Title

從Kearney世界觀理論與Vosniadou架構理論探討科學概念的學習與發展—不同尺度地球科學主題之個案研究

Translated Titles

From Kearney’s Worldview Theory and Vosniadou’s Framework Theory to Investigate the Learning and Development of Scientific Concepts – The Case Study of Geo-scientific Topics with Different Scales

Authors

林秀蓁

Key Words

世界觀 ; 架構理論 ; 地球科學 ; 概念 ; Worldview ; Framework Theory ; Geo-science ; Conception

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2004年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

邱美虹博士

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究目的在於探究不同年齡層個體對於晝夜變化、季節變化、地震與颱風四個不同尺度特性的地球科學現象所形成之預設、信念與心智模式,以及此三者之間的關係。利用修正後的Kearney世界觀理論中之「主體」、「客體」、「分類」、「關係」、「因果」、「空間」與「時間」七個共相組將Vosniadou架構理論中的本體論與認識論兩個向度擴展而成十四個預設向度,形成新的架構理論作為本研究的理論基礎。基於立意取樣與便利取樣,挑選台北市中心學校學習成就良好的學生作為研究對象,並根據現行學校地球科學相關課程的安排為基準,以尚未深入接觸地球科學的國小二年級、已接受完整自然科學之國中一年級、剛完成國三與高一地球科學課程的高一、接受完整國高中地球科學但已數年未再於學校正式課程中接受地球科學教育的物理與化學研究所四個年齡層為研究標的,每個年齡層16位學生,男女各半,合計64位受試者。本研究採取一對一半結構式晤談,晤談題目為研究者自行針對四個主題的預設、信念與心智模式而設計並經專家效度檢驗,每位受試者的晤談時間約為一小時,並提供模型(如積木、球等)及紙筆,全程錄音錄影。根據受試者的口語、繪圖及肢體表達資料,進行分析。 研究結果顯示,心智模式類型、信念與預設內容之分佈情形,皆存在主題與年齡上的差異。首先,在心智模式部分,前兩個「晝夜變化」與「季節變化」主題,受試者所持有的心智模種類較多,且屬於科學的心智模式比例較高;後兩個「地震」與「颱風」主題,則心智模式種類較少,且屬於科學的心智模式比例較低。隨著年齡增長,心智模式類型愈趨一致,且愈往科學的心智模式類型集中。其次,在信念部分,受到預設以及生活經驗豐厚度不同的影響,不同年齡所形成的信念也有所不同,其信任的出處也由權威人事物轉向證據。最後,在預設部分,隨著年齡的增長,受試者趨向於從主觀的角度轉為客觀的立場,對於外在事物的想法,不僅受知覺經驗的影響,科學定理也在個體的思維判斷上扮演著極為重要的角色。對於不同尺度特性的科學主題,影響其心智模式的預設向度也有所不同;然而,對於本研究的四個地球科學主題而言,「分類」、「因果」與「空間」三個預設共相組內涵皆具關鍵角色。未來科學教育應重視預設對於科學概念學習之影響,並針對不同特性的科學主題設計合宜的教學,而大眾傳播媒體更是潛移默化的教學管道;此外,在教科書的編撰上,也應考量圖表與專有名詞引介的方式,以利學生之科學學習。

English Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine different aged individual’s presuppositions, beliefs, mental models and the relationship among them to four geo-scientific topics with different scale features, including day/night cycle, season variation, earthquake and typhoon. Using Kearney’s seven universals “Self”, “NonSelf”, “Classification”, “Relationship”, “Causality”, “Space” and “Time” in his worldview theory to expand the original Vosniadou’s framework theory of ontology and epistemology to a new framework theory with fourteen-aspect presuppositions as the foundation of this study. High-achievement students were selected from Taipei County as research subjects for intended and convenient sampling. Taking the present geo-scientific curriculum as criteria, the researcher chose the 2nd graders receiving no formal geo-scientific training, the 7th graders completing basic elementary geo-scientific training, the 10th graders completing junior and senior high level’s, and graduate students with physics and chemistry majors. There were sixteen students from each level, eight males and eight females. In total, there were sixty-four students involved in this study. The researcher conducted one-to-one and semi-structural interview, in which each question was designed with the presuppositions, beliefs and mental models of four topics, and had been validated. Each student had been interviewed for one hour and been offered models (i.e. blocks, balls), pens and paper. The whole process was recorded, including the sound and the motion. In the end, the whole data including the protocols, the paintings, and the body motions were analyzed. The result revealed that there were differences in the distributions of mental models, beliefs and presuppositions in various topics and ages. First, for mental models, the students had more types of mental models and larger proportion of scientific mental models in the topics of day/night cycle and season variation. There were few kinds of mental models in earthquake and typhoon topics, and the proportion of scientific mental models in these parts was also small. Second, for beliefs, influenced by the density of presuppositions and living experiences, there were different beliefs formed by different ages of people. Furthermore, the source of trust changed from authority to evidences as the grades increased. Lastly, for presuppositions, as the growing of age, students tended to think less subjectively and more objectively. The concepts of external factors were affected by not only perceptual experiences but also scientific theories. Besides, the universals influence differently in beliefs and mental models in scientific topics with different scale features. Nevertheless, the universals of classification, causality and space played as the key roles in this study. In the future, it was recommended that science educators should pay more attention to the effects of presuppositions and beliefs on learning of scientific concepts, and design effective instructional strategies aimed at scientific topics with different scale features. In addition, we should take mass medium more seriously because of their unobtrusively and imperceptible influences. Finally, it’s necessary for editors of textbooks to provide valid graphs, tables and proper nouns to alleviate students’ learning.

