Translated Titles

Study on the Relationship between Urban Form and Carbon Emissions of Energy Consumption



Key Words

都市型態 ; 氣候變遷 ; 二氧化碳排放 ; 因素分析 ; 典型相關分析 ; 景觀指數分析 ; Urban form ; Climate change ; Carbon emissions ; Factor analysis ; Canonical correlation analysis ; Landscape metrics analysis



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication


Academic Degree Category




Content Language


Chinese Abstract

都市化發展是近代人類發展的重要趨勢,全球已有過半數人口居住在都市,都市是經濟活動的重心,也是各種環境問題的焦點。隨著都市擴張、人口密集及高強度發展,都市活動大量使用各種化石能源造成了大量的溫室氣體排放,對於全球氣候變遷造成關鍵性的影響。如何減緩與調適氣候變遷已是各國不容忽視的議題。近年來,都市型態與都市能源使用關係的研究受到各界重視,然而過去相關研究中,多以人口密度、交通運輸、建築物、家庭住宅的資料實證分析,較少將都市空間格局納入考量。有鑑於能源消耗與都市空間結構特性有著密切的關連性,以人口密度、交通運輸、建築物、家庭住宅衡量都市型態與能源消耗略顯不足。 本研究藉由國外相關文獻的探討整理,了解有關都市耗能的研究演變,並找出影響都市耗能的因子,分析比較都市型態與二氧化碳排放之間的影響與差異。本研究範圍以台北都會區之行政區與台灣縣市兩種尺度下做為範疇,並利用多變量分析方法。從縣市與行政區兩個尺度進行因素分析,對社會經濟變量(SEVs)與景觀格局指數(SPMs)進行分組,其次將因素分析結果與能源消耗二氧化碳排放量進行典型相關分析,分析社會經濟變量與景觀格局指數在不同尺度中,分別與能源消耗二氧化碳排放有何關連,並利用其結果進行討論,對未來都市規劃政策與環境氣候變遷調適提出適當的建議。本研究的結論從都市規劃的角度回應對氣候變遷之議題的關注,期待能對人與環境的匱乏關係有所提醒與修補,作為未來能源消耗減緩政策整合上的一個具體建議以供未來規劃政策之參考依據。

English Abstract

Urbanization is an important trend in contemporary human development. More than half of the world’s population is living in urban areas and the growth of urban population is incessant. cities have been the centers of economic activities as well as the focuses of a variety of environmental issues. Urban sprawl anda range of activities associated with cities raise the consumption of fossil fuels and significantly contribute to global GHG emissions.. Urban climate change mitigation and adaptation have been international concern.. In recent years, Many empirical studies revolve the relationships between urban form and urban energy use. However, most of them focused on population density transportation, residential buildings, but less concerned withcharacteristics of urban spatial structure. Based on literature review, this study identify the factors of urban form which probably affect urban energy use. Both socio-economic variables (SEVs) and spatial pattern metrics (SPMs) derived from disticts of Taipei Metropolitan Area as well as counties and cities of Taiwan are examinedby using multivariate analysis. The results of factor analysis reveal different signifiances of these factors. Furthermore, the results of canonical analysis identify the statistical relationships between urban form and urban energy consumption. Finally, this study suggest some recommendations for the future urban planning policies to develop an efficient urban form based on the findings of this empircal analysis.

