more attention on the organization's psychological contract for promoting the retention willingness of R&D staff. Furthermore, the cause and effect diagram shows that both employees and organizations consider builidng the "enterprise with competitive advantage" is an improtant source for promoting the retention willingness of R&D staff. For the organization, the data reveals that "promotion", "performance payment" and "innovative research and development ability" are the key codes affecting mostly the enterprises with competitive advantage, while "welfare", "loyalty" and "performance payment" are the key codes affecting mostly the enterprises with competitive advantage from employee's perspective. Therefore, this research contributes in the R&D staff's retention in sapphire substrate manufacturing by proposing some development strategies such as "construct a talent-appealing promotion system", "construct a competitive performance payment system", "construct a complete welfare system", "construct innovative R&D teams" and "improve employee's loyalty", to effectively improve the superiority and competitiveness of enterprise.
社會科學 > 管理學