Topic Category 理學院 > 科學教育研究所
社會科學 > 教育學
Reference
  1. 王亦欣(2003):探討國二學生閱讀漫畫表徵的文本對地球科學概念學習的影響—以天文和溫室效應為例。國立臺灣師範科學教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)
    連結:
  2. 林靜雯(2000):由概念改變及心智模式初探多重類比對國小四年級學生電學概念學習之影響。國立臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
    連結:
  3. 邱美虹(2000):概念改變研究的省思與啟示。科學教育學刊,8卷,1期,1-34頁。
    連結:
  4. 邱美虹和林秀蓁(2004):以CHILDES分析一對一科學教學活動中師生互動共建科學知識的行為表現。科學教育學刊,12卷,2期,133-158頁。
    連結:
  5. 邱顯博(2002):國二、國三學生的擴散作用概念與概念改變之研究。國立臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
    連結:
  6. 許瑛玿、謝惠珠、鄒治華和張俊彥(2002):調查臺灣地區國中學生颱風概念理解的現況。科學教育月刊,255期,2-11頁。
    連結:
  7. 傅麗玉(1999):新竹縣國民中小學自然科學教師及非自然科學教師之世界觀(World View)研究。科學教育學刊,第七卷,第二期,177-198頁。
    連結:
  8. 劉貞譯(1998):地球實驗室(S. H. Schneider原著)。台北:天下遠見出版。
    連結:
  9. 蔡聰暉(2001):由心智模式探討學生導引之類比教學對國二學生溫度與熱概念學習之研究。國立臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
    連結:
  10. Aikenhead, G. S. (1996). Science education: border crossing into the subculture of science. Studies in Science Education, 27, 1-52.
    連結:
  11. Aikenhead, G. S. (1997). Toward a first nations cross-cultural science and technology curriculum. Science Education, 81, 217-238.
    連結:
  12. Aikenhead, G. S. (2001). Students' ease in crossing cultural boarders into school science. Science Education, 85(2), 180-188.
    連結:
  13. Anderson, J. R., & Bower, G. H. (1973). Human Associative Memory. Washington, DC: V. H. Winston.
    連結:
  14. Angeles, P. A. (1992). The HarperCollins Dictionary of Philosophy: HarperCollins.
    連結:
  15. Baldwin, J. M. (Ed.). (1998). Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (Vol. 2). Bristol: Thoemmes Press.
    連結:
  16. Bliss, J. (1995). Piaget and after: The case of learning science. Studies in Science Education, 25, 139-172.
    連結:
  17. Buckley, B. C. (1995). A Case of Intentional Model-based Learning. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
    連結:
  18. Buckley, B. C., & Boulter, C. J. (2000). Investigating the role of representations and expressed models in building mental models. In C. J. Boulter (Ed.), Developing Models in Science Education (pp. 119-135). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
    連結:
  19. Chi, M. T. H. (1992). Conceptual change within and across ontological categories: implications for learning and discovery in sciences. In R. Giere (Ed.), Cognitive Models of Science: Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science (pp. 129-186). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    連結:
  20. Chi, M. T. H. (1997). Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: A Practical Guide. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6(3), 271-315.
    連結:
  21. Chinn, C. A., & Brewer, W. F. (1993). The role of anomalous data in knowledge acquisition: A theoretical framework and implications for science education. Review of Educational Research, 4, 27-43.
    連結:
  22. Clement, J. (1998). Expert novice similarities and instruction using analogies. International Journal of Science Education, 20(10), 1271-1286.
    連結:
  23. Cobern, W. W. (1988). The integration of faith and science learning. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 40(2), 98-100.
    連結:
  24. Cobern, W. W. (1991). World View Theory and Science Education Research. Manhattan, KA: The National Association for Research in Science Teaching.
    連結:
  25. Cobern, W. W. (1993a). College students' conceptualizations of nature: An interpretive world view analysis. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30(8), 935-951.
    連結:
  26. Cobern, W. W. (1996). Worldview theory and conceptual change in science education. Science Education, 80(5), 579-610.
    連結:
  27. Costa, V. B. (1995). When science is "another world": relationships between worlds of family, friends, school, and science. Science Education, 79, 313-333.
    連結:
  28. deKleer, J., & Brown, J. S. (1983). Assumptions and ambiguities in mechanistic mental models. In A. L. Stevens (Ed.), Mental Models (pp. 155-190). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    連結:
  29. ESSC. (1986). Earth System Science. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
    連結:
  30. Fensham, P., Gunstone, R., & White, R. (1994). Science content and constructivist views of learning and teaching. In R. White (Ed.), The Content of Science - A Coonstructivist Approach to Its Teaching and Learning (pp. 131-146). London: The Falmer Press.
    連結:
  31. Fourez, G. (1988). Ideologies and science teaching. Bulletin of Science, Technology, and Society, 8, 269-277.
    連結:
  32. Gentner, D. (1983). A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7, 155-170.
    連結:
  33. Hall, E. T. (1959). The Silent Language. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    連結:
  34. Harris, M., Fontana, A., & Dowds, B. N. (1977). The world hypothesis scale: Rationale, reliability and validity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 537-547.
