Title

網路資訊尋獲與再尋獲之檢索歷程研究

Translated Titles

The Study of Search Session for Finding and Re-finding Information on the Web

Authors

江信昱

Key Words

資訊尋獲 ; 資訊再尋獲 ; 檢索歷程 ; 檢索策略 ; Information Finding ; Information Re-finding ; Search Session ; Search Strategy

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學圖書資訊學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2009年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

卜小蝶

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

隨著網路資源迅速成長,利用搜尋引擎檢索網路資源,也成為使用者最有利的檢索工具。從個人資訊管理觀點來看,使用者常有再取用及再利用資訊之需求,其中如何再尋獲個人資訊是許多人深感困擾的問題。過去已有不少研究針對搜尋引擎、傳統資訊檢索系統及OPAC檢索系統等探討檢索行為差異,網路資訊再尋獲(re-finding)是一常見的資訊需求及難題,相較研究如何搜尋或尋獲資訊,其較少受到研究關注。因此,本研究嘗試以兩階段實驗法、檢索記錄分析法、觀察法、訪談及問卷調查法等多元方法,就使用者在網路瀏覽器使用、網站/網頁取用途徑、檢索詞彙、檢索語句及檢索歷程等面向,分析比較資訊尋獲與資訊再尋獲之檢索行為特性。研究結果顯示:(1)搜尋引擎為資訊尋獲與資訊再尋獲之主要工具,其次為直接取用URL或網址,顯示使用者會直接取用平日熟悉的資源當作檢索起點,而使用檢索歷史為資訊再尋獲階段之重要取用方式之一;(2)分析兩階段實驗之檢索歷程記錄,與資訊尋獲階段相比,使用者再尋獲資訊之時間略為降低,但所花費之認知心力則有上升情形;(3)兩階段實驗之檢索策略、技巧運用、及詞彙選用相似,但其檢索路徑不同;(4)不同任務類型之檢索成效有所差異,接觸次數與熟悉度越高之檢索任務,有較好的檢索成效。此外,研究發現路徑型任務之檢索表現優於其他三類任務,而精確型任務之檢索困難度最高。最後,本研究提供一些建議,包含網路資訊檢索系統之改善、網路資訊素養及後續研究建議之參考。

English Abstract

The rapidly increasing amount of internet resources has made search engines that are one of the most important tools for searching and accessing internet resources. Some studies have documented that people have a variety of needs to re-access and reuse information, but organizing and re-finding web information can be a problem for many users from the personal information management point of view. The majority of studies concerning on-line searching can be categorized as focusing on search engines, traditional information retrieval (IR) systems or online public access catalogue (OPAC) systems, re-finding electronic information is a common information need and problem, yet it has received less study than the research of how to search or find information. Therefore, the study attempts to sum up and compare search behavior characteristics in information finding and information re-finding by users’ web browsers use, web sites/web pages access, search terms, search queries, and search sessions level. The methods include two experimental sessions, scheduled about a week apart, search log analysis, observation, interview, and questionnaire. The results indicate that: (1) the use of search engines is a main method to find and re-find information, next to directly accessing a URL or web address, which showed participants often go directly to known resources on the web to start their searches. In addition to another way, the use of search history is a useful method when re-finding information. (2) Participants’ cost of time is decreasing slightly, but the effort of interaction is increasing when re-finding information through the analysis of search log in two sessions. (3) Finding and re-finding information does have differences, especially for search strategies, search tactics, terms selections are similarity, but the search paths of re-finding are differ from information finding. (4) For many tasks, the effectiveness of search is a discrepancy in the two sessions. The task with high frequency and high familiarity has a better performance. Beside, path tasks are all tasks that participants could easily to execute, and re-finding for exact tasks is perceived as more difficult and longer than information finding. Finally, the study provides some suggestions on improving the networked information retrieval systems, network information literacy and benefit further research.