Topic Category 公共事務學院 > 都市計劃研究所
工程學 > 市政與環境工程
  1. Anderson, W. P., Kanaroglou, P. S., Miller, E. J., 1996, Urban Form, Energy and the Environment: A Review of Issues, Evidence and Policy, Urban Studies, Vol. 33:17-35.
  2. Brownstone, D., Golob, T. F., 2009, The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and energy consumption, Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 65:91-98.
  3. Burton, E., 2002, Measuring urban compactness in UK towns and cities, Planning and Design, Vol. 29:219-250.
  4. Camagni, R., Gibelli, M. C., Rigamonti, P., 2002, Urban mobility and urban form: the social and environmental costs of different patterns of urban expansion, Ecological Economics, Vol. 40:199-216.
  5. Chen, H., Jia, B., Lau, S. S. Y., 2008, Sustainable urban form for Chinese compact cities: Challenges of a rapid urbanized economy, Habitat International, Vol. 32:28-40.
  6. Chen, Y., Li, X., Zheng, Y., Guan, Y., Liu, X., 2011, Estimating the relationship between urban forms and energy consumption: A case study in the Pearl River Delta, 2005–2008, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 102:33-42.
  7. Coevering, P., Schwanen, T., 2006, Re-evaluating the impact of urban form on travel patterns in Europe and North-America, Transport Policy, Vol. 13:229-239.
  8. Core Writing Team, 2007. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by Pachauri, R.K., Reisinger, A., pp:144. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland.
  9. Dhakal, S., 2004, Urban Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asian Mega-Cities, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan.
  10. Ewing, R., Pendall, R., Chen, D., 2002, Measuring Sprawl and its Impact, Smart Growth America, Washington, DC.
  11. Ewing, R., Rong, F., 2008, The Impact of Urban Form on U.S. Residential Energy Use, Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 19(1):1-30
  12. Galster, G., Hanson, R., Ratcliffe, M.R., Wolman, H., Coleman, S., Freihage, J., 2001. Wrestling sprawl to the ground: defining and measuring an elusive concept, Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 12(4):681-717.
  13. Ganesan, S., Lau, S. S. Y., 2000, Urban Challenges in Hong Kong: Future Directions for Design, Urban Design International, Vol. 5:3-12.
  14. Gordon, P., Richardson, H. W., 1989, Gasoline Consumption and Cities: A Reply, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 55(3):342-345.
  15. Holden, E., 2004, Ecological footprints and sustainable urban form, Housing and the Built Environment, Vol. 19(1):91-109.
  16. Holden, E., Norland, I. T., 2005, Three Challenges for the Compact City as a Sustainable Urban Form: Household Consumption of Energy and Transport in Eight Residential Areas in the Greater Oslo Region, Urban Studies, Vol. 42(12):2145-2166.
  17. Huang. J., X. X. Lu., and J. M. Sellers., 2007. A global comparative analysis of urban form: applying spatial metrics and remote sensing, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 82:184-197.
  18. Karathodorou, N., Graham, D. J., Noland, R. B., 2010, Estimating the effect of urban density on fuel demand, Energy Economics, Vol. 32:86-92.
  19. Lhendup, T., Lhundup, S., Wangchuk, T.,2010, Domestic energy consumption patterns in urban Bhutan, Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 14:134-142.
  20. Liu, Y., 2009, Exploring the relationship between urbanization and energy consumption in China using ARDL (autoregressive distributed lag) and FDM (factor decomposition model), Energy, Vol. 34:1846-1854.
