Title

以多重表徵的模型教學探究高二學生理想氣體心智模式的類型及演變的途徑

Translated Titles

Inquiry the eleventh students』 mental models and paths of conceptual change in learning the nature of ideal gas particles via multiple modeling activities

Authors

鍾曉蘭

Key Words

多重表徵的模型教學 ; 心智模式的演變途徑 ; 概念改變 ; multiple representations modeling activities ; the evolutionary pathway of mental models ; conceptual change

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所在職進修碩士班學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2006年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

邱美虹

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

在學習化學的歷程中,不論是物質三態、理想氣體模型、碰撞學說與平衡的相關概念的科學學習上,微觀的粒子概念是理解化學概念的重要基礎。然而,學生在日常生活的觀察之中,不容易察覺與體驗出化學概念中微觀世界的想法,導致在學習理想氣體粒子模型與氣體動力論困難重重,甚至對於氣體的巨觀現象做出許多錯誤的推理因,而產生許多的迷思概念或另有概念(Novick & Nussbaum,1981;Millar,1990;Benson et al., 1993)。本研究根據文獻所提及氣體粒子的迷思概念/心智模式類型,設計出一系列相關氣體體積、壓力、蒸氣壓、擴散與微觀世界中氣體粒子運動關係的診斷式紙筆測驗(預試對像為高三學生,男:45,女:37,共計82人,信度為0.913),來探討學生理想氣體心智模式的類型。在教學方面,根據理想氣體粒子模型的特性(剛性粒子、隨機運動等)設計符合其現象及屬性的多重表徵的模型教學,藉著分析心智模式類型的分佈與演變途徑,及比較教學前、後及延宕測驗中3C(Correctness、Consistency、Completeness)的演變情形(Chi & Roscoe,2002;Vosniadou,2002;邱美虹,2006),來瞭解多重表徵的模型教學(實驗組為39人,男:27、女:12)是否比傳統文本教學(控制組為40人,男:32、女:8)更能有效增進學生對於理想氣體的科學學習與概念改變。 經過兩週(共計八節課)教學後,分析兩組學生教學前、後的正確性(correctness)、一致性(consistency)與完整性(completeness),以及五次動態評量的答題情形,研究結果摘要如下: (1)在教學成效方面:實驗組與控制組兩組學生在教學前並未達顯著差異(paired-t test,正確性:t=.781,p=.440; 一致性:t=1.705,p=.081; 完整性:t=1.04, p=.306),教學後則達到顯著差異(ANCOVA ,正確性:F=36.4,p=.000; 一致性:F=40.9,p=.000;完整性:F=42.4,p=.000)。特別在微觀方面,實驗組的正確性顯著優於控制組(F=43.6,p=.000),顯示出藉由多重表徵的教學方式,的確有助於學生建立正確的微觀氣體粒子運動模型。 (2)在教學過程的動態評量中,兩組學生除了第二次評量未達顯著差異,實驗組在其他四次評量的得分率皆顯著優於控制組。 (3)研究者以學生回答診斷式試題中六題相關氣體壓力微觀的解釋理由,來判斷學生的心智模式,並歸類出學生的心智模式共有十大類型:科學模式、科學有瑕疵、科學+其他、分子量模式、體積模式、引力模式、動能模式、活性模式、兩種心智模式並存的雙模式,以及不一致的混合模式。實驗組學生對於氣體壓力主要心智模式的演變途徑為:混合(30.1%)→科瑕(35.8%)→科瑕(46.1%);控制組學生對於氣體壓力主要心智模式的演變途徑為:混合(45.0%)→混合(45.0%)→混合(37.5%)。實驗組學生心智模式的演變朝向科學模式/科學有瑕疵的方向邁進,控制組的學習活動中由於缺乏與現象相同屬性(動態-隨機)的多重表徵,較難引發學生建立正確的心象,因而控制組學生心智模式的改變並不多。 (4)多重表徵的模型教學與動態評量有助於學生建立突現過程本體:實驗組學生經由視覺混合、具體混合、數學混合與動作混合等多重表徵的模型教學後,建立了完整的剛性粒子的概念,並深入瞭解粒子微觀的運動是隨機的、瞭解氣壓的成因是快速運動的粒子對容器壁碰撞時的單位體積內動能轉移,因此教學後有48.7%的實驗組學生產生跨越本體及直接過程轉變成突現過程等較困難的概念改變,另外有20.5%的實驗組學生在學習過程中逐漸演變成突現過程。 (5)從學生開放式的問卷中,我們可以瞭解到大部分的學生對於多重表徵模型教學的情意面向是正面的反應居多。 本研究嘗試將多重表徵的模型教學融入理想氣體教學中,研究結果顯示教學成效顯著優於傳統文本教學,建議科學教師在課室活動中可以在時間許可下採用模型教學。藉由呈現模型與不同表徵之間的交互作用,幫助學生觀察並進一步瞭解現象中所蘊含的科學模型,藉以動態修正或精緻化個人的心智模式。 關鍵詞:多重表徵的模型教學、心智模式的演變途徑、概念改變

