Title

使用活動單的參觀模式對國一學生參觀台北市立天文科學教育館的影響

Translated Titles

The Effectiveness of Activity Sheets for Middle School Students' Field Trip to the Taipei Astronological Museum

Authors

林世洲

Key Words

活動單 ; 博物館 ; 科學中心 ; 參觀行為 ; Activity Sheet ; Museum ; Science Center ; Visiting Behavior

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

1999年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

邱美虹

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

近年來國內的科學博物館相繼成立,在參觀的群眾中,學生團體一直是團體觀眾中最主要的一群。然而由文獻以及實際的觀察中卻顯示:如果缺乏適當的引導,學生團體往往抱著到此一遊的心態,不但獲益有限,更可能成為館方與其他觀眾的困擾。因此本研究希望以活動單作為參觀博物館的導引工具,探討活動單的使用對於學生團體學習科學概念與參觀行為的影響,以及學生對於使用活動單的觀感。 本研究以台北市立某國中兩班一年級的學生為研究對象,其中一班為實驗組,另一班為對照組,人數各為26人,參觀地點則為台北市立天文科學教育館。 在參觀前的階段,兩組學生接受「基本資料問卷」的施測與「天文概念成就測驗」前測,然後進行五堂的課堂教學,學習「認識星座」、「神奇的太陽系」與「探索宇宙」三個主題。課堂教學後再進行一堂的行前簡介,並實施「天文概念成就測驗」課後測。 在兩個小時參觀展示場的活動中,實驗組使用研究者自編之「活動單」作為引導工具,而對照組則只發給空白筆記紙以模擬一般未經規劃之學生團體。在兩組的參觀過程中,各有6名觀察員隨行以記錄12位目標學生之參觀行為。參觀後再施測「天文概念成就測驗」參觀後測與「展示內容理解測驗」,並填寫「參觀心得問卷」,並由兩組中各選取11名學生進行個別晤談,以深入了解學生對於展示品的理解與參觀心得。 本研究獲致的結果有以下五點: 一、使用活動單並未使實驗組的天文概念成就測驗參觀後測成績顯著高於對照組。在參觀天文館之後,實驗組天文概念成就測驗的成績並未進步,對照組亦同。 二、使用活動單並未使實驗組對於展示品的理解程度高於對照組。但是在參觀天文館後,對展示品理解程度愈高的學生,其天文概念成就測驗成績進步愈多。 三、對實驗組而言,活動單確實可以作為評量他們是否了解展示品內容的一樣工具。但是對於對照組而言,吾人無法根據其筆記內容中質或量上的差異來衡量學生對展示品內容的理解程度。 四、實驗組學生在持續度、人際互動、操作展示以及進行記錄四項行為指標的發生頻率皆高於對照組,人際互動更達顯著差異,而行為的差異在靜態展示品上尤其明顯。顯示活動單確實讓學生產生較多的討論並改變了學生對於靜態展示的參觀行為與觀感。 五、實驗組對於使用活動單的參觀模式反應相當正向,也是他們再次參觀時最想使用的參觀模式。而對照組則多對抄筆記抱持負向的看法,認為這是一件相當吃力的工作。 本研究最後針對研究結果對提出使用活動單的參觀模式,並檢討本研究過程的改進方法以及未來的發展方向。

English Abstract

In recent years, more and more science museums are established in Taiwan. School students have been the major visiting groups among all those who come to the museum. However, literature and researchers’ observations have shown that without appropriate guidance, not only student groups do not learn from a filed trip to a museum, but also they sometimes cause distractions for the museum staff as well as the other visitors. This research is aimed to study the usage of activity sheets as a guidance tool for students’ museum trip. It explores the effects of activity sheets on the learning of scientific concepts and visiting behavior of a student group. Students’ views of using activity sheets are also investigated. The subjects were students from two seventh grade classes of one public junior high school in Taipei. Students from one class were the experimental group, while students from the other were the controlled group. There were 26 students in each group. The field trip site was the Taipei Astronological Museum. In the Pre- Field Trip period, the two groups of students received the Survey of Student’s Information and the Pre-test of the Achievement Test of Astronological Concepts (ATAC). Then, all students attended five lessons of course work, in which they studied topics on “The Astronomo,” “The Magical Solar System,” and “Exploring the Universe.” Following the course work, they received an introduction to the field trip and were conducted a post-class-test on the ATAC. During the two-hour visit, the experimental group used the activity sheets designed by the researcher as the guiding tool, while the controlled group received only blank paper for note-taking as ordinary student groups would do. Six observers made observations on the 12 target students’ visiting behavior during the field trip. After the museum trip, all students were given the post-field trip test of the ATAC and the Test of the Understanding of the Exhibition Contents. Students also filled out a Survey on Students’ Views of the Field Trip. Eleven students from each group were selected for individual interviews to obtain in-depth information on how students understood the exhibition contents and what they thought of the field trip. The findings of this study include the followings: 1.The experimental group, which used the activity sheets, did not show significant higher scores on the post-field trip test of the ATAC than the controlled group. Actually, both the experimental and controlled groups did not show significant gains in the test scores. 2.The usage of activity sheets did not cause higher level of understanding of the exhibition contents for the experimental group than that of the controlled group. However, after the field trip, the students who showed better understanding of the exhibition demonstrated more gains on the scores of the ATAC. 3.For the experimental group, the activity sheets could be used as a valid evaluation of their understanding of the exhibition contents. As for the controlled group, there was no way to judge students’ level of understanding of the exhibition contents simply by means of the quality or quantity differences in their notes taken during the trip. 4.In terms of visiting behavior, the experimental group showed higher rates on four behavior items than the controlled group: holding power, interpersonal interaction, operation exhibition, and taking notes. The interpersonal interaction rates, in particular, were significantly higher. However, the difference of visiting behavior between two groups was specially obvious in the static exhibition. This revealed that using activity sheets indeed caused more discussion among students and changed students’ visiting behavior and views toward the static exhibition items. 5.The experimental group reacted very positively to this model of taking the field trip with activity sheets. They expressed preference of this model for their future trip. The controlled group, on the contrary, reacted negatively toward note-taking during the field trip. They thought it was a tedious task. Based on the above findings, the researcher has made several suggestions on teaching practice and proposed ways of improving the research design as well as possibilities for future research.

Topic Category 理學院 > 科學教育研究所
社會科學 > 教育學
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