Title

心情與創意思考關係的多成份模式:調整焦點、向性、激發心情對創意思考的影響暨中介變項之探討

Translated Titles

The Multi-Component Model of Mood and Creative Thinking (MCMC): Impact of Regulatory Focus, Valence and Activation Components of Mood on the Creative Thinking, and Mediating Effects

Authors

徐芝君

Key Words

心情 ; 創意思考 ; 認知彈性 ; 處理速度 ; 整體處理 ; mood ; creative thinking ; cognitive flexibility ; processing speed ; global processing

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

陳學志

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究主要在探討不同心情對創意思考的影響暨其之間的中介變項,因此建構「心情與創意思考關係的多成份模式」(MCMC)。在模式裡主張不同調整焦點、向性及激發向度的心情,會對創意思考表現造成不同的影響,而且,個體的認知彈性、處理速度及整體處理會中介心情與創意思考間的關係。為了驗證MCMC模式,進行了預備性研究和四個實驗。在預備性研究裡,編製一擴散性思考測驗-「報紙的不尋常用途」,以利後續實驗使用。在實驗一先確立不同向度心情對創意思考表現的影響,結果發現快樂(正向、激發、促進焦點)、憤怒(負向、激發、促進焦點)可以提升創意思考表現的假設獲得部份支持,難過(負向、去激發、預防焦點(結果階段))會損害創意思考表現也獲得部份支持,放鬆(正向、去激發、預防焦點)對創意思考表現沒有影響獲得支持;不過,在害怕(負向、激發、預防焦點)則未獲支持。由於實驗二到實驗四主要在探究中介變項的效果,且實驗一在快樂和難過心情與快樂和中性心情比較差異較明顯,因此,後續實驗僅誘發快樂、難過及中性心情。實驗二使用叫色作業為中介作業,探究認知彈性和處理速度是否中介心情和創意思考間的關係,結果發現兩個指標皆未產生中介效果,推究原因,可能是叫色作業的效度問題。因此,實驗三改採轉換作業,再次探究認知彈性和處理速度的中介效果,結果發現處理速度中介心情和流暢力,及心情和變通力關係達趨近顯著,大致支持處理速度具有中介效果。實驗四使用形狀偵測作業作為中介作業,探究整體處理是否中介心情和創意思考間的關係,結果發現整體處理中介心情和流暢力的關係。最後依據研究結果討論本研究意義和價值,並對未來研究及教育實務提出建議。

English Abstract

The purposes of this study were to investigate the relation between mood and creativity thinking, and the mediating effects. “The Multiple Components Model of Mood and Creative Thinking (MCMC)” indicates: (a) specific moods (varied with different regulatory focus, valence and activation components concurrently) make distinct impacts on creative thinking; (b) mood-creative thinking relationship should be mediated by cognitive flexibility, processing speed or global processing. In order to examine the MCMC model, a pilot study and four experiments were conducted in this research. In the pilot study, “alternative uses of newspaper task” (one divergent thinking test) was constructed and used in the follow-up experiments. Experiment 1 was conducted to test the effects of regulatory focus, valence and activation components on the mood-creative thinking link. The results show these hypotheses were supported: (a) happiness (positive, activation, and promotion focus) and anger (negative, activation, and prevention focus) enhanced participants’ performances of creative thinking; (b) sadness (negative, deactivation, and prevention focus) impaired participants’ performances of creative thinking; (c) relaxation (positive, deactivation, and prevention focus) did not affect participants’ performances of creative thinking. However, the hypothesis that fear (negative, activation, and prevention focus) impaired participants’ performances of creative thinking was not supported. Experiments 2 to 4 were to examine the effects of mediating variables. The effects of happy-sad and happy-neutral contrasts were found significant; therefore, happiness, sadness and neutral became the target variables in the follow-up experiments.) In Experiment 2, the Stroop Task was utilized to examine whether cognitive flexibility and processing speed intervened the relation between mood and creative thinking. The results showed that these two indictors had no effects; accordingly, the validity of the Stroop Task was taken into consideration. Hence, the task in Experiment 3 was changed into the Task Switching, which was used to reexamine the inverting effects of cognitive flexibility and processing speed. The results suggested that processing speed mediates the mood-fluency link and mood-flexibility link; while it was indicated that processing speed played as a mediator in the relation between mood and creative thinking. Experiment 4 used the Shape Detection Task (one mediating task) to examine whether global processing mediated the relationship between mood and creative thinking. The result supported that global processing as a mediator of mood-creative thinking link. In the end, theoretical and educational implications, as well as the highlight avenues for future research on moods, creative thinking, and their relationships were discussed.