  21. Madlener, R., Sunak, Y., 2011, Impacts of urbanization on urban structures and energy demand: What can we learn for urban energy planning and urbanization management?, Sustainable Cities and Society, Vol. 1:45-53.
  22. Mceldowney, M., Ryley, T., Scott, M., Smyth, A., 2005, Integrating Land-use Planning and Transportation in Belfast: A New Policy Agenda for Sustainable Development?, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Vol. 48(4):507-526.
  23. Mindali, O., Raveh, A., Salomon, I., 2004, Urban density and energy consumption: a new look at old statistics, Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 38:143-162.
  24. Newcombe, K. J., Kalma, J. D., Johnson, M., 1978a, Energy use and the atmospheric environment in Hong Kong: Part I. Inventory of air pollutant emmissions and prediction of ground-level concentrations of SO2 and CO, Urban Ecology, Vol. 3 (1):29-57.
  25. Newcombe, K. J., Kalma, J. D., Johnson, M., 1978b, Energy use and the atmospheric environment in Hong Kong: Part II. Inventory of air pollutant emmissions and prediction of ground-level concentrations of SO2 and CO, Urban Ecology, Vol. 3 (1):59-83.
  26. Newman, P., Kenworthy J., 1989, Gasoline Consumption and Cities: A Comparison of US Cities with a Global Survey, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 55(1):24-37.
  27. Norman, J., MacLean, H. L., Kennedy, C. A., 2006, Comparing High and Low Residential Density: Life-Cycle Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Vol. 132(1):10-21.
  28. Perkinsa, A., Hamnettb, S., Pullenb, S., Zitob, R., Trebilcocka, D., 2009, Transport, Housing and Urban Form: The Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Emissions of City Centre Apartments Compared with Suburban Dwellings, Urban Policy and Research, Vol. 27(4):377-396.
  29. Seto, K., Kaufmann, R., 2003, Modeling the drivers of urban landuse change in the Pearl River Delta China: Integrating remote sensing with socioeconomic data, Land Economics, Vol. 79(1):106-121.
  30. Shim, G. E., Rhee, S. M., Ahn, K. H., Chung, S. B., 2006, The relationship between the characteristics of transportation energy consumption and urban form, The Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 40:351-367. urban form
  31. Steemers, K., 2003, Energy and the city: building and transport, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 35:3-14.
  32. United Nations Population Division, 2012. World Urbanization Prospects: the 2011 Revision, New York.
  33. Yao, Y., 2011, Energy Consumption and Space Density in Urban Area, Energy Procedia, Vol. 5:895-899.
  34. 吳振發、林裕彬,2006,「汐止市土地利用時空間變遷模式」,都市與計劃,33(3):231-259。
  35. 林裕彬、吳振發、鄧東波,2004,「景觀生態面向及指數分析汐止地區 1990 至 2001 土地利用時空間鑲嵌特徵」,都市與計畫,31(3):239-268。
  36. 林禎家、楊恩捷,2006,「都市型態對旅運需求影響之結構化分析」,運輸學刊,18(4):391-416。
  37. 林彥光,2006,「都市型態與能源消費之關聯性研究-台灣地區實證分析」,長榮大學土地管理與開發學系碩士班碩士論文。
  38. 林彥光、蘇振綱,2006,「緊湊都市與能源消費之關聯性研究-台灣地區實證分析」,2006 年全國災害危機處理學術研討會-區域環境變遷與治理機制,C1:21-30,台南。
  39. 黃國慶、詹士樑,2009,「台北都會區土地使用/覆蓋變遷驅動力之空間近鄰效果探討」,都市與計劃,36(4):415-443。
  40. 劉小蘭、許佩漩、蔡育新,2010,「臺灣都市蔓延之影響因素分析」,地理學報,58:49-63。
  41. 賴宗裕、李家儂,2007,「臺北都會區大眾運輸導向發展目標體系與策略之建構」,地理學報,48:19-42。
  42. 國家政策研究基金會,http://www.npf.org.tw/,101/6/30。
  43. UN-Habitat, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, http://www.unbrussels.org/, 101/6/25.
  44. 一、英文文獻
  45. Alberti, M., 2009, Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems, edited by Alberti, M., pp:108-109. University of Washington Seattle, Washington, USA.
