Title

由概念改變及心智模式初探多重類比對國小四年級學生電學概念學習之影響

Authors

林靜雯

Key Words

概念改變 ; 心智模式 ; 多重類比 ; conceptual change ; mental model ; multiple analogies

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

1999年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

邱美虹

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

由於電流概念的高度抽象性及「物質」、「能量」之間難以釐清的「混合」身份,致使學生對此概念之短期、長期的理解狀況皆不臻理想。而「類比」雖然在電學學習上長期扮演重要的角色,卻獲致兩面的評價。有學者認為應避免直接面臨唯物主題的類比以免妨礙概念改變,而其中流體的比喻更被視為是導致後續能量學習困難的主因(Slotta, Chi, & Joran, 1995); 但也有學者傾向於設計更為精緻的類比模式以減少另有概念的產生(陳瓊森, 1996),而多重類比便是其中一種受到盛讚的方式,許多學者認為其主要的優點在於克服另有概念、形成基模及協助問題解決(e.g. Spiro et al., 1989; Glynn et al., 1995; Clement, 1983; Zhang, 1997; Holyoak & Thagard, 1995b; Gick & Holyoak, 1983)。 據上所述,本研究主要欲深究的目的有三:一、瞭解學生於電學教學起點前對電流所持類比的種類及想法,並探查經不同教學後,學生對電流的想法及所持類比種類變化的情形; 二、由概念改變、心智模式、學習成就、遷移歷程、負向向度的覺察及學習態度探究多重類比在電學概念學習時扮演的角色; 三、比較學生於教學前、中、後電流心智模式變化的情形。因此,本研究以電流通路及能量為教學主題,選取國小四年級中等程度的學生32名,隨機、平均分配至控制組、單一類比組、相似類比組及互補類比組四組進行研究。 研究結果發現如下: 1.教學前大部分學生對電流並不具任何類比模式,且傾向於以物質本體解決電流能量的問題,但學生若持有具體表徵,則以「水流」為最,且極易引發。 2.教學後顯示多重類比有助於電學概念的學習,且互補多重類比組除於能量概念的學習及類比負向向度的覺察上優於其他三組外,亦自評多重類比有助於克服另有概念,且由述詞分析的結果觀之,其具概念改變的情形; 而相似組於通路概念的學習成就上雖略高於其他類比組,但並未達到顯著差異,且其於類比負向向度的覺察上多僅能抽取出兩類比之間的相似之處,而不易察覺類比的限制,但此組學生對多重類比有助於形成基模持正向肯定的態度。 3.經本研究設計之兩燈泡串、並聯的通路晤談後,學生的電流心智模式於簡單及串聯通路共分6大類模式,而並聯則有5大類。歸納影響學生電流心智模式的因素,主要為:(1)視電池為一儲存槽應發出固定電流或燈泡應得致固定電流; (2)資源消耗模式; (3)分配電流的觀點; (4)順序推理模式; (5)節點的影響; (6)電路圖形的表徵; (7)封閉通路概念。這些因素顯示學生傾向於將電的世界視為一物質世界,並因而形成學習的預設。 綜上所述,唯物類比並非阻礙學生概念改變的主因,而真正妨礙學生概念改變的是其將電流視為物質的預設。反之,只要類比的設計慮及欲教授概念的本質及預設,將有助於提供具體表徵,協助學生審視自我概念與科學概念的異同,進而造成概念改變。

English Abstract

Due to high abstractness of electric current and its ”mixed” role between matter and energy, students’ comprehension of this concept is always incomplete. Although analogies have played important roles on electricity learning for a long time, they are double-edged on their value and problem. Some researchers suggest that the use of materialistic analogies keep students away from conceptual change, and the hydrodynamic analogy is considered as the main factor to lead to subsequently learning difficulty. The others suggest to devise more fineness analog models is an effective way to prevent students from constructing alternative concepts, and the set of multiple analogies is the best one of them. A lot of researchers think that the main advantages of multiple analogies are to overcome alternative concepts, to format schemas and to help to solve problem. Therefore, there are three purposes of this study: 1. Understanding students’ spontaneous analogies and conceptions for electric current prior school teaching, 2. Exploring the roles of multiple analogies on learning electricity concepts via analysis of students' mental models, achievements, transfer processes, awareness of analogy negative aspects and learning attitudes, 3. Comparing students’ mental model before and after teaching. Thirty-two four graders with performance (within one standard deviation from mean) were randomly assigned to a control group or three other treatment groups (namely a group with one single analogy, a group with similar analogies, and a group with complementary analogies). The results of this study are as follows: First, most students don't have any analogy models before teaching and they tend to use matter ontology to solve the problem of electric energy. Second, it shows that multiple analogies are helpful to the learning of electricity concepts, in particular, the students in the complementary analogies group are better than others in learning of energy concepts, awareness of analogies' negative aspects, and overcoming alternative concepts. Third, the students in the similar analogies group outperforms the other analogies group, but not reaching at significant level. Fourth, on the awareness of negative aspects, the students in the similar analogies group usually extract more similarities than restrictions from two analogies, and they present positive attitudes toward multiple analogies which help them to form electricity current scheme. Finally, the researcher identifies six mental models of series and simple circuits and five parallel ones. The main factors, which effect students' mental model, are 1. Treating battery as a tank, which supplies consistent electrical current, or thinking bulb should get consistent one, 2. Source-consumer model, 3. The view of repartition current, 4. Sequential-inference model, 5. The effect of nodes, 6. The representations of circuit diagram, 7. The concepts of closed circuit. These factors indicate that students tend to treat the electric world as a matter concept, thus forming the presupposition of learning. In order to help students aware the difference between self-concepts and scientific concepts, it is worthwhile considering the nature of scientific concepts and the presupposition of students' prior knowledge when we design learning materials with analogies in science education. Other educational implications and suggestions are discussed.

Topic Category 理學院 > 科學教育研究所
社會科學 > 教育學
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