精熟學習 ； 概念形成 ； 概念改變 ； mastery learning ； concept formation ； conceptual change
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摘要 為了克服學生在學習自然科學時面臨的困難－缺乏基礎， 並增進科學概念學習的效果，本研究之目的為探究：如何由教材 內容中挑選出「精要」的部分概念和知識，同時發展使概念穩固 的「精熟學習」策略，並以台北市某市立國中二年級學生為研究 對象，研究在自然科教學上實施研究者設計之「精熟學習」策略的 成效。研究實施方法包含(一)精熟策略：(1)將課程分割為小單元 後，經由分析確立各單元中的核心概念和精要知識，(2)補強入門 先備知識，(3)由核心概念開始引入，配合促進概念改變的學習 策略，解說、介紹小單元內容，最後引出單元精要知識，並參考 精詳策略之方法，以多種感官輸入的方式，將核心概念和精要知識 加以強調、練習，(4)小單元結束後實施階段性測驗第一部分， 以檢測核心概念、精要知識的建構情形，並以回饋訂正的操作使 學生得以補強，(5)1∼2星期後實施第二部分「概念應用」，檢測 其概念是否穩固，以及應用的能力；(二)成效評估：(1)比較實施 精熟策略的學生（實驗組），其定期考查學習成就精熟前(9313)、 後(9322和9322)的變化，(2)「精熟策略」操作結束後2∼3星期 ，對全體學生實施第一次後測，再經1∼2星期對實驗組實施 第二次後測，比較實驗組和進行一般教學的學生（對照組）平均 成績的差異。研究結果顯示：(1)實驗組定期考查的學習成就表現 （相對地位）有明顯進步，表示研究者所設計「精熟學習策略」 有助於自然科的學習；(2)以實驗組「後測」的平均成績，和 對照組作比較，實驗組均較對照組為高，表示「精熟學習策略」 的施行，可使核心概念、精要知識留存較久。
Abstract To overcome one of the difficulties in science learning, lack of foundations, and to enhance the effectiveness in science teaching, “how to pick out the core concepts and the essential knowledge of an unit” and “to develop mastery learning strategies to enhance concept changing and concept certainty” were considered as the two purposes of this study. 8th grade students of a Taipei municipal junior high school participated during the study. The methods include: I. Mastery learning strategies: (1)The teaching material was divided into smaller units. Core concepts and important knowledge to be learned in each topic were analyzed and picked out by the researcher. (2)Prior concepts were reviewed so that the students were prepared for further learning. (3)The teacher began by introducing the core concepts. Conceptual changing strategies were also used during class. According to the mastery learning skills, seeing, speaking, writing, and many other ways to input were used to emphasize and practice the core concepts. (4)A topic wrapped up was followed by Unit Test part one. This allowed the researcher to understand the students’ concept constructed. Then the students were asked to make corrections. (5)About one or two weeks later, Unit test part two was given to the students. This allowed the researcher to know if the students have had the concepts and knowledge firmly kept in mind. It also allowed the researcher to understand the abilities to apply that the students had gained. II. Analyze achievements: (1)Compared the academic achievements of the participants before and after mastery learning strategy had applied. (2)A post-exam was given to both the participants and the other 8th grade students two to three weeks after the mid term test. Another post-exam was given to only the participants again another one To two weeks later. Results of this study included: (1)Higher relative positions on their mid-term tests were reported by the participants, therefore, implied the effectiveness of using mastery learning strategies in science teaching.(2)The participants showed higher score on the post-exam, implying the core concepts and the essential knowledge were firmly kept in mind by the application of mastery learning.
理學院 > 物理學系在職進修碩士班