English Abstract

In the process of learning chemistry, the microscopic concept of particles has been regarded as an important basis in understanding certain chemistry concepts, such as states of matter, ideal gas particles models, collision theory, or chemical equilibrium. It is difficult for students to be aware of and experience the ideas about the micro world in chemistry in their daily lives. They even make plenty of incorrect inferences concerning the macroscopic phenomena of gas, which in turn lead to numerous misconceptions (Novick & Nussbaum, 1981; Millar, 1990; Benson et al., 1993). To find out students』 difficulties in learning related concepts of ideal gas theory, based on the misconceptions / mental models of gas particles discussed in the literature, this research designs a series of diagnostic paper-and-pencil tests (There are 82 12th students in high school participate pre-test, forty-five students are male and thirty-seven students are female. The reliability is 0.913) about gas volume, gas pressure, vapor pressure, diffusion, and gas particles movements in the micro world. The purpose of this research attempts to explore students』 various types of mental models of ideal gas. In practical teaching, the researcher, based on the properties (rigid particles; random motions) of ideal gas particles models, designs multiple representations modeling activities. Through analyzing the distribution and the evolutionary pathways of mental models and comparing the variation of 3C (Correctness, Consistency, Completeness) before and after teaching as well as the follow-up tests (Chi & Roscoe, 2002; Vosniadou, 2002; Chiu, 2006), this research would like to see if multiple representations modeling activities (the experimental group: 39, male: 27, female: 12) improve students』 conceptual change in scientific learning toward ideal gas than the traditional way of textbook teaching (the control group: 40, male: 32, female: 8) more effectively. After two weeks』 (totally eight class periods) teaching, the researcher analyzes the correctness, consistency and completeness of students』 conceptions on gases between the two groups, and their responses in the five units of dynamic assessments. The outcome of the research can be summarized as follows: (1) The effectiveness of teaching: There is no significant difference between the control group and the experimental group before teaching (paired-t test, correctness: t=.781, p=.440; consistency: t=1.705, p=.081; completeness: t=1.04, p=.306). However, it shows significant difference between two groups after teaching (ANCOVA, correctness: F=36.4, p=.000; consistency: F=40.9, p=.000; completeness: F=42.4,p=.000). Especially in the micro phase, the correctness of the experimental group is significantly superior to that of the control group (F=43.6, p=.000). It indicates that the multiple representations modeling teaching may assist students to develop correct microscopic models of gas particles motion. (2) In the process of dynamic assessments, the scores in the four assessments of the experimental group are far better than those of the control group except in the second assessment. (3) Students』 mental models are judged from their explanations on six questions related to micro conceptions on gas pressure in the diagnostic test. Therefore, the students』 mental models are categorized into ten types: scientific model, scientific flaw, scientific models plus others, molecular weight model, volume model, attraction model, kinetic energy model, active model, bi-mental model, and inconsistent mixture model. The evolution of the mental models towards gas pressure in the experimental group goes as follows: mixture (30.1%) → scientific flaw (35.8%) → scientific flaw (46.1%).The evolution of the mental models towards gas pressure in the control group goes as follows: mixture (45.0%) → mixture (45.0%) → mixture (37.5%). The mental models of the students in the experimental group move towards scientific model / scientific flaw. Due to the lack of consistent multiple representations of particles with phenomena in control group, it is difficulty to help the students in control group develop correct mental models. (4) Multiple representations modeling teaching and dynamic assessments help students build up the ontology of emergent process. Through the multiple representations modeling teaching, such as visual mixture, concrete mixture, math mixture, and motion mixture, the students in the experimental group develop a full concept on rigid particles. Moreover, they recognize the random motion of particles in the micro world and understand that the factors contributing to gas pressure come from the transition of kinetic energy in each volume unit when fast-moving particles crash the wall of the containers. Therefore, there are 48.7% of the students in the experimental group undergo some of the more difficult conceptual changes, such as from matter to process or from direct process to emergent process shortly after teaching. And 20.5% of the students in the experimental group gradually form the emergent process ontology in their learning process. (5) From the students』 open-ended questionnaire, we realize most students, in terms of their emotions, are positive towards multiple representations modeling activities. This research attempts to apply multiple representations modeling activities to ideal gas teaching. And it shows the teaching results excel those of the traditional textbook teaching. The findings of this research encourage science teachers to adapt modeling teaching in their classroom activities. With the time allowance, science teachers should help students observe and understand the scientific models embedded in phenomena through the interactions between expressed models and different representations, which thus repair or modify their mental models.

Topic Category 理學院 > 科學教育研究所在職進修碩士班
社會科學 > 教育學
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