Black Economic Empowerment in Africa and the Opportunities for Taiwan
黑色經濟 ； Black Economy
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非洲經濟在進入21世紀以來一直保持年均5%以上的增長速度，這在非洲獨立後的經濟發展史上是少見的奇蹟。這一輪的增長週期不僅持續時間長，覆蓋範圍廣，還引發非洲國家整體社會上一系列的變化。當然，這同時也表現出不平衡性與波動性等特點。就增長動力而言，非洲國家人民旺盛的消費需求是未來主要核心動力，天然資源開發，市場化改革，全球通信科技普及，國際資金的支持等都是未來發展的動力來源。而這些動力也有望在未來較長時間持續發揮作用，加上其他增長潛能相繼被發掘與釋放，非洲大陸目前整體經濟的增長速度將有望被延續或進一步提高。 本研究先以非洲社會與經濟發展歷史概況切入。非洲大陸面積約3,020萬平方公里，約佔世界土地總面積的20.2%，共有54個國家，總人口已超過10億。 尼羅河流域是世界古代文明的搖籃。位處下遊的埃及是世界四大文明古國之一。 在中遊現今蘇丹一帶，公元前16世紀曾興起 - 庫施帝國(Kush)。東非的衣索匹亞北部是古代非洲文明的重要中心。公元前3世紀左右進入鐵器時代後，西非地區先後出現過迦納、馬利、桑海等強盛的古代帝國。 1885年柏林會議，歐洲列強瓜分並重劃了非洲版圖。非洲國家於二次大戰後多脫離歐洲附屬國獨立，但也紛陷於軍政府統治，獨裁本色相當濃厚。80年代末期，非洲國家因經濟危機迫使大多數國家屈從西方政權的壓力，盲目推行西方的多黨民主，造成社會陷入分裂不和狀態。 肆無忌憚的貪污使得資源分配不均，統治階級越來越富有，而低層人民依然陷於貧困中。 農業是大多數非洲國家的經濟支柱，非洲經濟作物在世界上占有重要地位，例如棉花、咖啡、可可、甘蔗及天然橡膠等產量都很高。非洲同時擁有豐富的礦產資源，世界上重要的50種礦產非洲都不缺，其中至少有17種礦產蘊含量位居世界第一。非洲有<第二海灣地區>之稱，非洲石油質量大多上乘，易於提煉加工，適合生產車用燃油。非洲產油國彼此沒有歷史聯繫，產油相對獨立。 本研究以政治、自然資源、消費需求、通信領域與外部資金幾方面分析非洲經濟增長之動力，而這些增長動力也有望在未來持續發揮作用。根據國際貨幣基金2014年世界經濟展望資料顯示，奈及利亞(Nigeria) 、安哥拉(Angola)、衣索匹亞(Ethiopia)、肯亞(Kenya)、迦納(Ghana)、坦尚尼亞(Tanzania)分別是2013年整個非洲GDP排序第二至第七高，而且除了奈及利亞與安哥拉因石油經濟崛起外，其餘四國所在地區在古代非洲史上都曾出現帝國盛世。本計畫欲探討此六個非洲目標國家經濟，觀察世界各國在當地的競爭關係，並分析當地成熟與新興品項的產品需求，進而了解國際間如何開發非洲新興市場。
The average of Africa economic increasing speed is higher than 5 % since 21 century. It is a miracle on history after that the Africa was independent. The turn of growth cycle not only contains long term but also influences changes of the whole African countries. In the meanwhile, it represented the traits of imbalance and volatility. In terms of the growth impetus, the main core is the consumption demands in Africa. Besides, the development of natural resources, reformation of the market, the general worldwide communication, and the support of the international fund which enable to work for a sustained duration are the produce power in the future. In addition to others growth potential which is excavated successively, the overall economic growth rate may be continued or escalated. The notions of the research are Africa society and economic history. The area of Africa is about 30200000 square kilometers. It is about 20.2% of the world area. And it has 54 countries and the population is over 100 billion in Africa. Archaeologists proved that Africans created a thrive ancient civilization very early. The Nile is the cradle of the ancient civilization of the world. Egypt, the country which locate on the downstream of the Nile is one of the 4 ancient civilizations of the world. Sultan, in the middle of the Nile, had been created a Kush empire 16 BC. The north of Ethiopia of the east Africa is an important center of the ancient Africa civilization. The empire of Aksum rose in 1 C.E. and in the 4th century, the empire of the Aksum had reached the highest prosper. After Iron age in the 3 B.C, the area of west Africa was arose Ghana, Mali, and Songhai…etc. The strong and thrive empires. Since 15th century, after the Europe invaded Africa, brought Africans the serious disaster. And between 16th to 19th century, Western powers brought more than 2 billions black people from Africa to America to be slaves and also robbed the lands and sources of Africa. In 1885 Berlin conference, European powers scramble for Africa, not consider the tradition, people, and structure of the culture, make different background of tribes into a colony leading to tribes conflict after independence. There are over 2000 tribes which have their own religion and life in the Africa, if the party in power doesn’t manage successfully, it would lead to contradictory and wars such as. The agriculture occuppying an important place in the world is mainstay of the most of the African countries, such as cotton, coffee, cocoa, sugarcane, and natural rubber. Meanwhile, there are full of rich mineral resources, not lack of important mineral, and imply at least 17 types mineral of the world. Africa has been known as the second area of bay, riching in oil resources due to the high quality, it is easy to extract and purify for fuels used by vehicles. Oil producers in Africa are unrelated with others history, so they are on their own in producing oil. To analyse the the growth power of African economics, I study the politics, natural resources, demand for consumption, communication technologies, and external force, in hope of working constantly in the future. According to 2014 world economic outlook of the international monetary fund’s, Nigeria Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Ghana, Tanzania rank from second to seventh in whole African GDP . Except Nigeria and Angola economic rise of oil, the rest of four countries used to be empires in the history of Africa. This research revolved in this six items to observe the relationship of locative competition, and analyzed the products demand of mature and new goods to realize how to develop the emerging African market.
社會科學 > 管理學