Topic Category 教育學院 > 教育心理與輔導學系
社會科學 > 教育學
Reference
  1. 任純慧、陳學志、練竑初、卓淑玲 (2004)。創造力測量的輔助工具: 中文遠距聯想量表的發展。應用心理研究,21,195-217。
    連結:
  2. 李宏鎰、謝淑蘭(2004)。練習對作業轉換的促發效果。應用心理研究,23,203-222。
    連結:
  3. 林緯倫、連韻文、與任純慧(2005)。想得多是想得好的前提嗎?探討發散性思考能力在創意問題解決的角色。中華心理學刊,47,211-227。
    連結:
  4. 邱發忠(2005)。創造力認知運作機制之探究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系博士論文。
    連結:
  5. 邱發忠、姚妃宴(2010)。調整焦點、目標時間距離對創造力表現的影響。教育心理學報,41,497-520。
    連結:
  6. 邱發忠、陳學志、徐芝君、吳相儀、卓淑玲 (2008)。內隱與外顯因素對創造作業表現的影響。中華心理學刊,50,125-145。
    連結:
  7. 邱皓政、丁興祥譯(2008)。創造力:當代理論與議題。台北:心理。 Runco, M. A. (2007). Creativity: Theories and themes, research, development, and practice.
    連結:
  8. Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 357–376.
    連結:
  9. Anderson, N., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2004). The routinization of innovation research: A constructively critical review of the state-of-the-science. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 147–173.
    連結:
  10. Arnold, M. (1960). Emotion and personality (2 Vols.) New York: Columbia University Press.
    連結:
  11. Ashby, F., Isen, A., & Turken, A. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive a ect and its in uence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106 529-550.
    連結:
  12. Baas, M., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus? Psychological bulletin, 134, 779-806.
    連結:
  13. Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
    連結:
  14. Barrett, L. F. (2006). Solving the Emotion Paradox: Categorization and the Experience of Emotion. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 10, 20-46.
    連結:
  15. Barrett, L. F., & Russell, J. A. (1998). Independence and bipolarity in the structure of current affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 967–984.
    連結:
  16. Baumann, N., & Kuhl, J. (2005). Positive Affect and Flexibility: Overcoming the Precedence of Global over Local Processing of Visual Information. Motivation & Emotion, 29, 123-134.
    連結:
  17. Bless, H., Bohner, G., Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1990). Mood and persuasion: A cognitive response analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 331–345.
    連結:
  18. Bodenhausen, G. (1993). Emotions, arousal, and stereotypic judgments: A heuristic model of affect and stereotyping. Affect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception, 13-37.
    連結:
  19. Bowden, E. M., Jung-Beeman, M., Fleck, J., & Kounios, J. (2005). New approaches to demystifying insight. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 322-328.
    連結:
  20. Brehm, J. W. (1999). The intensity of emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 2–22.
    連結:
  21. Brenner, E. (2000). Mood induction in children: Methodological issues and clinical implications. Review of General Psychology, 4, 264–283.
    連結:
  22. Brunye, T., Mahoney, C., Augustyn, J., & Taylor, H. (2009). Emotional state and local versus global spatial memory. Acta Psychologica, 130, 138-146.
    連結:
  23. Campbell, D. T. (1960). Blind variation and selective retention in creative thought as in other knowledge processes. Psychological Review 67, 380–400.
    連結:
  24. Carlsson, I. (2002). Anxiety and flexibility of defense related to high or low creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 341–349.
    連結:
  25. Carnevale, P. J., & Probst, T. M. (1998). Social Values and Social Conflict in Creative Problem Solving and Categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1300-1309.
    連結:
  26. Carver, C. S. (2004). Negative affects deriving from the behavioral approach system. Emotion, 4, 3–22.
    連結:
  27. Carver, C. S., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2009). Anger is an approach-related affect: Evidence and implications. Psychological bulletin, 135, 183-204.
    連結:
  28. Clydesdale, G. (2006). Creativity and competition: The Beatles. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 129–139.
    連結:
  29. Conway, A. R. A., Cowan, N., Bunting, M. F., Therriault, D. J., & Minkoff, S. R. B. (2002). A Latent Variable Analysis of Working Memory Capacity, Short-Term Memory Capacity, Processing Speed, and General Fluid Intelligence. Intelligence, 30, 163-183.
    連結:
  30. Crowe, E., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Regulatory Focus and Strategic Inclinations: Promotion and Prevention in Decision-Making. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 69, 117-132.
    連結:
  31. Davidson, R., Jackson, D., & Kalin, N. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological bulletin, 126, 890-909.
    連結:
  32. Davis, M. A. (2009). Understanding the relationship between mood and creativity: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108, 25-38.
    連結:
  33. De Dreu, C. K. W., Baas, M., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). Hedonic tone and activation level in the mood-creativity link: Toward a dual pathway to creativity model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 739-756.
    連結:
  34. DeYoung, C., Flanders, J., & Peterson, J. (2008). Cognitive Abilities Involved in Insight Problem Solving: An Individual Differences Model. Creativity Research Journal, 20, 278-290.
