Title

從「權威關注」到「自我關注」:遊療師的生命轉換經驗及其在專業實踐之文化考量

Translated Titles

From “authoritarian-regard” to “self-regard”: The life transformative experiences of the play therapists and the cultural considerations in their professional practice

Authors

邱獻輝

Key Words

多元文化諮商 ; 遊戲治療 ; 權威教養 ; 華人文化 ; multicultural counseling ; play therapy ; authoritarian parenting ; Chinese culture

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2009年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

陳秉華

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

中 文 摘 要 本研究從多元文化諮商的觀點出發,以權威/順從為主題,探討台灣遊戲治療師的生命與實務體驗,對於遊戲治療的學習與實踐的影響。本研究以建構主義做為方法學的基礎;共邀請九位遊療師成為本研究之研究參與者,每人分別接受二~三次半結構式的深度訪談,每次歷時2~4小時,再以訪談錄音的逐字稿作為分析文本,根據紮根理論進行資料的蒐集與分析,建構出台灣遊戲治療師對傳統權威人我關係的省思及其治療理念的實踐之概念模式。本研究的結果如下: 本研究受訪者大抵認為自己成長於華人權威教養的環境﹔此種教養方式交織著傳統華人的家庭價值觀,包括親子一體感、面子與學業成就取向。受訪者在成長過程中常有抑制自我的受苦經驗,甚至當父母的權威僵化、又施以體罰時,就容易造成心理創傷。惟,也有受訪者在和緩權威教養下,經歷著順利的成長經驗,形塑出人際互動的「權威關注」與「自我關注」之自我狀態。基本上,不管受訪者經驗到的權威教養程度如何,都一致地反動權威教養。隨著年歲增長,受訪者在主動尋求或因緣際會底下,從祖輩、伴侶、師長、手足、專業同儕、治療等關係中獲得有別於權威/順從互動的「自我關注」之修正性經驗,使其自我的自主性提升,並且將這種新的人際互動自我狀態帶回自己的親子互動中﹔但是因每個受訪者的內外在資源有別,因此修正親子間的權威/順從的互動程度並不一致﹔但只要有所修正,則又會強化對權威教養的反動,形成一個循環。 就受訪者在實務上的觀察,台灣兒童案主跟受訪者相仿,都是生活在華人權威教養及其相關的家庭價值觀底下。這意味著雖然台灣現代西化的程度不斷增加、權威教養也有式微的趨勢,但是華人傳統教養型態卻仍難以擺脫,不僅家長遇到親職工作的瓶頸、案主也掙扎於「自我關注」與「權威關注」的適應困境中,就連受訪者欲以專業介入時也遇到挑戰。受訪者的專業挑戰除了源自早年權威教養下的生命經驗限制,也來自專業環境的窘境,同時也包括案主及家長對治療理念背後價值觀的適應。 為了克服有關權威教養的專業挑戰,受訪者透過進修、督導、工作坊、文獻閱讀等管道,尋覓適當可行的理論與技術﹔並且努力從自己修正性經驗的省思中,萃取出遊戲治療所需要的內在資源。這些努力的目標都是朝向降低家長的權威教養特質,提升案主的「自我關注」﹔在具體操作上,治療師除了留意相關的文化價值觀,也巧思介入的技巧﹔基本上,受訪者認為在家長介入時,比直接進行遊戲治療更需要留意到文化的考量。   本研究也根據研究結果與文獻進行討論,並且從文化考量的立場,針對遊戲治療在台灣的專業訓練、實施、後續研究提出建議。

English Abstract

From “authoritarian-regard” to “self-regard”: The life transformative experiences of the play therapists and the cultural considerations in their professional practice Focusing on Chinese authoritarian parenting, this dissertation explored how the life and practice experiences of Taiwan therapists influenced the contemplation of play therapy rationale from multicultural counseling perspectives. The methodology of this study followed constructivism paradigm, and the data collecting as well as text analysis follow grounded theory. Nine experienced Taiwanese play therapists were recruited as the research participants. Semi-structured individual in-dept interviews were conducted respectively for 2-3 times, 2-4 hours per time. After that, the record content were translated into transcript as texts for analysis and then finally constructed into a model. The main finding as following: Interviewees basically supposed they grew in a Chinese authoritarian parenting environment and most of participants suffered self-restrain, even felt being abused when parents applied rigidly authoritarian and adopted corporal punishment. However there still some participates turn into adulthood smoothly if their parents were moderate authoritarian. Fundamentally, all participants opposite to Chinese authoritarian parenting no matter how the authoritarian degree parenting was they experienced. Along with career developing, participants obtained emotional corrected experiences by active or accidental action, that is opposite to authoritarian/compliance interaction, that came from grandparents, couple, teachers, sister, professional peers, and psychological therapist. Then, these new kind of experiences made not only increase their self-autonomy but also try to generalize this new kind of relation style to their own parent-child interaction. Because of the external and internal resource level from each interviewee are varied, the modifications of original parent-child interaction were different. Of course, these modifications would strengthen to be against Chinese authoritarian parenting and make a recycle. From the observation of participants, Taiwan clients also live on Chinese authoritarian parenting background as participants were young. Although Taiwan society westernized gradually and authoritarian parenting on the way of decreasing, yet, the traditional parenting style still roots deeply on these parents clients’. Simultaneously, due to the flowing together of modern and traditional cultures, not only parents meet parenting difficulties, but also clients struggle between self-regard and authoritarian-regard, furthermore interviewees encounter professional challenges which came from the therapists limits of life experiences under early authoritarian parenting, from the insufficiency of professional environment, and from the value conflict between clients and their parents and therapy rationales. To deal with these challenges, these interviewees tried every effort to find feasible theories and treatment through studies, supervisions, and workshops. They also extract the factors that can lead to client’s emotional corrected experience by themselves. Basically, all of these efforts aimed at decreasing the authoritarian characters of parents and increasing self-regard of clients. For the application dimension, they were attentive to the cultural value difference and mull over treatment skill when treatment. Mainly, they assumed that more cultural consideration should be placed when working with parents than applying play therapy directly on client. Discussions were made according to study results and references, as well as suggestion was made for Taiwan play therapy training, practice, and future researches standing on cultural point.

Topic Category 教育學院 > 教育心理與輔導學系
社會科學 > 教育學
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