Biomechanics Analysis of Basketball Jump Shot In New Three-Point Line
國際籃球規則 ； 新制三分線 ； 原地跳投 ； international basketball rules ； new three-point line ； jump-shot
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2010年10月1日起適用新國際籃球規則，將三分線由原本6.25公尺增加到6.75公尺。據相關媒體報導，國內SBL籃球比賽適用新三分線後，發生三分球命中率降低、出手次數減少的現象。教練、球員也紛紛表示長距離投籃確實難度增加了，而造成跳投動作的改變。故本研究的目的欲瞭解新制三分線的投籃特徵，新、舊三分線和罰球線跳投動作的運動學、動力學差異，以提供長距離投籃有利的資訊。本研究是以8名國立臺灣師範大學籃球代表隊公開男一級選手為對象，進行新、舊制三分線和罰球線三種不同距離跳投，並以10台Vicon紅外線攝影機(250Hz)、1台高速攝影機(125Hz)及1塊測力板(1000Hz)，同步收集籃球原地跳投準備動作到落地動作的運動學和動力學資料。統計方法為使用SPSS 19.0版本軟體進行統計分析，並以無母數弗里曼二因子等級變異數分析(Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks) 檢定相依相本不同距離跳投運動參數的差異顯著性(α=.05)和事後比較，再以皮爾遜積差相關(Pearson product-moment Correlation)計算新、舊制三分線運動參數的相關。結果：新、舊制三分線和罰球線跳投的運動參數比較，新、舊制三分線間沒有顯著差異存在，但新制三分線運動參數值有增加的傾向。新制三分線和罰球線運動參數比較則有達到顯著差異，其參數如下，出手球速，出手瞬間肩關節角速度，動作期肘、肩、髖關節最大角速度，起跳重心角度，出手重心速度，起跳瞬間水平速度，重心水平位移，最大地面反作用力。新制三分線跳投動作較為激烈，球員會增加出手球速，減少出手角度，減少起跳到出手的時間以迅速起跳，並加大上肢關節角速度及利用起跳重心速度來幫助投籃，故有減少出手高度和增加向前水平位移的現象。
It had been executed the new international basketball rules on October 1, 2010. The three-point line extended the distance from the original 6.25 meters to 6.75 meters. According to the press reported that the SBL basketball game adopted the new basketball rules and had caused reducing three-point shooting frequency in Taiwan. The coaches and the players had expressed that the long distance shooting is indeed more difficult and change jump-shot motion pattern. The purpose of this study is to know the kinematics and dynamics differences of the jump-shot motion in three-point line, old three-point line and free-throw line, which can provide the useful information. Methods: This study recruited eight Taiwan college basketball team players as the subjects to perform jump shot in three kinds of distance. We used ten Vicon infrared cameras (250Hz), one FASTEC high-speed camera (125Hz) and one Kistler force plate (1000Hz) to collect the basketball jump-shot movement from preparatory action to landing movement. By using SPSS 19.0 statistic software to calculate the Freeman two-way analysis of variance by ranks and Pearson product-moment correlation to compare the kinematics and kinetics variables among three jump shots. The significant level was at α = .05. Results: The motion parameters of jump-shot in the new, old three-point line and free-throw line were no significant differences, but the new three-point line motion parameters have a tendency toward greater value. There were significant differences between the new three-point line and free-throw line in the movement variables. Conclusion: There was a trend that the basketball players should reduce jump height and increasing the forward horizontal displacement when they executed the new three-point jump shot movement. We recommend that if the play wants to perform the jump-shot in the New Three-point Line, the players must increase the release velocity, reducing release angle, reducing the time from crouch to release, increasing the upper-limb joint angular velocity and the speed of take-off center of gravity to help shooting. Therefore, it has occurrence of reducing jump height and increasing the forward horizontal displacement.
社會科學 > 體育學