    連結:
  35. Diehl, M., & Stroebe, W. (1987). Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: Toward the solution of a riddle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 497-509.
    連結:
  36. Dorfman, L., Martindale, C., Gassimova, V., & Vartanian, O. (2008). Creativity and speed of information processing: A double dissociation involving elementary versus inhibitory cognitive tasks. [Article]. Personality & Individual Differences, 44, 1382-1390.
    連結:
  37. Dreisbach, G., & Goschke, T. (2004). How positive affect modulates cognitive control: Reduced perseveration at the cost of increased distractibility. Journal of Experimental Psychology / Learning, Memory & Cognition, 30, 343-353.
    連結:
  38. Duncker, K. (1945). On problem solving. Psychological Monographs, 58, 1 -113.
    連結:
  39. Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66, 183–201.
    連結:
  40. Edwards, J., & Weary, G. (1993). Depression and the impression-formation continuum: piecemeal processing despite the availability of category information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 636-645.
    連結:
  41. Ekman, P., Friesen, W., & Ellsworth, P. (1982). What emotion categories or dimensions can observers judge from facial behavior. In P. Ekman (Ed.), Emotion in the human face (2nd edn.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  42. Estrada, C., Isen, A., & Young, M. (1994). Positive affect improves creative problem solving and influences reported source of practice satisfaction in physicians. Motivation and Emotion, 18, 285-299.
    連結:
  43. Eysenck, H. J. (1993). Creativity and Personality: Suggestions for a Theory. Psychological Inquiry, 4, 147-178.
    連結:
  44. Faust, M., & Mashal, N. (2007). The role of the right cerebral hemisphere in processing novel metaphoric expressions taken from poetry: A divided visual field study. Neuropsychologia, 45, 860-870.
    連結:
  45. Fodor, E., & Carver, R. (2000). Achievement and Power Motives, Performance Feedback, and Creativity. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 380-396.
    連結:
  46. Forgas, J. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological bulletin, 117, 39-66.
    連結:
  47. Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Idson, L. C. (1998). Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: Regulatory focus and the "goal looms larger" effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1115-1131.
    連結:
  48. Förster, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). How global vs. local processing fits regulatory focus. Psychological Science, 16, 631–636.
    連結:
  49. Förster, J., Friedman, R. S., & Liberman, N. (2004). Temporal construal effects on abstract and concrete thinking: Consequences for insight and creative cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 177–189.
    連結:
  50. Förster, J., Liberman, N., & Shapira, O. (2009). Preparing for novel versus familiar events: Shifts in global and local processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 383-399.
    連結:
  51. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300-319.
    連結:
  52. Fredrickson, B. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.
    連結:
  53. Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition & Emotion, 19, 313-332.
    連結:
  54. Friedman, R. S., & Förster, J. (2000). The Effects of Approach and Avoidance Motor Actions on the Elements of Creative Insight. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 79, 477-492.
    連結:
  55. Friedman, R. S., & Förster, J. (2001). The effects of promotion and prevention cues on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1001-1013.
    連結:
  56. Friedman, R. S., & Förster, J. (2002). The influence of approach and avoidance motor actions on creative cognition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 41–55.
    連結:
  57. Friedman, R. S., & Förster, J. (2005). The influence of approach and avoidance cues on attentional flexibility. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 69–81.
    連結:
  58. Friedman, R. S., Fishbach, A., Förster, J., & Werth, L. (2003). Attentional Priming Effects on Creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 277.
    連結:
  59. Friedman, R. S., Förster, J., & Denzler, M. (2007). Interactive Effects of Mood and Task Framing on Creative Generation. Creativity Research Journal, 19, 141-162.
    連結:
  60. Frijda, N. H. (1988). The laws of emotion. American Psychologist, 43, 349-358.
    連結:
  61. Frijda, N., Kuipers, P., & Ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212-228.
    連結:
  62. Gasper, K. (2003). When necessity is the mother of invention: Mood and problem solving. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 248–262.
    連結:
  63. Gasper, K. (2004). Permission to seek freely? the effect of happy and sad moods on generating old and new ideas. Creativity Research Journal, 16, 215-229.
    連結:
  64. Gasper, K., & Clore, G. (2002). Attending to the big picture: Mood and global versus local processing of visual information. Psychological Science, 13, 34-40.
    連結:
  65. George, J. M., & Zhou, J. (2002). Understanding when bad moods foster creativity and good ones don't: The role of context and clarity of feelings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 687-697.
    連結:
  66. Gerrards-Hesse, A., & Spies, K. (1994). Experimental inductions of emotional states and their effectiveness: A review. British Journal of Psychology, 85, 55-78.
    連結:
  67. Getz, I., & Lubart, T. (2000). An emotional-experiential perspective on creative symbolic-metaphorical processes. Consciousness & Emotion, 1, 283-312.
    連結:
  68. Gilhooly, K. J., & Murphy, P. (2005). Differentiating insight from non-insight problems. Thinking & Reasoning, 11, 279-302.
