Modeling teaching to inquisition of the elementary school fifth grade student acid and alkali mental model change
建模教學 ； 心智模式 ； 酸鹼概念 ； 概念改變 ； modeling teaching ； mental model ； acid and alkali conception ； conceptual change
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摘 要 本研究由概念改變的觀點出發，探討建模教學對國小五年級學生酸鹼心智模式之改變。本研究針對國小階段的酸鹼概念，設計適合國小階段的建模教學方案，並發展酸鹼概念二階層診斷式問卷。透過晤談與問卷收集資料，分析並整理出國小五年級學生所持有的酸鹼心智模式，並由此得知國小學生經過建模教學後期心智模式的改變。 本研究共晤談了19位國小五年級的學生，並使用酸鹼概念二階層診斷式問卷，共調查了實驗組( 建模教學組 )與對照組( 一般教學組 )各50位學生。研究發現國小五年級學生在酸與鹼的意義及其性質之心智模式主要有：1.現象模式( 38% )；2.關鍵字模式( 23% )；3.推論模式( 36% )；4.微觀結構模式( 36% )；5.微觀粒子模式( 34% )。在酸鹼中和的部份，本研究在教學前所發現的有1.酸鹼並存模式1( 33% )；酸鹼並存模式2( 17% )；3.抵銷模式( 41% )。在酸鹼指示劑部分，本研究則發現特定顏色模式( 29% )與科學模式( 65% )。 在教學上，本研究亦發現，不論是建模教學組或是一般教學組，在教學後這些心智模式均仍有出現，但其分布的情況就有所差異。在酸與鹼的意義及其性質上，在教學後，兩組的關鍵字模式均明顯下降，建模教學組的學生主要轉移到推論模式；而一般教學組則主要轉移到現象模式。在酸鹼中和部份，建模教學組與一般教學組之酸鹼並存模式均明顯下降，一般教學組主要轉移到抵銷模式；而建模教學組的學生除了轉移到抵銷模式之外，有38%的學生可以達到筆者所設計的科學模式。可見本研究所設計之建模教學雖然不能完全的把所有的學生建構出正確的科學模式，但大部分的學生已經能有效的修改既有的心智模式，以接近科學模式。 本研究接受建模教學之學生在後測表現與前測表現間具有顯著差異。顯示藉由建模教學活動，國小學生已經可以接受微觀模式的教學，甚至透過視覺與動作表徵的建模方式，修改學生原有的心智模式。本研究結果也呼應了Maskill ＆ Cachapuz ( 1997 )的研究，國小高年級學生是可以有效的學習微觀概念的科學知識。
Modeling teaching to inquisition of the elementary school fifth grade student acid and alkali mental model change Abstract This study embarks by the conceptual change's viewpoint, discussion modeling teaching to change of the elementary school fifth grade student acid and alkali mental model. This study in view of the elementary school stage's acid and alkali concept, the design suits the elementary school stage the modeling teaching plan, and develops the acid and alkali concept two tier diagnosis type questionnaire. By interview with the questionnaire collection material, analyzes and reorganizes goes abroad the acid and alkali mental model which the fifth-grade student has, and knows the country elementary students from this after the modeling teaching later period the mental model change. This study altogether interviewed 19 elementary school fifth grade student, and uses the acid and alkali concept two tier diagnosis type questionnaire, altogether investigated the experimental group (modeling teaching group) and the control group (common teaching group) each 50 students. The study discovered that the elementary school fifth grade student the mental model mainly has in the acid and the alkali significance and the nature: 1. phenomenon model (38%); 2. key words model (23%); 3. deduction model (36%); 4. microscopic structure model (36%); 5. micro-particle model (34%). In the acid and alkali neutral part, this study has 1. acid and alkali coexisting model which discovered before the teaching 1 (33%); Acid and alkali coexisting model 2 (17%); 3. offsets the model (41%). In the acid-base indicator part, this study discovers the specific color model (29%) and the scientific model (65%). In the teaching, this study also discovered that no matter is the modeling teaching group perhaps the common teaching group, after the teaching these mental models still had the appearance, but its distributed situation has a difference. In acid and in alkali significance and nature, after the teaching, two groups of key words models obviously drop, the modeling teaching group's students mainly shift to the deduction model; But the common teaching group mainly shifts to the phenomenon model. In the acid and alkali neutral part, acid and alkali of coexisting model the modeling teaching group and the common teaching group of obviously drops, generally the teaching group mainly shifts to offsets the model; But the modeling teaching group's students besides shift to offset the model, some 38% student may achieve the scientific model which the author designs. Obviously although modeling of teaching this study institute design cannot complete construct all students the correct scientific model, but the majority of students already could effective revision already some mental models, by the close scientific model. This study accepts student of the modeling teaching after measured that the performance with first measured the performance has the remarkable difference. The demonstration because of the modeling teaching activity, the country elementary students already might accept the microscopic model the teaching, even penetrates visual and the movement attribute modeling way, revises the student original mental model. This findings have also echoed Maskill & Cachapuz (1997) the study, the elementary school fifth grade student is may the effective study microscopic concept scientific knowledge.
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