Title

探討模型與建模對於學生原子概念學習之影響

Authors

劉俊庚

Key Words

原子 ; 模型 ; 建模 ; atom ; model ; modeling

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2011年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

邱美虹

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

模型(model)在科學理解上扮演非常重要的角色,它不僅作為科學現象的外在表徵,更是作為連結學校科學活動與真實科學之間的橋樑。本研究分為三個部分,首先,探討學生對於模型的認識與理解,以及學生如何利用模型來表徵所欲理解的現象、概念。其次,採取內容分析法對國、高中教科書「原子理論」單元進行分析,探究模型在我國教科書中所扮演的角色和功能,以及教科書是否具建模歷程的要素。最後,探討不同建模教學策略對於三組學生於原子概念學習之影響。研究結果顯示,彙整如下: 1. 8和9年級學生對於模型之定義,著重於模型是具體的事物,模型是物體的複製品。10和11年級學生對於模型之認識則已慢慢地轉變為著重於模型的功能,並且認為模型不再是實體的複製品,模型亦可如想法等抽象的形式。 2.學生對於模型認識之架構,分別是語意、本體論、認識論和方法論。語意部分為「實體關係」與「表徵形式」;本體論分為「模型呈現」、「變化關係」和「模型限制」;認識論分為「模型學習」與「模型觀點」;方法論則可分為「模型解釋與推理」和「模型檢驗與預測」。 3. 8年學生對於問題或現象所使用之模型與表徵系統主要以具體形式或示意圖為主,學生所使用之模型表徵以「形態相似性」為主;9年級學生除使用具體形式的模型外,亦開始使用如化學方程式或物理公式來描述現象。10和11年級學生則受到其化學背景知識的增加與概念理解,其使用模型表徵已經會考量模型與其目標系統之間的結構性關係,如抽象形式的化學方程式、物理公式,或關係圖等。 4.高中化學教科書完全符合良好模型特徵之比例偏低,顯示教科書內容以陳述科學事實為主,所使用模型著重於模型物件之呈現(完整性)(95.4%),實驗結果與理論運作之間的概念性解釋(概念性)(64.8%)與提供適當的圖像模型(具體性)(68.5%)則較為缺乏。 5.大部分高中化學教科書著重於描述原子理論內容介紹,「模型描述與選擇」和「模型建立」得分較高(93分,72.7%;106分,82.8%),至於「模型效化」與「模型分析與評估」得分較低(66分,51.6%;48分,37.5%)。 6.經過不同的教學活動後,類比建模組和電腦輔助建模組成績皆優於講述教學組,且原子概念問卷(II)後測亦達到統計上顯著差異(p = .027 < .05),此外,原子成就測驗達統計上顯著性差異(p = .000 < .005)。此外,三組學生於建模能力測驗之「模型選擇與描述」、「模型建立」、「模型分析與評估」和「平均建模能力」達統計之顯著差異(p = .047 < .05;p = .035 < .05;p = .027 < .05),惟「模型效化」、「模型調度」和「模型重建」等建模能力則未達統計上顯著之差異(p = .062 > .05;p = .135 > .05;p = .069 > .05)。 7.分析三組學生於「原子概念問卷(II)後測」與「建模能力測驗」之Kendall’s tau相關係數,講述教學組未達顯著相關,類比建模組與電腦輔助建模組達高相關,換言之,透過類比建模教學模式除可以能提升學生的概念理解外,亦可以提升學生的建模能力。 模型與建模在教學上扮演非常重要的角色。本研究認為建模能力是豐富科學學習的重要方式,另外,本研究亦主張模型與建模的了解亦將使學生發展後設認知的知識。

English Abstract

Models play an important role in the understanding of science. They are not only to explicitly use external representation to express abstract scientific concepts and phenomena in the world, but they also bridge a gap between school scientific activities and real science. In order to investigate this aspect of science education, this study has three parts. First, this study investigates students’ conception about the nature of model, and how to they use different models to represent the phenomena or their conception. Second, this study is to adapt content analysis method to evaluate the characteristics of model, structure of atomic theory, and modeling processes in the selected textbooks in Taiwan. Finally, this study is to investigate the effectiveness of different modeling teaching strategies for teaching the atomic conceptions. The analysis results are shown in the following seven parts: 1. For the definition of model, grade 8 and 9 students focus on models are the replicas of the specific things, and view as reality. Grade 10 and 11 students think model is not a reproduction, and can express ideas in abstract ways, such as conception. 2. The framework of students’ conception about model includes four perspectives: semantics, ontology, epistemology and methodology. In semantics, students’ conceptions were about models that can be divided into: relationship of reality and type of representation. In ontology, appearing, changing the relation, and confine model within certain limits. Epistemology has two parts: learn through models, and view of model. In methodology, students’ conceptions were about the functions of model: explanation and reasoning of model, examine and anticipation of model. 3. For question and phenomena, grade 8 students utilize model and representation which focus on the concrete type of model and diagram, student use the representation of model is similarity of shape. Grade 9 students not only utilize model and representation which also focus on the concrete type of model and diagram, but also can use chemical equation and physical formula to represent phenomena. Besides, Grade 10 and 11 students benefit from chemistry knowledge and conceptual understanding, and they will consider the structural relation between model and target system, such as chemical equation, physical formula, or relationship of diagram. 4. The proportion of chemical textbooks which conformed to characteristics of good model is very low, this result shows most textbooks present factual knowledge, and the utility of model focus on appearance of model (complete)(95.4%), and little focus on the conceptual explanation of experiment result and theory application (conceptual)(64.8%) , and provide model of diagram suitably (correct)(68.5%). 5. Most upper secondary chemistry textbooks contents emphasize atomic knowledge, and focus on model description and selection, and model construction (93 point, 72.7%;106 point, 82.8%), however, little on model validation and model analysis and evaluation (66 point, 51.6%;48 point, 37.5%) during the modeling processes were discussed. 6. After different instruction, analogy modeling group and computer assisted modeling group perform better than the control group, and the post test indicates that there is a significant difference between the research groups (p=.027 < .05). Besides, the result of achievement test of the atomic conception also indicates there is a significant difference between the research groups. Also modeling ability test indicates there is a significant difference between the research groups in model description and selection, model construct, model analysis and evaluation, average means of model ability scores (p = .047 < .05; p = .035 < .05; p = .027 < .05), however, no significant differences were observed between the research groups in model validation, model deployment, and model reconstruction (p = .062 > .05;p = .135 > .05;p = .069 > .05). 7. The results of Kendall’s tau correlation between the post test of questionnaire of atomic conceptions (II) and the test of modeling ability show the control group has no significant differences, and analogy modeling group and computer assisted modeling group have significant differences. In other words, not only can analogy modeling instruction and computer modeling instruction improve students’ understanding, but also they can improve students’ modeling ability. In sum, models and modeling has played an important role in teaching. Research suggests develop modeling ability are important ways of enhancing students’ learning science. Further we also argue that understanding of model and modeling enables students to develop metacognitive awareness of knowledge.

Topic Category 理學院 > 科學教育研究所
社會科學 > 教育學
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