    連結:
  69. Gilhooly, K. J., Fioratou, E., Anthony, S. H., & Wynn, V. (2007). Divergent thinking: Strategies and executive involvement in generating novel uses for familiar objects. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 611-625.
    連結:
  70. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Bantam.
    連結:
  71. Goritz, A., & Moser, K. (2006). Web-based mood induction. Cognition & Emotion, 20, 887-896.
    連結:
  72. Gough, H. G. (1979). A creative personality scale for the adjective checklist. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1398–1405.
    連結:
  73. Grant, E. R., & Spivey, M. J. (2003). Eye movements and problem solving: Guiding attention guides thought. Psychological Science, 14, 462-466.
    連結:
  74. Grawitch, M. J., Munz, D. C., & Kramer, T. J. (2003). Effects of member mood states on creative performance in temporary workgroups. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 7, 41-54.
    連結:
  75. Grawitch, M. J., Munz, D. C., Elliott, E. K., & Mathis, A. (2003). Promoting creativity in temporary problem-solving groups: The effects of positive mood and autonomy in problem definition on idea-generating performance. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 7, 200-213.
    連結:
  76. Gray, J., & Braver, T. (2002). Personality predicts working-memory-related activation in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 2, 64-75.
    連結:
  77. Green, D., Goldman, S., & Salovey, P. (1993). Measurement error masks bipolarity in affect ratings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 1029-1041.
    連結:
  78. Greene, T., & Noice, H. (1988). Influence of positive affect upon creative thinking and problem solving in children. Psychological Reports, 63, 895-898.
    連結:
  79. Groborz, M., & Necka, E. (2003). Creativity and Cognitive Control: Explorations of Generation and Evaluation Skills. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 183-197.
    連結:
  80. Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotion elicitation using films. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 87-105.
    連結:
  81. Gruber, H. E., & Wallace, D. B. (1999). The case study method and evolving system approach for understanding unique creative people at w. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed), Handbook of Creativity (pp. 93-115). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  82. Guilford, J. P. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444–454.
    連結:
  83. Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    連結:
  84. Heller, W. (1993). Neuropsychological mechanisms of individual differences in emotion, personality, and arousal. Neuropsychology, 7, 476-476.
    連結:
  85. Heller, W., Nitschke, J., Etienne, M., & Miller, G. (1997). Patterns of regional brain activity differentiate types of anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 376-385.
    連結:
  86. Henriques, J. B., Glowacki, J. M., & Davidson, R. J. (1994). Reward fails to alter response bias in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 460-466.
    連結:
  87. Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280–1300.
    連結:
  88. Higgins, E. T. (2000). Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist, 55, 1217-1230.
    連結:
  89. Higgins, E. T. (2006). Value from hedonic experience and engagement. Psychological Review, 113, 439-460.
    連結:
  90. Higgins, E. T., Roney, C. J. R., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994). Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance distinct self-regulatory systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(2), 276-286.
    連結:
  91. Hirt, E. R., Devers, E. E., & McCrea, S. M. (2008). I want to be creative: Exploring the role of hedonic contingency theory in the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 214-230.
    連結:
  92. Hirt, E. R., Levine, G. M., McDonald, H. E., Melton, R. J., & Martin, L. L. (1997). The role of mood in quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance: Single or multiple mechanisms? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 602–629.
    連結:
  93. Hirt, E. R., Melton, R. J., McDonald, H. E., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Processing goals, task interest, and the mood-performance relationship: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 245-261.
    連結:
  94. Hocevar, D., & Bachelor, P. (1989). A taxonomy and critique of measurements used in the study of creativity. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 53–75). New York: Plenum Press.
    連結:
  95. Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Distinguishing gains from non-losses and losses from non-gains: A regulatory focus perspective on hedonic intensity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 252–274.
    連結:
  96. Isen, A. (2000). Some perspectives on positive affect and self-regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 184-187.
    連結:
  97. Isen, A. M., & Daubman, K. A. (1984). The influence of affect on categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1206-1217.
    連結:
  98. Isen, A. M., Johnson, M. M., Mertz, E., & Robinson, G. F. (1985). The influence of positive affect on the unusualness of word associations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1413-1426.
    連結:
  99. Isen, A. M., Niedenthal, P. M., & Cantor, N. (1992). An influence of positive affect on social categorization. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 65–78.
    連結:
  100. Isen, A.M. (1985). The asymmetry of happiness and sadness in effects on memory in normal college students. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 388-391.
    連結:
  101. James, K., Brodersen, M., & Jacob, E. (2004). Workplace affect and workplace creativity: A review and preliminary model. Human Performance, 17, 169–194.
    連結:
  102. Johnson, K. J., Waugh, C. E., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2010). Smile to see the forest: Facially expressed positive emotions broaden cognition. Cognition & Emotion, 24, 299-321.