    連結:
  35. Hennessy, S. (1993). Situated cognition and apprenticeship: Implications for classroom learning. Studies in Science Education, 22, 1-41.
    連結:
  36. Hewson, M. G. A. B., & Hamlyn, D. (1985). Cultural metaphors: Some implications for science education. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 16, 31-46.
    連結:
  37. Jegede, O. J. (1995). Collateral learning and the eco-cultural paradigm in science and mathematics education in Africa. Studies in Science Education, 25, 97-137.
    連結:
  38. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1981). Mental models of meaning. In I. A. Sag (Ed.), Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  39. Jones, W. T. (1972). World views: Their nature and their function. Current Anthropology, 13, 79-109.
    連結:
  40. Keil, F. C. (1979). Semantic and Conceptual Development - An Ontological Perspective. MA: Harvard University Press.
    連結:
  41. Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolution (2 ed. Vol. 2). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    連結:
  42. Leach, E. R. (1966). Rethinking Anthropology. New York: Humanities.
    連結:
  43. Levin, S. A. (1992). The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology, 73, 1943-1967.
    連結:
  44. MacWhinney, B. (2000). The CHILDES Project: Tools for Analyzing Talk (Third ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    連結:
  45. MacWhinney, B., & Snow, C. (1985). The child language data exchange system. Journal of Child Language, 12, 271-296.
    連結:
  46. Mauss, M., & Beuchat, H. (1906). Essai sur les variations saisonnieres des societes eskimos: stude de morphologie sociale. L'Annee Sociologique, 9, 39-132.
    連結:
  47. Ogawa, M. (1995). Science education in a multiscience perspective. Science Education, 79(5), 583-593.
    連結:
  48. Ogunniyi, M. B., Jegede, O. J., Ogawa, M., Yandila, C. D., & Oladele, F. K. (1995). Nature of worldview presuppositions among science teachers in Botswana, Indonesia, Japan, Nigeria, and the Philippines. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(8), 817-831.
    連結:
  49. Osborne, R. J., & Gilbert, J. K. (1980). A technique for exploring students' views of the world. Physics Education, 15, 376-379.
    連結:
  50. Pepper, S. C. (1942). World Hypotheses: A Case Study in Evidence. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    連結:
  51. Phelan, P., Davidson, A., & Cao, H. (1991). Students' multiple worlds: Negotiating the boundary of family, peer, and school cultures. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 22, 224-250.
    連結:
  52. Popper, K. R. (1968). The Logic of Scientific Discovery (2 ed.). New York, NY: Harper Torchbook.
    連結:
  53. Proper, H., Wideen, M. F., & Ivany, G. (1988). World view projected by science teacher: a study of classroom dialogue. Science Education, 72(5), 547-560.
    連結:
  54. Redfield, R. (1952). The primitive world view. American Philosophical Society, Proceedings, 96, 30-36.
    連結:
  55. Rouse, W. B., & Morris, N. M. (1986). On looking into the black box: Prospects and limits in the search of mental models. Psychological Bulletin, 100(3), 349-363.
    連結:
  56. Traugott, E. C. (1975). Special expressions of tense and temporal sequencing: A contribution to the study of semantic fields. Semiotica, 15, 207-230.
    連結:
  57. Trumper, R. (2001). A cross-age study of junior high school student' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts. International Journal of Science Education, 23(11), 1111-1123.
    連結:
  58. Tyson, L. M., Venville, G. J., Harrison, A. G., & Treagust, D. F. (1997). A multidimensional framework for interpreting conceptual change events in the classroom. Science Education, 81, 387-404.
    連結:
  59. Vosniadou, S. (1989). On the Nature of Children's Naive Knowledge. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ.
    連結:
  60. Vosniadou, S. (1994a). Capturing and modeling the process of conceptual change. Learning and Instruction, 4, 45-69.
    連結:
  61. Vosniadou, S. (1994b). Universal and culture-specific properties of children's mental models of the earth. In S. A. Gelman (Ed.), Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture (pp. 412-430). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  62. Vosniadou, S. (2001). Designing learnign environments to conceptual change in science. Learning and Instruction, 11(4-5), 381-419.
    連結:
  63. Vosniadou, S., & Brewer, W. F. (1992). Mental models of the earth: a study of conceptual change in childhood. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 535-585.
    連結:
  64. Vosniadou, S., & Ioannides, C. (1998). From conceptual development to science education: a psychological point of view. Intnational Journal of Science Education, 20(10), 1213-1230.
    連結:
  65. Wallace, A. F. C. (1970). Culture and Personality (second ed.). New York: Random House.
    連結:
