Title

國二、國三學生的擴散作用概念與概念改變之研究

Translated Titles

Investigating the eighth and ninth grade students' conception and conceptual change of diffusion

Authors

邱顯博

Key Words

擴散 ; 迷思概念 ; 概念改變 ; 突現 ; 預測-觀察-解釋 ; 角色扮演 ; 溶液 ; 因果 ; diffusion ; misconception ; conceptual change ; emergence ; predict-observe-explain ; role-playing ; solution ; causality

PublicationName

臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2001年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

邱美虹

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

擴散作用概念雖然常被視為是簡單的科學概念,然而Marek(1986, 1988, 1991)在一系列對擴散作用概念的研究中卻指出,能正確解釋擴散作用的學生比例是極低的,而且要使學生發生概念改變亦是非常困難的。本研究的主要目的,便是在探討已經學習過粒子概念的國二及國三學生所持有的擴散作用想法,除了以Chi(2000)所主張之突現與因果解釋基模為理論基礎來進行研究外,還設計及分組實施文本教學、個人解釋、小組討論、角色扮演四種教學活動,企圖使學生發生概念改變,並以Tyson, Venville, Harrison, & Treagust(1997)所主張之動機情意、本體論與認識論三種研究面向,來檢視學生概念改變的情形。研究結果摘要如下: 1.學生持有液態物質粒子迷思概念的種類與比例,高於固態與氣態,而 且對於液態物質的粒子觀,學生發生了日常經驗與教材知識間之認知衝突。 2.雖然在科學概念中對於液態純物質與混合物的粒子觀均相同,但許多學生的液態物質粒子觀卻是不一致、甚至隨問題情境而變的。 3.本研究181名研究對象中,在教學前僅4.4%持有正確之擴散作用概念,而在教學後有25.3%持有正確之擴散作用概念。 4.學生對於擴散作用的屬性具有物理及化學反應兩種不同屬性的看法,而在兩種屬性下都包含了雙動、單動、被動與目的論四種主要心智模式,據此再細分為廿三種子類型,來對應於四十四種圖形與命題之雙重表徵類別,分類結果較Chi(2000)所主張之兩種解釋基模為多,且具Vosniadou (1994)架構理論上與Chi(2000)本體分類論在過程類別性質上的定位。而在教學時,心智模式改變多為兩模式轉變,涉及三模式轉變的很少。 5.由晤談及個人解釋、小組討論組教學成效得知,有少數學生並不一定如Chi(2000)、Perkins & Grozter(2000)所主張的缺乏突現解釋基模,然會因為類比於粒子之具體操作物的性質及使用Aristotle力學觀的影響,而選擇不去使用。 6.在四種教學之成效比較上,文本教學雖在其他實驗組中可能有實施之必要性,但若單以此實施幾乎沒有教學成效;個人解釋組與小組討論組教學雖能達到概念改變的顯著差異、減少對液態及氣態粒子迷思概念,卻無法引起學生之學習興趣,且小組討論對去除目的論想法沒有幫助;而角色扮演組教學可引起學生學習興趣,能達到概念改變顯著差異、減少對液態、氣態迷思概念、並正確解釋布朗運動的人數比例為四組最高,故四教學組中以角色扮演組為較佳。 7.與粒子動力論典範改變過程中之科學家Newton與Bernoulli相比較,持有不同心智模式的學生,與科學家間的相似度與差異度會有所不同。

English Abstract

Although the concept of diffusion is usually classified as the simple concept in science, Marek(1986, 1988, 1991) argued that the ratio of students who could explain diffusion correctly is low and the conceptual change of that is difficult. Based on the theory of emergent and causal schemata proposed by Chi(2000), the purpose of this research is to investigate the understanding of diffusion possessed by eighth and ninth grade student who have learned the concept of particles. In addition, four kinds of instructional methods including text-teaching, POE-personal explanation, POE-group discussion, role-playing, were given respectively in order to make conceptual change happen. The students’ performance on conceptual change was examined via three perspectives: motivation and emotion, ontology, and epistemology, proposed by Tyson, Venville, Harrison, & Treagust (1997). The results are summarized as the following: 1. The misconceptions of particle of substance in liquid state are more in variety and ratio than which in solid or in gaseous state. In addition, cognition conflict for the conception of particle of liquid-state substance happens between daily experience and textual knowledge in textbook. 2. Although the particle view of pure substance and mixture in liquid state are consistent in science, they are not considered to be consistent for the students. And many students change their view of that even when different contexts of problem with the same substance are given. 3. Before instruction, only 4.4% of 181 students could explain diffusion correctly. After instruction, 25.3% students could explain it correctly. 4. Students view the property of diffusion as either the physical reaction or the chemical reaction. There are four kinds of mental models for each kind of property, and 23 submodels were found, corresponding to 44 kinds of pictoral and propostional dual representations. These four mental models are double-movable, single-movable, passive double-movable, and teleological models, each one of those has anchored position according to Vosniadou’s framework theory and Chi’s theory of ontological category. When conceptual change happens in the instruction, a lot of patterns of two-model changes are found frequently. 5. According to the interviews with the students and the instructional results of POE-personal explanation and POE-group discussion, a few students with emergent schemata did not choose to use them because of possessing the similar view of Aristotle about the dynamics of objects and the interference of properties of concrete operator analogied to the particle, and this finding violates the arguments proposed by Chi(2000) and Perkins & Grotzer(2000). 6. Comparing the performances of four different kinds of instruction in this study, role-playing instruction is the best of all. Because it attains to the significant difference of conceptual change, minimizes the misconceptions of substance in the liquid state and in the solid state, motivates students’ interest in learning, and makes the highest ratio of students to explain Brownian movement correctly. The difference between role-playing and POE-either personal explanation or group discussion is that POE couldn’t make students interested in learning. Text-teaching is the useless one if performed individually rather than combined with other kinds of instruction. 7. Comparing with Newton and Bernoulli, the extent of similarity and difference between scientists and students with different mental models is various.

Topic Category 理學院 > 科學教育研究所
社會科學 > 教育學
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