Effects of Science History Modeling Teaching on Students’ Concept of Heat Transfer and Modeling Ability via Concept Change
概念改變 ； 模型 ； 科學史建模 ； 熱傳播 ； concept change ； model ； science history modeling ； heat transfer
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本研究選取教科書在『熱傳播』單元所呈現的概念為課程內容與教材設計的準則，以『傳統教學』、『建模教學』和『科學史建模教學』為教學方式，探討不同教學法對學生學習熱傳播概念成效的影響。再者，基於『建模能力分析指標』(張志康與邱美虹，2009)，探討不同的教學方式對於學生建模能力的影響，更進一步探討不同的教學方式對學生建模能力和概念改變之間的交互作用關係的影響。最後，探討不同教學方式對學生科學模型本質的影響。 本研究對象為國小五年級學生共84位，所使用的研究工具包含熱傳播概念二階層診斷式紙筆測驗前測、後測和延宕測驗，熱傳播建模能力試卷前測、後測和延宕測驗以及科學模型本質測驗前測和後測。本研究的結果如下： 一、『科學史建模教學』和『建模教學』在整體教學成效和3週後科學概念保留的情形都明顯優於對照組。更進一步針對熱傳播各概念的學習成效分析，發現『科學史建模教學』只在延宕測的微觀向度明顯優於『建模教學』。 二、熱傳播的科學模型是由熱傳導科學模型、熱對流科學模型以及熱輻射科學模型所組成。熱傳導科學模型在範圍和成分兩個面向較易學習，其次是結構面向，接下來是巨觀行為面向；熱對流是在成分和巨觀行為兩個面向較易學習，其次是結構面向，接下來是範圍面向；熱輻射則是在巨觀行為面向較易學習，其次是成分面向，接下來是範圍面向，三個子概念中最難的都是微觀行為面向，學生不易改變迷思概念，概念回歸的情形也容易發生。 三、『科學史建模教學』和『建模教學』在熱傳播建模能力和3周後建模能力保留的情形都明顯優於對照組。更進一步針對各建模步驟的建模能力進行分析，發現在模型效化和模型應用中，『科學史建模組』明顯優於『建模教學』。 四、科學史建模組和建模組在後測以及延宕測的熱傳播概念和熱傳播建模能力都達顯著正相關，但對照組僅在後測有相關性。更進一步進行分析，發現唯有『模型建立』的建模能力在後測以及延宕測都與熱傳播概念有顯著相關。 五、『科學史建模教學』和『建模教學』對科學模型本質的表現都明顯優於對照組。更進一步針對科學模型本質的三面向進行分析，發現『科學史建模組』只有在科學模型方法論的『情境』主題中明顯優於『建模教學』。 綜上所述，建模教學可以幫助學生理解科學概念、建立科學模型，也可以提升建模能力和增進對科學模型本質的認識；若在建模教學中加入科學史的教材，更可幫助學生保留在概念的微觀行為向度了解、增進模型效化和模型應用的能力以及科學模型本質的方法論中『情境』主題的認識，本研究旨在探討國民小學實施建模教學及科學史建模教學之可行性，以供其他地區或學校未來在建構相關課程時之參考。
In the research, the concept of heat transfer in textbooks was adopted as a guideline for curriculum content and instructional design.To explore the effects of different instructional methods on students’ learning of the concept of heat transfer, control group, modeling teaching and science history modeling teaching were used.Moreover, according to Modeling Ability Analytic Index(Chang & Chiu, 2009), the author of the thesis examined the influences of different instructional methods on students’ modeling ability.Then, the author made a further exploration of the influence of the interactions between students’ modeling ability and concept change.In the end, the author delved into the impact of different instructional methods on students’ understanding of the nature of science models. The research subjects were 84 5th graders.The research tools included the pretest, posttest and retention test of two-tier multiple choice instrument of heat transfer and those of heat transfer modeling ability test and the pretest and posttest of nature of science model text. The objective of this thesis was to inquire into the feasibility of the use of modeling teaching and science history modeling teaching in elementary schools so as to serve as a reference for the future construction of correlated curricula in other areas or schools.The research results were as follows. 1. Science history modeling teaching and modeling teaching were obviously better than the control group in terms of the overall teaching effects and the science concept retention after three weeks.After the enquiry of the learning effect of each heat transfer concept, the author discovered that science history modeling teaching was better than modeling teaching in the micro behavior dimension of retention tests. 2. The science models of heat transfer were comprised of the ones of conduction, convection and radiation.The ideas in the domain and composition dimensions of the science model of conduction were the easiest to learn.Those in the structure dimension were the second easiest to learn.The ideas in the macro behavior dimension of the science model of conduction were the hardest to learn. In terms of the science model of convection, the ideas in the composition and macro behavior dimensions were the easiest to learn. Those in the structure dimension were the second easiest to learn. The hardest to learn was those in the domain dimension.As for the science model of radiation, the easiest to learn was those in the macro behavior dimension; the second easiest, the composition dimension; the hardest, the domain dimension.Of the three sub-concepts, the hardest one to understand was the ideas about the micro behavior dimension, in which it was hard for the students to change their false beliefs and the phenomenon of conceptual regression was common is this dimension. 3. Science history modeling teaching and modeling teaching were clearly better than the control group in terms of the heat transfer modeling ability and the modeling ability retention after three weeks.After the inquiry of the modeling ability of each modeling process, the author discovered that science history modeling was far better than modeling teaching in the model validation and model application. 4. There was a significant and positive correlation between the concepts of heat transfer and heat transfer modeling ability in the posttests and retention tests of the science history modeling teaching and modeling teaching.However, in the control group, only in posttests was there a significant and positive correlation between the concepts of heat transfer and heat transfer modeling ability.After making a further study, the author found that there was a significant and positive correlation between the modeling ability of model construction and the concept of heat transfer in posttests and retention tests. 5. In terms of the effects of the nature of science models, the science history modeling teaching and modeling teaching were considerably better than the control group. After a further examination of the three dimensions of the nature of science models, the author discovered that the science history modeling was only significantly better than modeling teaching in the topic of context in science model epistemology. According the abovementioned findings, modeling teaching helps students comprehend science concepts, construct science models, improve modeling ability and better understand the nature of science models.If the materials of science history can be added to modeling teaching, students will better comprehend the concepts in micro behavior dimension, increase the abilities of model validation and model application and understand the topic of context in science model epistemology.
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