Topic Category 人文學 > 圖書資訊學
教育學院 > 圖書資訊學研究所
Reference
  1. 卜小蝶(1999)。台灣網路使用者檢索行為探析。大學圖書館,4(2),23-37。
    連結:
  2. 林珊如(2002)。網路使用者特性與資訊行為研究趨勢之探討。圖書資訊學刊,17,35-47。
    連結:
  3. 黃慕萱(1994)。情境模式在解釋資訊尋求行為之適用性探討。圖書館學刊,9,49-55。
    連結:
  4. 鄭小祺(2006)。圖書資訊人員之網路資源檢索技巧研究。國立臺灣師範大學圖書資訊學研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
    連結:
  5. Bates, M. J. (1979a). Information Search Tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 30(4), 205-214.
    連結:
  6. Bates, M. J. (1979b). Idea Tactics. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 30(5), 280-289.
    連結:
  7. Bates, M. J. (1989). The design of browsing and berrypicking techniques for the online search interface. Online Review, 13(5), 407-424.
    連結:
  8. Belkin, N. J. (1980). Anomalous state of knowledge as a basis for information retrieval. Canadian Journal of Information Science, 5, 133-143.
    連結:
  9. Belkin, N. J., Cool, C., Stein, A., & Thiel, U. (1995). Cases, Scripts, and Information-Seeking Strategies: On the Design of Interactive Information Retrieval Systems. Expert Systems with Applications, 9(3), 379-395.
    連結:
  10. Bilal, D. (2000). Children's use of the Yahooligans! Web search engine:I. Cognitive, physical, and affective behaviors on fact-based search tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(7), 646-65.
    連結:
  11. Bilal, D. (2001). Children's use of the Yahooligans! Web search engine:II. Cognitive and physical behaviors on research tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(2), 118-36.
    連結:
  12. Budzik, J., & Hammond, K. J. (2000, January). User Interactions with Everyday Applications as Context for Just-intime Information Access. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces, Louisiana, United States.
    連結:
  13. Buente, W., & Robbin, A.(2008). Trends in internet information behavior, 2000-2004. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(11), 1743-1760.
    連結:
  14. Capra, R. G. (2006a). An investigation of finding and refinding information on the web. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Charlottesville.
    連結:
  15. Capra, R. G., & Perez-Quinones, M. A. (2005b). Using web search engines to find and refind information. Computer, 38(10), 36- 42.
    連結:
  16. Dervin, B., & Nilan, M. (1986). Information needs and uses. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 21, 3–33.
    連結:
  17. Ellis, D. (1989a). A behavioral approach for information retrieval system design. Journal of Documentation, 45, 171-212.
    連結:
  18. Ellis, D. (1989b). A behavioral model for information retrieval system design. Journal of Information Science, 15, 237-247.
    連結:
  19. Ellis, D., & Haugan, M. (1997). Modeling the information seeking patterns of engineers and research scientists in an industrial environment. Journal of Documentation, 53(4), 384-403.
    連結:
  20. Ellis, D., Cox, D., & Hall, K. (1993). A comparison of the information seeking patterns of researchers in the physical and social sciences. Journal of Documentation, 49(4), 356-369.
    連結:
  21. Elsweiler, D., Ruthven, I., & Jones, C. (2007). Toward memory supporting personal information management tools. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(7), 924-946.
    連結:
  22. Fidel, R. (1984). Online searching styles: A case-study-based model of searching behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 35(4), 211-221.
    連結:
  23. Fidel, R. (1985). Moves in Online searching. Online Review, 9(1), 61-74.
    連結:
  24. Fidel, R., & Soergel, D. (1983). Factors Affecting Online Bibliographic Retrieval : A Conceptual Framework for Research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 34(4), 163-180.
    連結:
  25. Harter, S. P. (1986). Online information retrieval:Concepts, principles, and techniques. San Diego: Academic Press.
    連結:
  26. Holscher, C., & Strube, G. (2000). Web search behavior of internet experts and newbies. Computer Networks, 33(1), 337-346.
    連結:
  27. Hsieh-Yee, I. (1993). Effects of search experience and subject knowledge on the search tactics of novice and experienced searchers. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 44, 161-174.
    連結:
  28. Hsieh-Yee, I. (1998). Search tactics of Web users in searching for texts, graphics, known items and subjects: A search simulation study. Reference Librarian, 60, 61–85.
    連結:
  29. Hsieh-Yee, I. (2001). Research on web search behavior. Library and Information Science Research, 23(2), 167-185.
    連結:
  30. Huang, C. Y., Shen, Y. C., Chiang, I. P., & Lin, C. S. (2007). Characterizing Web Users’ Online Information Behavior. Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology, 58(13), 1988-1997.
    連結:
  31. Ingwersen, P. (1992). Information Retrieval Interaction. London: Taylor Graham.
    連結:
  32. Ingwersen, P. (1996). Cognitive perspectives of information retrieval interaction: Elements of a cognitive IR theory. Journal of Documentation, 52(1), 3-50.
    連結:
  33. Jansen, B. J., & Pooch, U. (2001). A review of web searching studies and a framework for future research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(3), 235-246.
    連結:
  34. Jansen, B. J., & Spink, A. (2006). How are we searching the world wide web ?: a comparison of nine search engine transaction logs. Information Processing and Management, 42(1), 248 – 263.
    連結:
  35. Jansen, B.J., Spink, A., & Saracevic, T.(2000). Real life, real users, and real needs: a study and analysis of user queries on the web. Information Processing and Management, 36(2), 207–227.
    連結:
  36. Jones, W. ( 2007a). Personal information management. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 41, 453–504.
    連結:
  37. Jones, W. (2007b). Keeping Found Things Found: The Study and Practice of Personal Information Management. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
    連結:
  38. Kim, K. S. (2001). Implications of User Characteristics in Information Seeking on the World Wide Web. International journal of human-computer interaction, 13(3), 323-340.
    連結:
  39. Komlodi, A., Marchionini, G., & Soergel, D. (2007). Search history support for finding and using information: User interface design recommendations from a user study. Information Processing and Management, 43, 10-29.
    連結:
  40. Kuhlthau, C. C. (1991). Inside the search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(5), 361-71.
    連結:
  41. Kuhlthau, C. C. (1993). Seek Meaning: A Process Approach to Library and Information Service, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    連結:
  42. Lansdale, M. (1988). The psychology of personal information management. Applied Ergonomics, 19, 55-66.
    連結:
  43. Li, Y., & Belkin, N. J. (2008). A faceted approach to conceptualizing tasks in information seeking. Information Processing and Management, 44, 1822-1837.
    連結:
  44. Mansourian, Y., & Madden, A. D. (2007). Methodological approaches in web search research. The Electronic Library, 25(1), 90-101.
    連結:
  45. Marchionini, G. (1995). Information seeking in electronic environments. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  46. McKenzie, B., & Cockburn, A. (2001, January). An Empirical Analysis of Web Page Revisitation. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 34th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA.
    連結:
  47. Moore, J. L.m, Erdelez, S., & He, W. (2007). The search experience variable in information behavior research. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(10), 1529-1546.
    連結:
  48. Nardi, B. A., Miller, J. R., & Wright, D. J. (1998). Collaborative, Programmable Intelligent Agents. Communications of the ACM, 41, 96-104.
    連結:
  49. Park, S., Lee, J. H., & Bae, H. J. (2005). End user searching: A Web log analysis of NAVER, a Korean Web search engine. Library and Information Science Research, 27, 203-221.
    連結:
  50. Savolainen, R., & Kari, J. (2006). Facing and bridging gaps in Web searching. Information Processing and Management, 42, 519-537.
    連結:
  51. Silverstein, C., Henzinger, M., Marais, H., & Moricz, M. (1999). Analysis of a very large web search engine query log. SIGIR Forum, 33(1), 6–12.
    連結:
  52. Spink, A., & Jansen, B. J. (2004b). Web search: public searching of the Web. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    連結:
  53. Spink, A., Jansen, B. J., Wolfram, D., & Saracevic, T. (2002a). From e-sex to e-commerce: Web search changes. IEEE Computer, 35(3), 107–111.
    連結:
  54. Spink, A., Ozmutlu, S., Ozmutlu, H. C., & Jansen, B. J. (2002b). US versus European Web searching trends. SIGIR Forum, 32(1), 30–37.
    連結:
  55. Tauscher, L., & Greenberg, S. (1997). How people revisit web pages: empirical findings and implications for the design of history systems. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 47(1), 97-137.
    連結:
  56. Teevan, J. (2007a). Supporting Finding and Re-Finding Through Personalization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.
    連結:
  57. Vakkari, P. (2003). Task-based information searching. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 37, 413-464.
    連結:
  58. Wilson, T. D. (1981). On user studies and information needs. Journal of Documentation, 37(1), 3-15.
    連結:
  59. Wilson, T. D. (1997). Information behavior: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Information Processing and Management, 33(4), 551-572.
    連結:
  60. Wilson, T. D. (1999). Models in information behavior research. Journal of Documentation, 55(3), 249–270.
    連結:
  61. Wilson, T. D. (2000). Human information behavior. Informing Science, 3(2), 49-56.
    連結:
  62. Yang, K. (2005). Information Retrieval on the Web. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 39, 33-80.
    連結:
  63. 中文
  64. 卜小蝶(2002)。以使用記錄分析探索網路使用者檢索興趣之研究。國立交通大學資訊管理研究所博士論文,未出版,新竹市。
  65. 卜小蝶(2007)。使用者導向之網路資源組織與檢索。臺北市:文華。
  66. 孫鴻業(2008)。2007我國家庭寬頻、行動與無線應用現況與需求調查--家戶連網應用。資策會FIND網站。2008年11月18日,取自http://www.find.org.tw/find/home.aspx?page=many&id=190
  67. 梁德馨(2009)。九十八年度台灣寬頻網路使用調查報告。財團法人台灣網路資訊中心。2009年3月5日,取自: http://www.twnic.net.tw/download/200307/0901all.pdf
  68. 鄭麗玉(2007)。認知心理學-理論與應用(三版) 。臺北市:五南。
  69. 謝寶煖(2000)。網站搜尋e網打盡。臺北市:華文網。
  70. 英文
  71. Adar, E., Karger, D., & Stein, L. A. (1999, November). Haystack: Per-User Information Environments. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Eighth international conference on Information and knowledge management, Missouri, United States.
  72. Alvarado, C., Teevan, J., Ackerman, M. S., & Karger, D. (2003). Surviving the information explosion: How people find their electronic information. Retrieved May 22, 2008, from http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/6713
  73. Aula, A., Jhaveri, N., & Käki, M. (2005, May). Information search and re-access strategies of experienced Web users. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 14th international Conference on World Wide Web, Chiba, Japan.
  74. Bates, M. J. (1987). How to Use Information Search Tactics Online. Online, 11(3), 47-54.
  75. Blanc-Brude, T., & Scapin, D. L. (2007, January). What do people recall about their documents? Implications for desktop search tools. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Intelligent User interfaces, Hawaii, USA.
  76. Bruce, H., Jones, W., & Dumais, S. (2004). Information behaviour that keeps found things found. Information Research, 10(1), paper 207. Retrieved May 22, 2008, from http://InformationR.net/ir/10-1/paper207.html
  77. Cacheda, F., & Viñña, Á. (2001, October). Understanding how people use search engines: a statistical analysis for e-business. Paper presented at Proceedings of the e-Business and e-Work Conference and Exhibition, Venice, Italy.
  78. Capra, R. G., & Perez-Quinones, M. A. (2003). Re-finding found things: An exploratory study of how users re-find information. Retrieved May 22, 2008, from http://arxiv.org/ftp/cs/papers/0310/0310011.pdf
  79. Capra, R. G., & Perez-Quinones, M. A. (2006b, August). Factors and evaluation of refinding behaviors. Paper presented at the Personal Information Management SIGIR 2006 Workshop, Seattle, Washington.
  80. Capra, R. G., Pinney, M., & Perez-Quinones, M. A. (2005a). Refinding is not finding again. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://eprints.cs.vt.edu/archive/00000715/01/RefindingIsNotFinding-final.pdf
  81. Case, D. O. (2006). Information behavior. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 40, 293-327.
  82. Choo, C. W., Detlor, B., & Turnbull, D. (1999, October). Information seeking on the web ─ an integrated model of browsing and searching. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 62nd American Society for Information Science Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C..
  83. Cole, J. I., Suman, M., Schramm, P., Lunn, R., & Aquino, J. S. (2003). The UCLA Internet report surveying the digital future year three. Retrieved June. 30, 2008, from http://www.digitalcenter.org/pdf/InternetReportYearThree.pdf
  84. Denoue, L., & Vignollet, L. (2001). Personal Information Organization using Web Annotations. Retrieved June. 27, 2008, from http://www.fxpal.com/publications/FXPAL-PR-01-192.pdf
  85. Dumais, S. T., Cutrell, E., Cadiz, J. J., Jancke, G., Sarin, R., & Robbins, D. (2003, July). Stuff I’ve Seen: A system for personal information retrieval and re-use. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 26th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, Toronto, Canada.