    連結:
  103. Kaufmann, G., & Vosburg, S. K. (1997). “Paradoxical” mood effects on creative problem-solving. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 151–170.
    連結:
  104. Kavanagh, D. (1987). Mood, Persistence, and success. Australian Journal of Psychology, 39, 307-318.
    連結:
  105. Kershaw, T. C., & Ohlsson, S. (2004). Multiple causes of difficulty in insight: The case of the nine-dot problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30, 3-13.
    連結:
  106. Kleinginna, P. R., & Kleinginna, A. M. (1981). A categorized list of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 345–379.
    連結:
  107. Kuhl, J., & Kazén, M. (1999). Volitional facilitation of difficult intentions: Joint activation of intention memory and positive affect removes Stroop interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128, 382-399.
    連結:
  108. Lamm, H., & Trommsdorff, G. (1973). Group versus individual performance on tasks requiring ideational proficiency (brainstorming): A review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 361–388.
    連結:
  109. Lang, P. J., Greenwald, M. K., Bradley, M. M., & Hamm, A. O. (1993). Looking at pictures: Affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions. Psychophyiology, 30, 261-273.
    連結:
  110. LeDoux, J. (1995). Emotion: Clues from the brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 209-235.
    連結:
  111. Libkuman, T. M., Otani, H., Kern, R., Viger, S. G., & Novak, N. (2007). Multidimensional normative ratings for the International Affective Picture System. [Article]. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 326-334.
    連結:
  112. Luchins, A. (1942). Mechanization in problem solving: The effect of Einstellung. Psychological monographs, 54, 1-95.
    連結:
  113. Lubart, T. I., & Getz, I. (1997). Emotion, Metaphor, and the Creative Process. Creativity Research Journal, 10, 285.
    連結:
  114. Lumsden, C. J. (1999). Evolving Creative Minds: Stories and Mechanisms. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed), Handbook of Creativity (pp. 153-168). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  115. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success? Psychological bulletin, 131, 803-855.
    連結:
  116. MacGregor, J. N., Ormerod, T. C., & Chronicle, E. P. (2001). Information-processing and insight: A process model of performance on the nine-dot and related problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 27, 176-201.
    連結:
  117. Macrae, C., & Lewis, H. (2002). Do I know you? Processing orientation and face recognition. Psychological Science, 13, 194-196.
    連結:
  118. Madjar, N., & Oldham, G. R. (2002). Preliminary Tasks and Creative Performance on a Subsequent Task: Effects of Time on Preliminary Tasks and Amount of Information About the Subsequent Task. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 239-251.
    連結:
  119. Maier, N. R. F. (1931). Reasoning in humans: II. The solution of a problem and its appearance in consciousness. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 12, 181-194.
    連結:
  120. Martin, M. (1990). On the induction of mood. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 669-697.
    連結:
  121. Matlin, M. W., & Stang, D. (1979). The Polyanna Principle: Selectivity in language, memory, and thought. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
    連結:
  122. Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220-232.
    連結:
  123. Memmert, D. (2007). Can creativity be improved by an attention-broadening training program? An exploratory study focusing on team sports. Creativity Research Journal, 19, 281-291.
    連結:
  124. Monsell, S. (2003). Task switching. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 134-140.
    連結:
  125. Mumford, M. D. (2001). Something old, something new: Revisiting Guilford's conception of creative problem solving. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 267–276.
    連結:
  126. Mumford, M., & Gustafson, S. (1988). Creativity syndrome: Integration, application, and innovation. Psychological bulletin., 103, 27-43.
    連結:
  127. Mumford, M., & Whetzel, D. (1996). Insight, Creativity, and Cognition: On Sternberg and Davidson's The Nature of Insight. Creativity Research Journal, 9, 103-107.
    連結:
  128. Mumford, M., Mobley, M., Uhlman, C., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Doares, L. (1991). Process analytic models of creative capacities. Creativity Research Journal, 4, 91-122.
    連結:
  129. Murray, N., Sujan, H., Hirt, E. R., & Sujan, M. (1990). The influence of mood on categorization: A cognitive flexibility interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 411–425.
    連結:
  130. Murray, N., Sujan, H., Hirt, E., & Sujan, M. (1990). The influence of mood on categorization: A cognitive flexibility interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 411-425.
    連結:
  131. Navon, D. (1977). Forest before trees: The precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 353-383.
    連結:
  132. Osborn, A. F. 1953. Applied Imagination: Principles and Procedures of Creative Thinking. New York.
    連結:
  133. Park, J., & Banaji, M. (2000). Mood and Heuristics: The Influence of Happy and Sad States on Sensitivity and Bias in Stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 1005-1023.
    連結:
  134. Rietzschel, E., De Dreu, C., & Nijstad, B. (2007). Personal need for structure and creative performance: The moderating influence of fear of invalidity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 855-866.