  46. Catalan, B., Sauri, D., Serra, P., 2008, Urban sprawl in the Mediterranean? Patterns of growth and change in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region 1993–2000, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 85:174-184.
  47. Dhakal, S., Kanebo S., 2002, Urban Energy Use in Asian Mega-Cities: Is Tokyo a Desirable Model?, Proceedings of workshop of IGES/APN mega-city project, Kitakyushu, Japan.
  48. Forman, R. T. T., 1986, Landscape Ecology, edited by Forman, R. T. T., Godron, M., John Wiley and Sons, Eueo.
  49. Jenks, M., 2005. The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?, edited by Jenks, M., Burton, E., Williams, K., pp:177-179. Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
  50. Kasanko, M., Barredo, J. I., Lavalle, C., McCormick, N., Demicheli, L., Sagris, V., Brezger, A., 2006, Are European cities becoming dispersed? A comparative analysis of 15 European urban areas, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 77:111-130.
  51. Marshall, J. D., 2008, Reducing urban sprawl could play an important role in addressing climate change, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42(9):3133-3137.
  52. O`Sullivan, 2006. Urban Economics 6/e, pp:1-14. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.
  53. Pratt, R., Larkham, P., 1996. Who Will Care for Compact cities?, In The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?, Edited by Jenks, M., Burton, E., Williams, K., pp:277-288. Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK.
  54. Torrens, P.M., Alberti, M., 2000, Measuring Sprawl, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Vol.27.
  55. Williams, K., 2000. Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, edited by Williams, K., Burton, E., Jenks, M., E&F N Spon, London.
  56. 二、中文文獻
  57. 林晴如,2009,「台灣地區都市永續性結構之比較」,臺北縣政府 98 年度自行研究報告。
  58. 邱皓政,2006,「量化研究與統計分析」,五南,台北。
  59. 張琪如,2006,「都市綠地特性對其減緩都市熱島效應之成效研究–台北市各型綠地溫度影響範圍之初探」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告。
  60. 許晃雄,2003,「坦然面對氣候變遷」,科學月刊,31(5)。
  61. 許淑麗、吳俊儀,2007,「產業溫室氣體試行查驗機制最新發展現況」,溫室氣體減量電子報,第八期。
  62. 陳正昌、程炳林、陳新豐、劉子鍵,2010,「多變量分析方法-統計軟體應用」,五南,台北。
  63. 楊重信、林映辰,2008,「台灣都市化與全球環境變遷交互影響與回應之研究」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告。
  64. 楊恩捷,2004,「緊密都市之永續性分析」,國立台北大學都市計劃研究所碩士論文。
  65. 楊國樞、文崇一、吳聰賢、李亦園,2002,「社會及行為科學研究法下冊」,東華,台北。
  66. 鄔建國,2003,「景觀生態學:格局、過程、尺度與等級」,五南,台北。
  67. 劉小蘭,2006,「緊密都市、連續擴張都市、蛙躍都市模型之比較研究」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告。
  68. 三、網站
  69. 全國統計資料,行政院主計處,http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=13213&CtNode=3504&mp=1,100/6/24。
  70. 經濟部能源局,http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw/,101/6/25。
  71. 能源產業溫室氣體減量資訊網,經濟部能源局,http://verity.erl.itri.org.tw/EIGIC/Index.aspx,101/4/30。
  72. 環境資訊中心,台灣環境資訊協會,http://e-info.org.tw/,101/3/16。
  73. 中央氣象局全球資訊網,交通部中央氣象局,
  74. http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/index.htm,101/06/22。
  75. IPCC, http://www.ipcc.ch/, 101/3/9.
  76. UNFCCC, http://unfccc.int/2860.php, 101/3/9.
  77. UNPD, http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/index.html, 101/7/1.
Times Cited
  1. 劉子華(2015)。國內外城市溫室氣體盤查比較分析。交通大學環境工程系所學位論文。2015。1-141。 
  2. 廖翊展(2015)。都市實質環境意象之研究-以臺中市為例。逢甲大學都市計畫與空間資訊學系學位論文。2015。1-169。 
  3. 陳佑瑄(2013)。整合土地使用規劃概念之低碳城市指標研究 -以臺北市為例。臺北大學自然資源與環境管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-93。
  4. 吳欣祐(2013)。大眾運輸導向發展下低碳城市規劃設計策略之研究 -以新北市板橋站為例。臺北大學不動產與城鄉環境學系學位論文。2013。1-99。
  5. 游信一(2014)。探討都市地區家戶運輸能源消耗之影響因素。臺北大學都市計劃研究所學位論文。2014。1-96。