Application of four-terminal testing technology to improve the testing process for printed circuit boards-a case study for X company
印刷電路板、二端子測試、四端子測試 ； Printed circuit board ； two-terminal sensing ； four-terminal sensing
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隨著3C產品的日新月異以及傳統家電的電子化，使得印刷電路板的應用範圍越來越廣泛。印刷電路板一般簡稱為PCB(Printed Circuit Board)、或PWB(Printed wiring board)，它是電子工業中的基礎零組件，無論是電子錶、手機、電腦等3C產品中都會用到，甚至在軍用武器、通訊設備、太空梭上，生活中隨處可見PCB的蹤影。 在消費市場的需求下，產品朝輕薄短小的趨勢演進，為了使電子產品的組裝得以高密度化及小型化，用來裝載電子零件的印刷電路板亦必須用細線距及細線化的技術，同時利用微盲埋孔技術讓線路密度分佈更高，使整體機構設計得以微型化。印刷電路板配合其主動與被動元件的發展，體積更顯著性地縮小，在高密度化的印刷電路板所需要的電氣特性要求更顯得重要，相對的產品測試檢出不良之準確度與精密度亦相對提升，印刷電路板業者為了減少產品組裝後的不良，亦需要較精密的測試方法來做因應。 本研究以國內一家知名大廠印刷電路板製造公司在台灣區的某一工廠生產的高階產品逐層互連多層印刷電路板之測試流程為研究對象及範圍，提出使用四端子測試技術來提升測試檢出能力之探討，進行極細微之功能性不良檢測，以大量生產的電路板每批抽樣的方式進行阻值量測，透過實驗及切片的方式進行驗證，同時也考量了測試成本、測試漏失風險及生產良率損失等因素，找出合適的四端子測試參數判定準則及可偵測出的細微性功能性不良之缺點項目，此不僅克服了以往傳統二端子測試無法檢出的不良也同時大幅降低的測試漏失的風險及損失。 本研究測試結果顯示二端子測試確實存在測試漏失風險，雖導入四端子測試會增加測試成本及造成些許的生產良率損失，但確實提升了測試檢出能力，可預防整批性細微性之功能性不良，大大減少品質外部失敗成本之損失。 關鍵字：印刷電路板、逐層互連多層印刷電路板、二端子測試、四端子測試
As the 3C products and the traditional household appliances have become more electronic, the use of the printed circuit board has also increased tremendously. Generally, printed circuit boards are referred to as PCB (Printed Circuit Board) or PWB (Printed Wiring board), which is the basic electronic component in the industry and has been used in 3C products such as electronic watches, cell phones, computers, etc., even in military weapons, communication equipment, and space shuttles. The applications of PCB can be found everywhere in our lives. In the consumer market, the product evolution trends toward lighter, thinner, smaller, and smarter. In order to make electronic devices with high density and miniaturization, the printed circuit board is used to carry electronic components and must also contains finer circuit lines and spaces. Meanwhile, the micro via technology is also used to further miniaturize the whole design. With the development of its active and negative components, PCB obviously becomes smaller. High density PCB has great requirements for its functional characteristics, so the accuracy and precision of electric test should be improved. Besides, to reduce defects after assembly, PCB manufacturer also need more precise test method. This research is based on the sensing process of every layer interconnection board in high-ends products that produced by one of the factories under the well-known print circuit board manufacturer in Taiwan. It indicated the use and the capability of four-terminal sensing technology in order to improve the sensing results. Also, detailed functional error detecting system has been processed. The values of electrical resistance have been inspected based on the sampling of mass produced circuit board and verified through experiment and slide/slice examination. At the same time, it found appropriate four-terminal sensing standard to detect micro-functional error items with the consideration of the possible inspection costs, inspection risks and the yield loss. This test method can not only sense the error that was not possible to be identified by the traditional two-terminal sensing, but also lower the possibility of risk with some cost increased. The study result showed that two-terminal sensing did exist possible sensing risks. Although the use of four-terminal sensing increased the cost and produced some yield loss, it did improve the ability in sensing to prevent micro-functional errors. This would hugely reduce the external cost due to quality failures.
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