    連結:
  135. Posner, J., Russell, J. A., & Peterson, B. S. (2005). The circumplex model of affect: an integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 715-734.
    連結:
  136. Posner, M. I. (1982). Cumulative development of attentional theory. American Psychologist, 37, 168-179.
    連結:
  137. Power, M. & Dalgleish, T. (1997). Cognition and emotion: from order to disorder. UK: Psychology Press.
    連結:
  138. Pronin, E., & Wegner, D. M. (2006). Manic Thinking: Independent Effects of Thought Speed and Thought Content on Mood. Psychological Science, 17, 807-813.
    連結:
  139. Root-Bernstein, B. & Bernstein, R. S. (2006). Imaginary worldplay in childhood and maturity and its impact on adult creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 405-425.
    連結:
  140. Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 206–221.
    連結:
  141. Rosch, E. (1975). Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 192-233.
    連結:
  142. Runco, M. A. (2007) Creativity: theories and themes: research, development, and practice. San Diego, CA, Academic Press.
    連結:
  143. Runco, M., & Chand, I. (1995). Cognition and creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 7, 243-267.
    連結:
  144. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161-1178.
    連結:
  145. Russell, J. A., & Barrett, L. F. (1999). Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 805-819.
    連結:
  146. Russell, J. A., & Fehr, B. (1994). Fuzzy concepts in a fuzzy hierarchy: Varieties of anger. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 186–205.
    連結:
  147. Russell, J.A., & Carroll, J.M. (1999). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychology Bulletin, 125, 3–30.
    連結:
  148. Schooler, J. W. (2002). Verbalization produces a transfer inappropriate processing shift. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 989–997.
    連結:
  149. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality, 45, 513-523.
    連結:
  150. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. (1996). Feelings and phenomenal experiences. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 433-465). New York: Guilford Press.
    連結:
  151. Sedikides, C. (1995). Central and peripheral self-conceptions are differentially influenced by mood: tests of the differential sensitivity hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 759-777.
    連結:
  152. Seibt, B., & Förster, J. (2004). Stereotype Threat and Performance: How Self-Stereotypes Influence Processing by Inducing Regulatory Foci. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 38-56.
    連結:
  153. Shalley, C., Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. (2004). The Effects of Personal and Contextual Characteristics on Creativity: Where Should We Go from Here? Journal of Management, 30, 933.
    連結:
  154. Showers, C. & Cantor, N. (1985). Social cognition: A look at motivated strategies. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 275-305.
    連結:
  155. Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Willse, J. T., Barona, C. M., Cram, J. T., Hess, K. I., et al. (2008). Assessing creativity with divergent thinking tasks: Exploring the reliability and validity of new subjective scoring methods. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 2, 68-85.
    連結:
  156. Simonton, D. K. (1997). Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks. Psychological Review, 104, 66–89.
    連結:
  157. Simonton, D. K. (2003). Scientific creativity as constrained stochastic behavior: The integration of product, person, and process perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 475–494.
    連結:
  158. Sinclair, R. (1988). Mood, categorization breadth, and performance appraisal: The effects of order of information acquisition and affective state on halo, accuracy, information retrieval, and evaluations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 42, 22-46.
    連結:
  159. Sinclair, R., & Mark, M. (1995). The effects of mood state on judgemental accuracy: Processing strategy as a mechanism. Cognition & Emotion, 9, 417-438.
    連結:
  160. Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 3–15). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  161. Sternberg, R., & Lubart, T. (1991). An investment theory of creativity and its development. Human development, 34, 1-31.
    連結:
  162. Strack, F., Schwarz, N., & Gschneidinger, E. (1985). Happiness and reminiscing: The role of time perspective, affect, and mode of thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1460–1469.
    連結:
  163. Strauss, H., Hadar, M., Shavit, H., & Itskowitz, R. (1981). Relationship between creativity, repression, and anxiety in first graders. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 275-282.
    連結:
  164. Siemer, M. (2008). Beyond prototypes and classical definitions: Evidence for a theory-based representation of emotion concepts. Cognition & Emotion, 22, 620-632.
    連結:
  165. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 813–838.
    連結:
  166. Tan, H. K., Jones, G. V., & Watson, D. G. (2009). Encouraging the perceptual underdog: Positive affective priming of nonpreferred local-global processes. Emotion, 9, 238-247.
    連結:
  167. Torrance, E. P. (1966). Torrance tests of creativity. Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press.
    連結:
  168. Unsworth, K. (2001). Unpacking creativity. Academy of Management Review, 26, 289-297.
    連結:
  169. Vartanian, O., Martindale, C., & Kwiatkowski, J. (2003). Creativity and inductive reasoning: The relationship between divergent thinking and performance on Wason's 2–4–6 task. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 56, 641-655.
    連結:
  170. Vartanian, O., & Vartanian. (2007). Creative potential, attention, and speed of information processing. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1470-1480.
