"Den Do" in Vietnam─ Menstrual Experience and Reaction of Vietnamese Female College Students
月經經驗 ； 月經禁忌 ； 越南 ； Menstrual experience ； Menstrual taboo ； Vietnam
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Den Do為越南文「紅燈」的意思，越南女性取其顏色及需停止的特性來做為「月經」的代稱。 筆者於田野間，由於異文化的震撼，開始對越南社會的月經文化感到好奇，進而展開觀察、研究。但由於受訪者的堅持和地緣之利，故將主要研究範圍縮小為越南胡志明市具有中文溝通能力的女大學生。 多數受訪者在初經來之前，就已經知道Den Do了，雖然知道，但真正遇到Den Do時，還是害怕、驚嚇、感到奇怪，這些負面、不安的情緒多在母親的協助下淡去。越南母親除了指導女兒如何使用衛生棉之外，有些越南母親還會幫女兒進行越南民間的沾水儀式─讓女兒從此之後，每個月都只來三天月經。 除了Den Do之外，越南社會還有其他的「月經」代稱，可是，從這些月經的代名詞中，可以察覺越南女性對於與自身關係非常親密的月經不太有好感。因為Den Do，女孩們變得情緒化、不能運動、不能游泳、不能祭祀或拜拜、不能看醋醰或醃菜…等，更大的焦慮來自於讓女孩們憂心紅色警戒會隨時發生的白色傳統服裝。Den Do不僅讓受訪者們行動不自由，也讓她們擔憂不已。 在「公」領域內，Den Do是專屬於越南女性的空間，男性勿語，且男性止步，但在「私」領域裡，許多受訪者希冀著男朋友的關心、照料；就受訪的男大學生而言，則於「公」於「私」皆以女性的想法為主，尊重且裝傻。如此的「公」「私」之別，20歲女孩們認為是越南父權社會的價值觀所造成，而40歲女性們則認為是越南民間盛傳的黑色魔法所導致。
In Vietnamese, “Den Do” means red light. Vietnamese women take its color and the character of stop as a code of menstruation. While being shocked by Vietnamese culture in the field, I begin to investigate the phenomenon of Vietnamese menstrual culture. Owing to interviewee’s insistence and my familiarity of the city, the research focuses on the female college students who possess Chinese communication ability in Ho Chi Minh City. Before menarcheal, most of the interviewee have already known about “Den Do”. However, when they really met “Den Do”, they still felt afraid, scary and strange. These negative, uneasy feelings were mostly lightened by mothers’ assistance. In addition to teaching how to using sanitary towels, some Vietnamese mothers would abide to Vietnamese folk ritual in order that their daughters’ period will finish up within three days each month. In addition to “Den Do”, there are other codes of menstruation in Vietnamese society. However, from these codes, we may find that Vietnamese women do not feel good about menstruation. Because of “Den Do”, girls became sentiment, they cannot exercise, swimming, worship in the temple or ancestor, watching the vinegar cruet and pickled vegetables and so on. The biggest anxiety comes from that girls worried about their white Ao Dai, Vietnamese traditional clothes, will turn into red during the period. “Den Do” not only let Vietnamese women feel unfree, but also worried. In the public area, “Den Do” is an sensitive issues for Vietnamese women. However, in the private sphere, most girls are eager to get their boyfriends’ cares while they are in period. Concerning those male college students who joined the research project, no matter in the public or private domain, both take women thoughts as primary, respect them and pretended to be un-known. Such differences of people’s attitude between public and private area, for those women of 20s, suggest that the power of patriarchy is still working in Vietnamese society; while, for those female of 40s, it was plainly caused by black magic of Vietnamese folk tales.
人文學院 > 東南亞學系