  66. Wolcott, H. F. (1992). Posturing in qualitative inquiry. In M. D. LeCompte (Ed.), The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education. New York: Academic Press.
    連結:
  67. Wubbels, T. (1992). Taking account of student teachers' preconceptions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 8, 137-149.
    連結:
  68. 王夕堯(2000):科學與人文的對話參考手冊。http://pei.cjjh.tc.edu.tw/sci-edu/edu_3_12_4.htm。
  69. 丘宏義譯(2000):物理與頭腦相遇的地方(K. C. Cole原著)。台北:天下文化出版。
  70. 何穎怡譯(2002):天真的人類學家之重返多瓦悠蘭(N. Barley原著)。台北:商周出版。
  71. 吳育雅(1995):合作學習對高一學生科學知識學習的影響。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  72. 杜默譯(2001):開始(E. Laszlo原著)。台北:大塊文化。
  73. 林秀蓁(2002):台北市國高中學生的世界觀傾向之研究。論文發表於第十八屆科學教育學術研討會(未出版)。彰化:國立彰化師範大學。
  74. 侯政宏(1996):探究式教學法與講述式教學在國中地球科學「太陽視運動」單元中學生學習成就之比較。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  75. 姜滿(1990):台南師院輔導區國小地球科學教師意見調查研究。初等教育學報,3期,557-577頁。
  76. 姜滿(1997):國小學童地球運動之想法與概念改變歷程。臺南師範學報,30期,217-243頁。
  77. 段德智、尹大貽和金常政譯(2000):哲學辭典(P. A. Angeles原著)。台北:貓頭鷹出版。
  78. 唐國詩(1996):探究式教學法與講述式教學在國中地球科學「星象」單元中學生學習成就之比較。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  79. 張恭啟和于嘉雲譯(1989):人類學緒論(R. Keesing原著)。台北:巨流。
  80. 莊福泰(1995):國民中小學學生地球形狀概念之研究。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  81. 郭純慧(2001):國小學童地震與地球內部構造之另有概念研究。國立臺中師範學院自然科學教育就所碩士論文(未出版)。
  82. 陳向明(2000):質的研究方法與社會科學研究。北京:教育科學出版社。
  83. 陳政瑜(1994):由球體透視概念探討學生學習「月相」之困難。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  84. 陳英嫻(1994):不同學習模式對學生學習「月相盈虧」之探討。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  85. 陳斐卿、蔡義本和魏延超(1998):我國高中地球科學教學的現況與應用網際網路輔助教學的展望。科學教育月刊,214期,2-15頁。
  86. 黃明豐(2002):國小高年級學童地震迷思概念之研究。國立嘉義大學國民教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
  87. 臺灣省國民學校教師研習會(1988):台北市國民小學自然科學教學現況及改進途徑之研究。台北:台北市教師研習中心。
  88. 齊祿祥(1995):兒童的宇宙觀與古代宇宙觀之異同比較研究。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  89. 劉小菁譯(2002):故事與心裡治療(H. T. Close原著)。台北:張老師出版社。
  90. 蔣嘉得(1995):台北地區國中三年級學生解釋資料過程技能與太陽是運動概念之相關分析研究。國立臺灣師範地球科學研究所科學教育組碩士論文(未出版)。
  91. 盧靖華(2003):國三學生地球科學「天氣」單元迷思概念之研究。國立彰化師範大學科學教育研究所在職進修專班碩士論文(未出版)。
  92. Bertolet, R. (1995). Presupposition. In R. Audi (Ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (pp. 641-643). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  93. Bertolet, R. (1999). Presupposition. In R. Audi (Ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2ed ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  94. Brewer, W. F., & Nakamura, G. V. (1984). The nature and fuctions of schemas. In T. K. Srull (Ed.), Handbook of Social Cognition (pp. 154-172). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  95. Bruer, J. T. (1998). Education. In G. Graham (Ed.), A Companion to Cognitive Science (pp. 681-690). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
  96. Buckley, B. C. (1992). Multimedia, Misconceptions and Working Models of Biological Phenomena: Learning about the Circulatory System. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
  97. Butchvarov, P. (1999). Metaphysics. In R. Audi (Ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  98. Cobern, W. W. (1989). Worldview theory and scientific education research: Fundamental epistemological structure as a critical factor in science learning and attitude development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Francisco.
  99. Cobern, W. W. (1993b). Contextual constructivisms: the impact of culture on the learning and teaching of science. In K. G. Tobin (Ed.), The Practice of Constructivism in Science Education (pp. 51-69). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  100. Cobern, W. W. (1997). Distinguishing science-related variations in the causal universal of college students' worldviews. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 1(3), .
  101. Cobern, W. W. (1998). Science and a social constructivist view of science education. In W. W. Cobern (Ed.), Socio-cultural Perspectives on Science Education - An International Dialogue (pp. 7-23). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  102. Cobern, W. W. (2000). Everyday Thought about Nature (Vol. 9). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publisher.
  103. Collingwood, R. G. (1940). An Essay on Metaphysics. London: Oxford University Press.
  104. Craig, E. (1998). Ontology. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Vol. 7, pp. 117-118). New York: Routledge.
  105. deKleer, J., & Brown, J. S. (1981). Mental models of physical mechanisms and their acquisition. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive Skills and Their Acquisition (pp. 285-309). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  106. Dowds, B. N., & Marcel, B. B. (1998). Students' philosophical assumptions and psychology in the classroom. Journal of Nursing Education, 37(5), 219-221.
  107. Duit, R. (1993). Research on Students' Conceptions - Developments and Trends. Paper presented at the Preceding of the Third International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational strategies in Science and Mathematics Education, Ithaca, NY.
