Title

以科學學習心理學比較中日國中理化教科書之研究

Translated Titles

The study of comparing junior high school's physics-and -chemistry textbooks between Taiwan and Japan by science learning psychology

Authors

許佳蓉

Key Words

科學教科書 ; 教師手冊 ; 學習心理學 ; 內容架構 ; 概念演變 ; science textbooks ; teacher aids ; learning psychology ; content frameworks ; conceptual development

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學化學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2000年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

林如章

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

教科書是教師教學的依據,學生在教室中學習的基礎。而教科書的課程內容是先由課程標準轉化而來;接著透過教師本身的教學經驗轉化為教學活動;最後讓學生藉由學習活動來學習吸收。古德拉(Goodlad)將這過程中的課程轉化,分別定義為五種課程:理想課程、正式課程、知覺課程、運作課程及經驗課程。而教師如何有效地將教科書中的單元內容 (正式課程),轉化為教師實際的教學活動(知覺課程和運作課程),或轉化為學生在課堂中所實際學習到的課程(經驗課程),則有賴於教科書內容的呈現方式與教師手冊所提供的教學資料。 到目前為止,國內外在教科書的比較分析研究上,大多針對教科書的內容層次和概念演變做比較,很少從學習心理學的角度來進行分析。故本研究以內容分析法先對中日理化教科書教材內容進行全盤分析比較後,再仔細針對有關化學變化與原子、分子概念之相關章節,進行課程標準比較,並以學習心理學角度探討教科書的課程內容,同時也比較教師手冊所提供的相關教學資料內容。最後由幾位不同年資的國中理化教師針對教科書的內容架構和教師手冊所提供的相關資料進行問卷調查,並與研究者的主觀分析做對照比較。 本研究的主要發現如下: 一、教科書內容編輯架構方面:比較發現概念流程要有連貫性、版面設計能穿插活潑的插圖、配合學生角度編寫教科書內容、…等,比較能使國中教師或學生所接受,且能提高學生的學習動機,而不是站在專家學者的角度來陳述。 二、教師手冊的意見調查方面:能夠提示學生學習困難處與應對之道,並引導教師如何將教科書內容轉化為教學內容的教學策略,以培養學生主動探究與獨立思考解決問題的能力。 三、概念流程的順序比較:比較中日有關化學變化與原子、分子概念的課程標準,再經由教師手冊的輔助轉化成教科書內容後發現,日本教科書的概念流程,比較能使學生掌握教材「結構」。 未來實施九年一貫課程,國中理化教科書將改為審定本,由本研究的比較分析結果與大家的意見調查,希望對未來編寫教科書,以及教師與研究者本身在轉化課程時,都能提供一些實質上的助益。

English Abstract

Textbooks are valuable curriculum resources for teachers’ teaching and students’ learning. The content of textbooks are compiled in accordance with curriculum standards. Then, the teachers translate curriculum into practical instructional activities what stimulate students to study in their classroom. Professor Goodlad divided these processes of curriculum translation into five types: ideological curriculum, formal curriculum, perceived curriculum, operational curriculum, and experiential curriculum. On the other hand, the efficiency of curriculum translation from content of textbooks (formal curriculum) to teachers’ practical instructional activities (perceived and operational curriculum), or to students’ learning activities (experiential curriculum), mainly depends on how well the textbooks are compiled and how sufficiently the instructional strategies and supporting materials are supplied from teacher aids. So far, the investigations on the improvement of science textbooks were mostly analyzed from the points of content levels and the development of concepts either in Taiwan or in other countries, however, rarely from the points of learning psychology. Therefore, in this study the content analysis method was used to compare the whole frameworks of the junior high school’s physics-and-chemistry textbooks between Taiwan and Japan. Then, some chapters related to 〝chemical change and atom, molecule〞 were chosen to analyze the conceptual development, instructional strategies and supporting materials in the teacher aids from the points of learning psychology. Finally, the subjective analysis result was compared with the viewpoints of junior high school’s physics-and-chemistry teachers by using questionnaires on the whole frameworks of textbooks and teacher aids. The main results of this study were as follows. 1.the whole frameworks of textbooks: Science textbooks, having a number of characteristics such as appropriate sequence of conceptual development, lively illustrations, appropriate content organization for grade level of students etc., should be generally accepted by junior high school’s teachers, and could enhance student achievement and stimulate science interests. Thus, the modern science textbooks should not be merely compiled as an organized body of knowledge under the viewpoints of experts. 2.the questionnaire on teacher aids: To stimulate students to become active learners and to solve problems independently, teacher aids should supply particularly useful information, for example, background information about students’ learning troubles or misconceptions, suggestions for demonstration and instructional strategies which give supply to translate content of textbooks into instructional activities. 3.the sequence of conceptual development: After comparing the curriculum standards and curriculum translation at the chapters related to〝chemical change and atom, molecule〞, it was found that the content of Japanese textbooks is easy to comprehend the “structure” of selected section in the textbook for students. In the future, the junior high school’s physics-and-chemistry textbooks will be changed to authorized textbooks as Nine-year Integrative Curriculum carry out. From the results of this study, it is researcher’s wish to supply a practical help for science textbook authors, science teachers and the researcher in textbook editing and curriculum translation.

Topic Category 基礎與應用科學 > 化學
理學院 > 化學系
Reference
  1. ARRAY(0xf2411c8)
Times Cited
  1. 謝筱蕙(2009)。兩岸高中國語文教科書編制與政治意識形態選課研究 ──以龍騰版與人教版為例。淡江大學漢語文化暨文獻資源研究所碩士班學位論文。2009。1-486。 
  2. 張一誠(2001)。由我國國中教科書內容分析國二學生在第三次國際數學與科學教育成就研究後續調查(TIMSS-R)之表現:物理、科學探究與科學本質以及地球科學部分。臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文。2001。1-171。
  3. 彭賢德(2002)。各國高中化學教材的分析研究暨含鉍、鉻的混合主族金屬簇的結構解析。臺灣師範大學化學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2002。1-175。
  4. 蔡春來(2002)。探討國中生對摩擦力的迷思概念。臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所在職進修碩士班學位論文。2002。1-140。
  5. 洪巧娟(2007)。科學教師營造的學習環境與學生認知的學習環境之關連。臺灣師範大學生命科學系學位論文。2007。1-105。