  86. Elsweiler, D., Baillie, M., & Ruthven, I. (2008). Exploring memory in email refinding. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS), 26(4), Article No. 21.
  87. Feldman, S., & Sberman, C. (2004). The High Cost of Not Finding Information. Retrieved December. 27, 2008, from http://www.viapoint.com/doc/IDC%20on%20The%20High%20Cost%20Of%20Not%20Finding%20Information.pdf
  88. Gantz, J. F. (2008). An Updated Forecast of Worldwide Information Growth Through 2011. Retrieved January. 10, 2009, from http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/diverse-exploding-digital-universe.pdf
  89. Graphic, Visualization, and Usability Center (1998). GVU’s Tenth WWW User Survey. Retrieved December. 27, 2008, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1998-10/graphs/use/q11.htm
  90. Internet World Statistics ( n.d.). World Internet Users and Population Statistics. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
  91. Jones, W., Bruce, H., & Dumais, S. T. (2001, October). Keeping founds things found on the web. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Information and knowledge management, Georgia, USA.
  92. Kahan, J., Koivunen, M.-R., Prud’Hommeaux, E., & Swick, R. R. (2001, May). Annotea: An Open RDF Infrastructure for Shared Web Annotations. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 10th International World Wide Web Conference on World Wide Web, Hong Kong, China.
  93. Kim, K. S., & Allen, B. (2002). Cognitive and task influences on Web searching behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(2), 109-119.
  94. Maglio, P. P., & Barrett, R. (1997, June). How to build modeling agents to support web searchers. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on User Modeling, Sardinia, Italy.
  95. Miller, J. R., & Bonura, T. (1998). From documents to objects: An overview of LiveDoc. SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (2), 53-58.
  96. Navarro-Prieto, R., Scaife, M., & Rogers, Y. (1999). Cognitive strategies in Web searching. Retrieved November 25, 2008 from http://zing.ncsl.nist.gov/hfweb/proceedings/navarro-prieto/index.html
  97. Obendorf, H., Weinreich, H., Herder, E., & Mayer, M. (2007, April). Web page revisitation revisited: implications of a long-term click-stream study of browser usage. Paper presented at Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, California, USA.
  98. Pejtersen, A.M., & Fidel, R. (1998). A framework for work-centered evaluation and design:A case study of information retrieval on the web. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/mira/workshops/grenoble/fp.pdf
  99. Pew Internet (2008a). Internet activities. Retrieved March 5, 2009, from http://www.pewinternet.org/Data-Tools/Download-Data/Trend-Data.aspx
  100. Pew Internet (2008b). Search Engine Use. Retrieved November 18, 2008 from http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/258/report_display.asp
  101. Pew Internet (2009). Generations Online in 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2009, from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Generations-Online-in-2009.aspx
  102. Sarcevic, T., & Boxter, M. A. (1983, October). On a Method for Studying the Structure and Nature of Requests in Information Retrieval. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Society for Information Science, Washington D.C..
  103. Spink, A., & Jansen, B. J. (2004a). A Study of Web Search Trends. Webology, 1(2). Retrieved October 8, 2008 from http://www.webology.ir/2004/v1n2/a4.html
  104. Spink, A., Wolfram, D., Jansen, B. J., & Saracevic, T. (2001). Searching the Web: The Public and Their Queries. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(3), 226-234.
  105. Teevan, J. (2004). How people re-find information when the Web changes. Retrieved October 12, 2008 from http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/30480
  106. Teevan, J., Adar, E., Jones, R., & Potts, M. A. S. (2007b, July). Information Re-Retrieval: Repeat Queries in Yahoo’s Logs. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 30th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  107. Vakkari, P. (1997). Information Seeking in Context: A Challenging Metatheory. In P. Vakkari, R. Savolainen, & B. Dervin (Eds), Information Seeking in Context (pp. 451-464). Taylor Graham: London & Los Angeles.
  108. Wolfram, D., Spink, A., Jansen, B. J., & Saracevic, T. (2001). Vox populi: the public searching of the web. Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology, 52(12), 1073–1074.