    連結:
  171. Vartanian, O., Martindale, C., & Matthews, J. (2009). Divergent thinking ability is related to faster relatedness judgments. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3, 99-103.
    連結:
  172. Vandierendonck, A., & Christianens, E. (2008). On the representation of task information in task switching: Evidence from task and dimension switching. Memory & Cognition, 36, 1248-1261.
    連結:
  173. Velten, E. (1968). A laboratory task for induction of mood states. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 6, 473–482.
    連結:
  174. Wadlinger, H. A., & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2006). Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli. Motivation & Emotion, 30, 87-99.
    連結:
  175. Wallach, M., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children: A study of the creativity-intelligence distinction. Holt, Rinehart and Winston New York.
    連結:
  176. Wallach, M., & Wing, C. W. (1969). The talented student: A validation of the creativity-intelligence distinction. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
    連結:
  177. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1992). On traits and temperament: General and specific factors of emotional experience and their relation to the five-factor model. Journal of Personality, 60, 441–475.
    連結:
  178. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
    連結:
  179. Watson, D., Wiese, D., Vaidya, J., & Tellegen, A. (1999). The two general activation systems of affect: Struc tural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 820–838.
    連結:
  180. Weisberg, R. W., & Alba, J. W. (1981). An examination of the alleged role of “fi xation” in the solution of several “insight” problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 169-192.
    連結:
  181. Weisberg, R. (1994). Genius and madness? Psychological Science, 5, 361-367.
    連結:
  182. Westermann, R., Spies, K., Stahl, G., & Hesse, F. W. (1996). Relative effectiveness and validity of mood induction procedures: a meta- analysis. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 557-580.
    連結:
  183. Wertheimer, M. (1945). Productive thinking. New York: Harper & Row Press.
    連結:
  184. Westermann, R., Spies, K., Stahl, G., & Hesse, F. (1996). Relative effectiveness and validity of mood induction procedures: A meta-analysis. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 557-580.
    連結:
  185. Worth, L., & Mackie, D. (1987). Cognitive mediation of positive affect in persuasion. Social Cognition, 5, 76-94.
    連結:
  186. Yinon, Y., & Landau, M. O. (1987). On the reinfbrcing value of helping behavior in a positive mood. Motivation and Emotion, 11, 83-93.
    連結:
  187. Zenasni, F., Besancon, M., & Lubart, T. (2008). Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 42, 61-73.
    連結:
  188. 一、中文文獻
  189. 吳靜吉、陳甫彥、郭俊賢、林偉文、劉士豪、陳玉樺(1998)。新編創造思考測驗研究。教育部輔導工作六年計畫研究報告。
  190. 姚妃宴(2007)。軍事情境促發線索對創造力表現的影響。國防大學心理研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  191. 張旭中(2009)。作戰型態對創造力與批判性思考的影響以目標成功預期為調節變項。國防大學心理研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
  192. 張春興(1989)。張氏心理學辭典。台北,東華書局。
  193. 教育部(2002)。創造力教育政策白皮書。台北:教育部。
  194. 二、西文文獻
  195. Batson, C. D., Shaw, L. L., & Oleson, K. C. (1992). Differentiating affect, mood , and emotion: toward functional based conceptual distinctions. In Margaret S. Clark (Ed.), Emotion (pp. 294-325). Newbury Park: Sage.
  196. Berlyne, D. (1967). Arousal and reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts
  197. Berger, H. J. C., van Hoof, J. J. M., van Spaendonck, K. P. M., Horstink, M. W. I., van den Bercken, J. H. L., Jaspers, R., & Cools, A. R. (1989). Haloperidol and cognitive shifting. Neuropsychologia, 27, 629—639.
  198. Derryberry, D., & Tucker, D. M. (1994). Motivating the focus of attention. In P. M. Niedenthal & S. Kitayama (Eds.), Heart’s eye: Emotional influences in perception and attention (pp. 167–196). New York: Academic Press.
  199. Ekman, P. (1994). Moods, emotions and traits, in P. Ekman & R. J. Davidson (Eds), The nature of emotions: fundamental questions (pp. 56-58). Oxford University Press, New York.
  200. Eysenck, H. J. (1997). Creativity and personality. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Creativity research.handbook. Cresskill: Hampton Press.
  201. Eysenck, H. J. (2003). Creativity, personality, and the convergent-divergent continuum. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Critical creative processes (pp. 95–114). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
  202. Frijda, N. (1986). The emotions: New York: Cambridge University Press.
  203. Frijda, N. (1994). Varieties of affect: emotions and episodes, moods and sentiments, in P. Ekman & R. J. Davidson (eds), The nature of emotions: fundamental questions (pp. 59-67). Oxford University Press, New York.
  204. Frijda, N. H. (1993). Moods, emotion episodes, and emotions. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 381–403). New York: Guilford Press.