  108. Dunbar, K. (1998). Problem solving. In G. Graham (Ed.), A Companion to Cognitive Science (pp. 289-298). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
  109. Gelman, R. (1991). Epigenetic foundation of knowledge structures: Initial and transcendent constructions. In R. Gelman (Ed.), The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays on Biology and Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  110. Gentner, D., & Stevens, A. L. (Eds.). (1983). Mental Models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  111. Gutheil, G., Vera, A., & Keil, F. C. (1998). Do houseflies think? Patterns of induction and biological beliefs in development. Cognition, 66, 33-49.
  112. Harre, R. (1986). Varieties of Realism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  113. Hewson, P. W., & Lemberger, J. (2000). Status as the hallmark of conceptual learning. In J. Osborne (Ed.), Improving Science Education: The Contribution of Research (pp. 110-125). Buckingham: Open University Press.
  114. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental Models. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  115. Kearney, M. (1984). World view. Novato, CA: Chandler & Sharp Publishers, Inc.
  116. Keesing, R. M. (1976). Cultural Anthropology - A Contemporary Perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  117. Klein, P. D. (1998). Epistemology. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Routledge.
  118. Kluckhohn, F., & Strodtbeck, F. (1961). Variations in Value Orientations. Evanston: Row, Peterson.
  119. Kosslyn, S. M. (1980). Image and Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  120. Lakatos, I. (1989). Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In G. Currie (Ed.), The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes (2 ed., Vol. 1, pp. 250). Cambridge: Cambridge Univrsity Press.
  121. Layton, D., Jenkins, E., & Macgill, S. (1993). Inarticulate Science? Perspectives on the Public Understanding of Science and Some Implication for Science Education. Driffield, East Yorkshire, UK: Studies in Education.
  122. Lemke, J. L. (1998). Analysing verbal data: Principles, methods and problems. In K. G. Tobin (Ed.), International Handbook of Science Education (pp. 1175-1189). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
  123. Makkreel, R. A. (1999). Dilthey, Wilhelm. In R. Audi (Ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2ed ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  124. Mathews, L. (1980). China: Where history in never dead. Los Angeles Times, Sept.(7).
  125. Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case Study Research in Education: A Qualitative Approach. SF: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  126. Moser, P. K. (1999). Epistemology. In R. Audi (Ed.), The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  127. Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  128. Norman, D. A. (1983). Some observations on mental models. In A. L. Stevens (Ed.), Mental Models. Hildale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  129. Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
  130. Roberts, C. (1999). Presupposition. In R. A. Wilson & F. C. Keil (Eds.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. MA: The MIT Press.
  131. Rumelhart, D. E. (1980). Schmata: The building blocks of cognition. In W. F. Brewer (Ed.), Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension (pp. 33-58). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  132. Rumfitt, I. (1998). Presupposition. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Vol. 7, pp. 672-675). New York: Routledge.
  133. Schneps, M. (1987). The Private Universe. Wolbacti image processing laboratory, by Harvard University and Smithsonian Institution, MCML XXXIX: President and Fellows of Harvard College.
  134. Spelke, S. E. (1991). Physical knowledge in infancy: reflections on Piaget's theory. In R. Gelman (Ed.), The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays on Biology and Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  135. Talor, P. C. S., Tobin, K. G., & Cobern, W. W. (1994). The classroom as a sociocultural site: Toward more insightful understandings of ways of knowing and acting. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Anahein, CA.
  136. Vosniadou, S. (1991). Conceptual development in astronomy. In B. Brotton (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning Science. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  137. Young, M. F. D. (1976). The schooling of science. In G. Whitty & M. F. D. Young (Eds.), Explorations in the Politics of School Knowledge. Driffield, UK: Nafferton Books.
Times Cited
  1. 吳百興(2008)。八年級原住民學生在設計導向活動的科學學習:以族群認同、對科學的態度、力學概念與過程技能四面向進行探討。臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文。2008。1-197。