  205. Higgins, E. T. (2001). Promotion and prevention experiences: Relating emotions to nonemotional motivational states. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Handbook of affect and social cognition (pp. 186–211). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  206. Isen, A. M. (1984). Toward understanding the role of affect in cognition. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Shrull (Eds.), Handbook of Social Cognition B2 - Handbook of Social Cognition (Vol. 3, pp. 179-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  207. Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Gorgoglione, J. M. (1987). The influence of positive affect on cognition organization: Implications for education. In R. E. Snow & M. J. Farr (Eds), Conotative and affective process analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence.
  208. Izard, C., & Ackerman, B. (2000). Motivational, organizational, and regulatory functions of discrete emotions. Handbook of emotions, 2, 253-264.
  209. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology (Vols. 1&2). New York: Holt.
  210. Jellen, H., & Urban, K. (1985). Test For Creative Thinking-Drawing Production: Hannover.
  211. Koffka, K. (1935). Principles of Gestalt psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World Press.
  212. Kohler, W. (1927). The mentality of apes (2nd ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Press.
  213. Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Stephan, E. (2007). Psychological distance. In E. T. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
  214. Martin, L.L., & Stoner, P. (1996). Mood as input: What we think about how we feel determines how we think. In L. L. Marin & A. Tesser (Eds), Striving and feeling: Interactions among goals, affect, and self-regulation (pp. 279–301). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  215. Martin, L. L., & Clore, G. L. (2001). Theories of mood and cognition: A user’s guidebook. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  216. Martindale, C. (1981). Cognition and consciousness. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
  217. Martindale, C. (1990). Creative imagination and neural activity. The psychophysiology of mental imagery, 89-108.
  218. Martindale, C. (1995). Creativity and connectionism. The creative cognition approach, 249–268.
  219. Martindale, C. (1999). Biological Bases of Creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed), Handbook of Creativity (pp. 137-152). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  220. Mayer (1986). How mood influences cognition. In N. E. Sharkey (Ed.), Advances in Cognitive Science (pp. 290-314). Chechester, England: Ellis Horwood.
  221. Mikulincer, M., & Sheffi, E. (2000). Adult Attachment Style and Cognitive Reactions to Positive Affect: A Test of Mental Categorization and Creative Problem Solving. Motivation and Emotion, 24, 149-174.
  222. Ohlsson, S. (1984a). Restructuring revisited I: Summary and critique of the Gestalt theory of problem solving. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 25, 65–78.
  223. Ohlsson, S. (1984b). Restructuring revisited II: An information processing theory of restructuring and insight. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 25, 117–129.
  224. Ortony, A. (1993). Metaphor and thought (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  225. Parrott, W. G. (2001). Emotions in social psychology. Essential readings.Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
  226. Paulus, P. B., & Nijstad, B. A. (2003). Group creativity: Innovation through collaboration. New York: Oxford University Press.
  227. Runco, M. A. (2004). Personal creativity and culture. In S. Lau, A. N. N. Hui, & G. Y. C. Ng (Eds.), Creativity when East meets West (pp. 9-22). New Jersey: World Scientific.
  228. Runco, M., & Albert, R. (1986). The threshold theory regarding creativity and intelligence: An empirical test with gifted and nongifted children. Creative Child and Adult Quarterly, 11, 212-218.
  229. Saarni, C. (1999). Development of emotional competence. New York: Guilford Press.
  230. Sacharin, V. (2009). The Influence of Emotions on Cognitive Flexibility. Unpublished doctoral disseration, University of Michigan.
  231. Schooler, J. W., & Melcher, J. (1995). The ineffability of insight. In S.M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.), The creative cognition approach (pp. 97-133). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  232. Schwarz, N. (1990). Feelings as information: Informational and motivational functions of affective states. In E. T. Higgins & R. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behaviors (Vol. 2, pp. 527-561). New York: Guilford.
  233. Schwarz, N. (2001). Feelings as information: Implications for affective influences on information processing. In L. L. Martin & G. L. Clore (Eds.), Theories of Mood and Cognition: A Users Handbook(pp. 159-176). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
  234. Schwarz, N., & Bless, H. (1991). Happy and mindless, but sad and smart? The impact of affective states on analytic reasoning. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Emotion and social judgments (pp. 55–71). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.
  235. Shallice, T. (1988). From neuropsychology to mental structure. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  236. Singer, J. L. (1999). Imagination. In M. A. Runco & R. S. Albert (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Creativity, 13-14.
  237. Strongman, K. (1987). The psychology of emotion. New York: Wiley Press.
  238. Treffinger, D. J. (1987). Research on creativity assessment. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 103–119). Buffalo, NY: Bearly.
  239. West , M. A. & Farr, J. L. (Eds.) (1991). Innovation and creativity at work. Chichester: Wiley.
  240. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Emotion. Retrieved November, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion
Times Cited
  1. 許芳彬(2012)。想像思考測驗的發展。臺灣師範大學創造力發展碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-83。